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Encyclopedia of Southern Italy – U-Z

U

Ucria (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

Ugento (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 11,836 (2006e).

Uggiano la Chiesa (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 4,286 (2006e).

Umbriatico (KR): A commune in the province of Crotone. Population: 2,326 (2006e)

Underworld Painter: ( fl c.330-c.310 BC). Vase painter. Centered in ancient Apulia, he receives his name from a famous monumental volute krater found at Canosa (Munich, Staatl. Antikensamml., 3297), with a multi-figured composition showing Pluto and Persephone in their Palace surrounded by figures of the Underworld. Art historians consider this work to be one of the most important of a group of late Apulian vases attributed to various painters that show Underworld scenes. The Underworld Painter is notable for and his individualistic treatment of the Underworld theme and his particular interest in the fate of Orpheus.

Uni: An Etruscan goddess, equivalent to the Roman Juno.

Urban I, St.: Pope. (r222/223-230).

Urban II: Pope. (rMar 12, 1068-July 29, 1099).

Urban III: Pope. (rNov 25, 1185-Oct. 19, 1187).

Urban IV: Pope. (rAug 29, 1261-Oct 2, 1264).

Urban V: Pope. (rSept 28, 1362-Dec 19, 1370).

Urban VI: Pope. (rApr 8, 1378-Oct 15, 1389).

Urban VII: Pope. (rSept 15-27, 1590).

Urban VIII: Pope. (rAug 6, 1623-July 29, 1644).

Uria: See Hyrium.

Ursulsines: An order of nuns founded by St. Ursula of Naples.

Ururi (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 2,977 (2006e).

Ustica (PA): A commune and island in the province of Palermo.

History: A castle was built on the island in 1761 as a protection against Barbary pirates. This brought about enough security to allow a return of a population.

V

Vaccarini, Giovanni Battista: (b. Feb. 3, 1702 in Palermo; d. Mar. 11, 1768 in Palermo). Architect. Having studied architecture at Rome, he returned to Sicily in c1730, where he did much to advance the Sicilian Baroque style. Most of his work was centered in and around Catania, redeveloping the area hit hard by the earthquake of 1693.

Vaccarizzo Albanese (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,265 (2006e).

Vaccaro, Andrea: b. 1598, in Naples; d. 1670, in Naples. Painter. A pupil of Stanzioni, he was also influenced by the styles of Caravaggio and Guido. After the death of Stanzioni, Vaccaro was said to have been the greatest painter of the Neapolitan school. Among his best works was a “Holy Family” in the church of Santa Maria degli Angeli in Naples.

Vaccaro, Lorenzo: (b. 1655, Napoli, d. 1706, Torre del Greco). Sculptor, architect, silversmith and painter. Originally intending to follow a legal career, he turned to art and became a pupil of Cosimo Fanzago. On Fanzago’s death in 1678, Vaccaro inherited several of his unfinished commissions., including the marble monument to Francesco Rocco in the church of the Pieta dei Turchini, Naples. He later created several bronze and silver figures in the cathedral of S Gennaro, Naples (1679), marble putti in the church of Santa Croce, Torre del Greco (1680), stucco figures in the church of Gesu delle Monache, Naples (1681-5), and two terracottas depicting the Labors of Hercules. Over the last two decades of the 17th century, Vaccaro’s workshop created several important works of art including stucco decorations (1682) in the church of S Giorgio, over life-size stucco statues of St Helena and St Constantine (both 1689) in the church of S. Giovanni Maggiore and the light and graceful stucco decoration (1693-98) of the transept and cupola of the church of S Agostino degli Scalzi. Vaccaro was in the forefront of the change from High Baroque style to the more refined treatment known as barocchetto.

Vacri (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 1,803 (2006e).

Vaglio Basilicata (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

Vairano Patenora (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population: 6,358 (2006e).

Valderice (TP): A commune in the province of Trapani.

Val di Demone: A former district of Sicily, encompassing the NE portion of the island.

Val di Mazzara: A former district of Sicily, encompassing the SW portion of the island.

Val di Noto: A former district of Sicily, encompassing the SE portion of the island.

Valdina (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

Valente, Antonio: b. c1520. d. 1581. Composer and musician. Blinded in his youth, he served as Organist at San Angelo a Nilo in Naples from 1565 to 1580. He published two collections of keyboard music.

Valentine (Valentinus): Pope. (rAug-Sept 827). Reigning for only a few weeks, very little is known about him. He was a Roman who was made a deacon by Pope Paschal I (r817-824) and succeeded Eugene II as Pope.

Valentius, A.: (fl. 1st Century BC) the Greek interpreter of the Roman governor Verres in Sicily.

Valenzano (BA): A commune in the province of Bari: Population: 18,164 (2006e).

Valetium: See Baletium.

Valguarnera Caropepe (EN): A commune in the province of Enna. Population: 9,832 (2006e).

Valla, Lorenzo: (b. 1406, Rome; d. 1457, Rome). Scholar. He moved to Naples in 1435 where he became a teacher of rhetoric. He was soon moving in the upper social circles and became a good friend of King Alfonso I. Returning to Rome, he served as a canon at the church of St. John Lateran. His outspoken opinions earned him the enmity of many other scholars and he was ordered by the pope to leave Rome. Returning once more to Naples, he became, in 1448, private secretary to King Alfonso I. He soon found himself embroiled in a theological dispute resulting in a summons from the archbishop of Naples to appear before an assembly of the city’s clergy. Condemned by the assembly to be burned at the stake, he escaped and made his way to Rome to appeal to the pope. His appeal was successful and, instead of punishment, he was given a new appointment as a professor of rhetoric, restored to his position as a canon at St. John Lateran and appointed secretary to the pope. He authored many Latin sermons, commentaries on the New Testament, and Latin translations of Thucydides, Herodotus, and Homer.

Vallata (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 3,000 (2006e).

Valle Agricola (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population: 1,068 (2006e).

Valle Castellana (TE): A commune in the province of Teramo.

Valle dell’Angelo (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Valle di Maddaloni (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population: 2,741 (2006e).

Valledolmo (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.

Vallefiorita (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 2,075 (2006e).

Vallelonga (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.

Vallelunga Pratameno (CL): A commune in the province of Caltanissetta. Population: 3,754 (2006e).

Vallesaccarda (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 1,454 (2006e).

Vallo della Lucania (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Valsinni (MT): A commune in the province of Matera. Population: 1,739 (2006e).

Valva (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Valverde (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 7,546 (2006e).

Vanvitelli, Luigi: (b. 1700, in Naples; d. Mar. 1, 1773, in Naples). Architect. He was the son of native of Utrecht who had changed his name from the Flemish Van Witel to Vanvitelli. Vanvitelli showed such talent at an early age that he was appointed architect of St. Peter’s at Rome at the age of 26. His greatest achievement, however, was the creation of the great Royal Palace at Caserta (begun 1752).

Varapodio (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio di Calabria.

Vasto (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 37,657 (2006e).

Vastogirardi (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 793 (2006e).

vatoccu, canti a (“songs in the manner of a bell clapper”): A variety of polyphonic lyric song, usually sung by 2 or 3 women, commonly in Umbria, Marche, and Abruzzo.

Vazzano (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.

Veglie (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 14,259 (2006e).

Velia (Hyele, Elea): An ancient Greek colony founded on the west coast of Lucania, between Poseidonia (Paestum) and Buxentum. It was situated about 3 miles from the river Hylas and possessed a good harbor. During Roman times, it was the site of several villas, including one belonging to Cicero who mentioned it in his letters. Although the city was considered to possess a healthy climate, Velia never attained the status of other resort cities like Baiae and had shrunk to a place of little importance by the time of Strabo.

Venafro (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 11,514 (2006e).

vendetta: (from the Latin vindicta = revenge). A feud, or often a blood-feud, between families or factions. Although often thought to be a particularly “Italian” or “Sicilian” tradition, such practices were common in societies lacking a strong central government. Such feuds were sparked when a family or clan felt itself insulted or wronged.

Venetico (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

Venosa (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

Venticano (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 2,602 (2006e).

Ventignano, Cesare Della Valle (duke of): (b. Feb. 9, 1777, at Naples). Author. His first published work, “Vesuvius” (1810), was a poem in 5 cantos. Later works included “Lalage in the Studio of Casanova” (1812) and many tragedies. One of these, Mohammed (aka The Siege of Corinth), was adapted to music by Rossini. In 1830, he turned his attention to political economy, publishing several works on the subject. He published several later works of poetry, commentaries, and comical plays poking fun at the aristocratic class to which himself belonged.

Ventimiglia di Sicilia (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.

Ventura, G.D. Gioachino: (b. Dec. 8, 1792, in Palermo; d. Aug. 3, 1861, in Versailles). Orator and theologian. Initially educated by the Jesuits in Palermo, he switched to the Theatine order after the suppression of the Jesuits. Becoming a talented preacher, he rose through the ranks of the order, becoming general secretary. He also served as censor of the press and became a member of the royal council of public instruction for the kingdom of Naples. It was in this last position that he introduced the new Catholic philosophy of France into Italy. In 1824, he became general of the Theatine order and moved to Rome. He was deeply involved in the public affairs of the Church. In 1848, he became involved in the revolutionary ideas, favoring the creation of a federation of Italian states, overseen by the pope. While not completely favoring the cause of the Roman Republic, he regretted the attack on Rome by General Oudinot. He left Rome and eventually retired to France, where he spent the remainder of his life.

Venusia: A city of ancient Apulia.

Vesuvius: According to one theory, the name for the mountain derives from a pre-Celtic root element ves (= “mountain”). Another theory, however, states that the name comes from the Oscan word vesf (= “smoke” or “steam”), referring to its volcanic nature.

Verbicaro (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 3,387 (2006e).

Vernole (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 7,535 (2006e).

Vertinae: An ancient town in ancient Bruttium. Its exact location is unknown but it is believed to lie within the confines of the modern province of Cosenza. The name is related to the Indo-European root root *uert- (‘to turn, wind’).

Verzino (KR): A commune in the province of Crotone. Population: 2,177 (2006e)

Vescia: A town of the ancient Aurunci mentioned by Livy and Cicero. It was situated in the modern province of Caserta, in northern Campania, but its exact location remains uncertain.

Vestini: An ancient people related to the Sabines who inhabited parts of northern Abruzzo.

Viagrande (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 7,402 (2006e).

Vibonati (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Vibo Valentia, Province of: A province of Calabria. Population: 167,628 (2007e).

Communes of Vibo Valentia Province

Commune

Area

(km˛)

Population

(2007e)

Population

(2006e)

Population

(2001 census)

Population

(1991 census)

Acquaro

25.32

2745

2853

3,046

3,293

Arena

32.35

1672

1685

1,799

2,069

Briatico

27.75

4039

4070

4,106

4,333

Brognaturo

24.50

707

706

766

833

Capistrano

20.94

1133

1136

1,205

1,309

Cessaniti

17.86

3503

3605

3,647

4,079

Dasŕ

6.18

1269

1285

1,308

1,496

Dinami

44.06

3032

3190

3,544

3,245

Drapia

21.52

2194

2195

2,193

2,444

Fabrizia

38.78

2513

2567

2,698

3,026

Filadelfia

30.48

5812

5835

6,283

8,099

Filandari

18.54

1884

1892

1,839

1,703

Filogaso

23.69

1403

1398

1,377

1,366

Francavilla Angitola

28.25

2075

2072

2,354

3,018

Francica

22.73

1679

1666

1,670

1,852

Gerocarne

44.93

2377

2385

2,498

3,127

Jonadi

8.72

3229

3107

2,662

1,861

Joppolo

15.31

2125

2138

2,274

2,462

Limbadi

28.90

3701

3692

3,630

3,627

Maierato

39.88

2313

2328

2,256

3,111

Mileto

34.94

7028

7032

7,157

7,492

Mongiana

20.70

865

881

881

969

Monterosso Calabro

18.16

1879

1893

2,017

2,227

Nardodipace

32.78

1431

1421

1,477

1,610

Nicotera

32.77

6511

6580

6,778

6,913

Parghelia

8.00

1383

1383

1,377

1,385

Pizzo

22.34

9010

8976

8,602

8,512

Pizzoni

23.23

1284

1299

1,364

1,664

Polia

31.78

1160

1186

1,319

1,512

Ricadi

22.30

4664

4643

4,429

4,169

Rombiolo

22.81

4711

4724

4,730

4,830

San Calogero

25.12

4577

4576

4,649

4,777

San Costantino Calabro

7.03

2295

2300

2,308

2,427

San Gregorio d’Ippona

12.37

2231

2250

2,338

2,438

San Nicola da Crissa

19.32

1496

1520

1,599

1,887

Sant’Onofrio

18.36

3168

3204

3,238

3,955

Serra San Bruno

39.58

7041

7008

7,068

6,759

Simbario

19.25

1032

1083

1,082

1,237

Sorianello

9.72

1408

1437

1,589

1,654

Soriano Calabro

15.17

2886

2933

3,068

3,240

Spadola

9.58

814

798

819

821

Spilinga

18.69

1549

1581

1,609

1,615

Stefanaconi

23.23

2497

2492

2,497

2,395

Tropea

3.59

6843

6902

6,836

6,869

Vallelonga

17.53

734

722

759

883

Vazzano

19.85

1147

1160

1,231

1,309

Vibo Valentia

46.34

33825

33922

33,957

34,836

Zaccanopoli

6.61

829

835

888

946

Zambrone

14.36

1842

1818

1,743

1,768

Zungri

23.26

2083

2117

2,182

2,188

Total

1,139

167,628

168481

170,746

179,640

Vibo Valentia (anc. Hipponion, Vibo Valentia, Vibona Balentia; med. Monteleone) (VV): A provincial capital in Calabria. Its name it thought to has been of pre-Greek origins. It was hellenized to Hipponion by the Greeks because of its similarity to their word for horse (=hippo).

Vibullius, Quintus: (full name: Quintus Vibullius Q.F.Q.N.). See Gaius Cincius.

Vicari (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.

Vico, Giovanni Battista: (b. 1668, in Naples; d. Jan. 20, 1744). Critic, jurist, and historian. Although well-educated by the Jesuits and extremely knowledgeable law, he chose neither a religious nor legal career. After a long career as a professor of rhetoric, he was fortunate enough to become royal historiographer in 1735. Vico believed that such fields as theology, law, mythology, philology and philosophical history were all parts of one great science. By studying philology it was possible, according to his theories, to recognize the similarities in widely separated cultures. He felt that this proved the existence of a divine intellect which had existed prior to creation which had an “eternal idea of the history of mankind.” Thus, through the study of history it was possible to get an understanding of the nature of the divine.

Vico del Gargano (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 7,952 (2006e).

Vico Equense (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.

Vicoli (PE): A commune in the province of Pescara.

Victor I, St.: Pope. (r189-198/199).

Victor II: Pope. (rApr. 13, 1055-July 28, 1057).

Victor III: Pope. (rMay 24, 1086-Sept 16, 1087).

Victor of Capua: (d. Apr. 2, AD 554). Bishop of Capua and harmonist of the Gospels.

Victor Emmanuel II, Titles of: The full list of titles and honors claimed by Victor Emmanuel II, the first ruler of the United Kingdom of Italy were: Victor Emmanuel II, by the Grace of God, King of Italy, King of Sardinia, Cyprus, Jerusalem, Armenia, Duke of Savoy, count of Maurienne, Marquis (of the Holy Roman Empire) in Italy; Prince of Piedmont, Carignan, Oneglia, Poirino, Trino; Prince and Perpetual vicar of the Holy Roman Empire; Prince of Carmagnola, Montmellian with Arbin and Francin, Prince bailliff of the Duchy of Aosta, Prince of Chieri, Dronero, Crescentino, Riva di Chieri e Banna, Busca, Bene, Brŕ, Duke of Genoa, Monferrat, Aosta, Duke of Chablais, Genevois, Duke of Piacenza, Marquis of Saluzzo, Ivrea, Susa, del Maro, Oristano, Cesana, Savona, Tarantasia, Borgomanero e Cureggio, Caselle, Rivoli, Pianezza, Govone, Salussola, Racconigi con Tegerone, Migliabruna e Motturone, Cavallermaggiore, Marene, Modane e Lanslebourg, Livorno Ferraris, Santhiŕ Aglič, Centallo e Demonte, Desana, Ghemme, Vigone, Count of Barge, Villafranca, Ginevra, Nizza, Tenda, Romont, Asti, Alessandria, del Goceano, Novara, Tortona, Bobbio, Soissons, Sant’Antioco, Pollenzo, Roccabruna, Tricerro, Bairo, Ozegna, delle Apertole, Baron of Vaud e del Faucigni, Lord of Vercelli, Pinerolo, della Lomellina, della Valle Sesia, del marchesato di Ceva, Overlord of Monaco, Roccabruna and 11/12th of Menton, Noble patrician of Venice, Patrician of Ferrara.

Vieste (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 13,595 (2006e).

Vietri di Potenza (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

Vietri sul Mare (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Viggianello (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

Viggiano (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

Vigilius: Pope. (rMar 29, 537-June 7, 555).

Villabate (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.

Villa Castelli (BR): A commune in the province of Brindisi. Population: 8,882 (2006e).

Villa Celiera (PE): A commune in the province of Pescara.

Villa di Briano (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  5,809 (2006e).

Villafranca Sicula (AG): A commune in the province of Agrigento. Population: 1,493 (2006e).

Villafranca Tirrena (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

Villafrati (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.

Villalago (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 622 (2006e).

Villalba (CL): A commune in the province of Caltanissetta. Population: 1,803 (2006e).

Villalfonsina (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 1,023 (2006e).

Villa Literno (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population: 10,695 (2006e).

Villamagna (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 2,441 (2006e).

Villamaina (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 985 (2006e).

Villanella: A variety of Calabrian multi-part song.

Villanova del Battista (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 1,934 (2006e).

Villapiana (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 5,082 (2006e).

Villaricca (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.

Villarosa (EN): A commune in the province of Enna. Population: 5,464 (2006e).

Villa San Giovanni (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio di Calabria.

Villa Santa Lucia degli Abruzzi (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 185 (2006e).

Villa Santa Maria (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 1,463 (2006e).

Villa Sant’Angelo (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 432 (2006e).

Villavallelonga (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 961 (2006e).

Villetta Barrea (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 649 (2006e).

Vincenzo: Bishop of Capua (r337-365).

Vinchiaturo (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 2,977 (2006e).

Virgil (Publius Vergilius Maro): b. Oct. 15, 70 BC, Andes (near Mantua); d. Sept. 22, 19 BC, Brundisium). Roman poet. The son of a small landowner, Virgil was first educated at Cremona and Mediolanum. As a young man, he journeyed to Neapolis (Naples) where he studied Greek language and culture under Parthenius. It was here that discovered his love and talent for poetry, and displayed abilities in other fields such as mathematics, medicine and agriculture. Poor health prevented him from pursuing any standard career and he retired at an early age back to his father’s estate at Mantua. After the victory of Octavian and Antony over the senatorial party, a colony of veteran soldiers was established at Mantua and Virgil’s family estate was among those confiscated to provide land for the soldier colonists. Through the intersession of influential friends, the order of confiscation was rescinded, but when Virgil returned to reclaim his property, the new owner, a centurion named Areus, refused to withdraw. Virgil was forced to flee for his life, swimming across the river Mincius to escape from his pursuer. He decided to settle in Rome where he soon earned the friendship of many notables including Pollio, Maecenas, and even the emperor Augustus. His fortunes now improved, Virgil began to divide his time between Rome, Tarentum, and Naples. This last city, with its natural beauty and high Greek culture, soon became his preferred residence. The great project of his life, the setting down of the Roman national epic, the great Aeneid, prompted him to journey to Greece in 19 BC. Soon after his arrival, however, he was met by Augustus in Athens who persuaded the poet to return with him to Italy. Virgil’s poor constitution had left him exhausted from his travels and, no sooner had the party returned to Brundisium, he became gravely ill and died. His body was brought back to his beloved Naples and he was buried in a fine tomb on the road between that city and Puteoli. There is good reason to accept the monument long identified with his tomb as being genuine. Virgil’s literary works extend well beyond the Aeneid and his poetry reveals much information about his life and interests. His influence on Roman literature, as well as no medieval and Renaissance learning cannot be underestimated.

Visciano (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.

Vita (TP): A commune in the province of Trapani.

Vitalian, St: Pope. (rJuly 30, 657-Jan 27, 672).

Vitaliano, St.: Bishop of Capua (rAD 700-?).

Vittore, St.: Bishop of Capua (rAD 541-554).

Vittoria (RG): A commune in the province of Ragusa.

Vittorito (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 955 (2006e).

Vitulano (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 3,026 (2006e).

Vitulazio (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  5,755 (2006e).

Vitus, St.: (poss. AD 3rd Century) According to an unreliable source, Vitus was the only son of a Roman senator in Sicily. Having been converted to Christianity at the age of 12, he was arrested and brought before Valerian, the governor of Sicily. He refused to recant his faith and was imprisoned. Escaping, he fled to Lucania on the mainland, in the company of his tutor Modestus and a servant named Crescentia. He eventually made his way to Rome where he was said to have driven an evil spirit out of the son of the Emperor Diocletian. When Vitus refused to make a formal sacrifice to the gods, however, his cure was attributed to sorcery. Once more under arrest, he and his companions were tortured but miraculously protected from harm. The story continues that a sudden storm arose which destroyed the temples in Rome and allowed Vitus and the other Christian prisoners to escape. They were said to have been guided back to safety in Lucania where they remained free and unharmed for the rest of their lives.

St. Vitus’s cult remained strong in Lucania for many centuries. In AD 836, his relics were taken to Saxony where they became central to a major Germanic cult following. His feast day is June 15.

Vizzini (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 6,925 (2006e).

vjersh: A variety of Albanian song found in Calabria and Basilicata.

voca diretta, a: A variety of Calabrian multi-part song.

voca regolare, a: A variety of Calabrian multi-part song.

Volla (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.

Volturara Appula (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 529 (2006e).

Volturara Irpina (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 4,199 (2006e).

Volturino (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 1,907 (2006e).

Volturno, River (anc. Vulturnus): Length: 175 km. A river rising in Molise and flowing S, E, and then W, through Campania, past Capua, and finally emptying into the Mediterranean near Castel Volturno, between Naples and Gaeta.

Volturno, Battle of the River: Fought on Sept. 19-20, 1860, between the Southern Army of Garibaldi and the Bourbon Royal Army. It was the principal set-piece battle of Garibaldi’s conquest of the Kingdom of Naples and his victory here led to the retreat of royal forces into Gaeta and their ultimate defeat.

Vortumna: An ancient Italic goddess, worshipped as Fortuna by the Romans. Her name means “She who revolves the year.”

Vulcaniae: See Aeoliae Insulae.

Vulcano: an island of the Isole Eolie (Lipari Islands).

W

White Hart: A symbol, since ancient times, for good fortune. Its first mention is in Aristotle who states that the hero Diomedes consecrated a white stag to the goddess Artemis/Diana. This animal lived for a thousand years before being killed by Agathocles, king of Sicily. White harts are mentioned in legends connected with such historical figures as Alexander the AGreat, Julius Caesar, and Charlemagne. Each of these rulers was said to have captured the white stag, decorating it with golden bands, and then releasing it.

William I “Iron Arm” (French: Guillaume Bras-de-Fer; Italian: Guglielmo Braccio-di-Ferro): Count of Apulia and Calabria (1042-1046).

William I: King of Sicily (r1154-1166); Duke of Apulia and Calabria (as William III) (r1148-1154).

William II: Count of Apulia and Calabria (r1111-1117).

William II: King of Sicily (r1166-1189).

William III: Duke of Apulia and Calabria (r1148-1154). See William I, King of Sicily (r1154-1166).

William III: King of Sicily (r1194).

Winds, Traditional Names of:

North

Tramontana (= across the mountains) referring to the Alps

North-east

Greco (referring to Greece)

East

Levante (“Sun Rising”)

South-East

Sirocco (The hot wind which blew off North Africa)

South

Mezzogiorno (Midday)

South-West

Libeccio (Libyan or African Wind)

West

Pontente (“Sun Setting“)

North-West

Maestro (Master Wind)

World Heritage Sites in Southern Italy:

Site

Location

Year Chosen

18th-Century Royal Palace at Caserta with the Park, the Aqueduct of Vanvitelli, and the San Leucio Complex

Ref# 549rev

Provinces of Caserta and Benevento, Campania
N41 4 23.988

E14 19 35.004

1997

A magnificent mid-18th century palatial complex including an associated park and gardens. It includes a natural woodland, hunting lodges, and the Belvedere, an industrial complex for silk production. Built to rival more famous royal estates like Versailles, the Palazzo Reale of Caserta represents one of the highest achievements in Enlightment era planning designed to incorporate urban structure into natural setting.

Archaeological Area of Agrigento

Ref #831

Province of Agrigento, Sicily

N37 17 23

E13 35 36

1997

The remains of one of the great cities of the ancient Greeks, this complex contains some of the finest surviving examples of Doric temple architecture, as well as remains from the Hellenistic, Roman and early Christian eras.

Archaeological Areas of Pompei, Herculaneum and Torre Annunziata

Ref # 829

Province of Naples, Campania
N40 45

E14 29

1997

An area that contains the remains of the Roman towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum, and of a number of associated villas, buried by the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius in AD 79. The remains provide a vivid and unparalleled picture into the daily life during the early part of the Roman Empire.

Castel del Monte

Ref #398rev

Communes of Andria and Corato, Province of Bari, Puglia Region
N41 5 5.3

E16 16 15.4

1996

An incredibly designed and precisely built castle erected in the 13th century for Emperoror Frederick II. The building, known for the mathematical and astronomical precision of its layout, blends the styles of northern Europe, the Saracen world, and classical antiquity into a unique, near perfect form.

Cilento and Vallo di Diano National Park with the Archeological sites of Paestum and Velia, and the Certosa di Padula

Ref #842

Province of Salerno, Campania
N40 17 E15 16

1998

A unique area which sat on the boundaries of ancient Magna Graecia, and the cultural spheres of the Etruscans and Lucanians. The area includes sanctuaries and settlements with links tied to the prehistoric, ancient and medieval eras. The remains of two important Greek cities, Paestum and Velia, are located here.

Costiera Amalfitana

Ref #830

Province of Salerno, Campania
N40 39 00

E14 36 00

1997

A coastal region of singular beauty which towns whose roots reach back into early medieval times. Many of these towns like Amalfi and Ravello contain examples of beautiful architecture, set to the backdrop of magnificent natural landscapes.

Historic Center of Naples

Ref #726

City and Province of Naples, Campania
N40 51 05

E14 15 46

1995

The urban center of a city founded in the 5th century BC by Greek colonists. It includes many monuments reflective of centuries of interaction with the European and the Mediterranean worlds.

Late Baroque Towns of the Val di Noto (South-Eastern Sicily)

Ref #1024rev

Provinces of Catania, Ragusa, and Syracuse, Sicily
N36 53 35.5

E15 04 08.1

2002

A group of eight towns: Caltagirone, Militello Val di Catania, Catania, Modica, Noto, Palazzolo, Ragusa and Scicli, rebuilt after the terrible earthquake of 1693. These are excellent examples of late Baroque architecture and art, within a defined geography, chronology and cultural unit.

Syracuse and the Rocky Necropolis of Pantalica

Ref # 1200

City and Province of Syracuse, Sicily
N37 03 34.0

E15 17 35.0

2005

Within a relatively small area are preserved the remains of Mediterranean cultures stretching from the prehistoric (13th-7th century BC) Sikel burials at Pantalica to the Greek, Roman, Byzantine, Saracen, Norman, Hohenstaufen, Aragonese, Spanish and Bourbon era architecture in Syracuse.

The Trulli of Alberobello

Ref #787

Prov. of Bari Puglia N40 46 57

E17 14 13

1996

The unique architecture of trulli limestone structures of this area show an unbroken traditional building technique stretching back to prehistoric times and continuing into the present day.

The Sassi and the park of the Rupestrian Churches of Matera

Ref #670

City and Province of Matera, Region of Basilicata
N40 39 59

E16 36 37

1993

One of the world’s most incredible examples of a “troglodyte” or cave-dwelling community. Use of the Sassi caves for dwellings and religious structures date back to the Paleolithic era and continue into recent times.

Isole Eolie (Aeolian Islands)

Ref #908

Mediterranean Sea – Southern Tyrrhenian Sea
N38 29 16.3

E14 56 44.1

2000

An archipelago of islands which ongoing volcanic activity has allowed two centuries of important study in vulcanology to take place.

X

Y

Z

Zaccanopoli (VV): A commune in the province of vibo Valentia.

Zachary, St.: Pope. (rDec 3, 741-Mar 14/22, 752).

Zafferana Etnea (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 8,812 (2006e). It is principally a summer resort.

Zagarise (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 1,836 (2006e).

Zambrone (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.

zampogna: a type of bagpipe used throughout southern Italy. It has five pipes of uneven length and a double reed. Another source describes it as most commonly having 2 drones and 2 conical chanters.

zampogna a paro: a single-reed zampogna with 2 or 3 drones. It is normally used in Calabria and Sicily.

zampogna zoppa: a Central Italian version of a zampogna. It is usually double-reeded and has a variable number of drones.

Zapponeta (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 3,145 (2006e).

zecchino: a gold coin (2.907 grams) used in the Two Sicilies. Equivalent to 2 ducati and to 9.07 lire, it was sometimes called the zecchino napoletano di don Carlos or zecchino napoletano di Ferdinando IV.

Zenodorus, Flavius Hadrianus Hierius: (fl. Early AD 5th Century). Governor of Lucania and Bruttium (corrector Lucaniae et Bruttiorum) in AD 401. He is mentioned in the letters of Symmachus (Ep. IX. 3; IX. 9).

Zephyrinus, St.: Pope. (r199-217).

Zingarelli, Nicola Antonio: b. April 4, 1752, Naples (or Rome). d. May 5, 1837, Torre del Greco. Composer. Having earned a fine reputation as composer of Italian opera, he became director of the chapel of the Vatican in 1806. In 1812, Napoleon appointed him director of the conservatory at Rome and musical director of St. Peter’s. In the following year, the Emperor sent his to Naples as the directory of the new conservatory there. He later composed a cantata honoring Murat after his death but it was seized by the Bourbon authorities and never performed.

Ziz: an ancient name for Palermo. The Phoenician founders of the colony established here named their new settlement Ziz, meaning “flowering,” The name is similar to other Semitic words such as the Arabic aziz (= beautiful).

Zoippos: (fl. 3rd century BC). Syracusan statesman. The husband of Heraclia, daughter of Hieron II, he had a falling out with Hieronymus, Hieron’s successor, and was banished from Alexandria.

Zollino (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 2,143 (2006e).

Zopyros (1): an athlete of ancient Syracuse. He was victor in the Race in Armor at the Olympian Games in 476 BC.

Zopyros (2): an athlete of ancient Syracuse. He was victor in the Stadion at the Olympian Games in 220 BC.

Zosimus, St: Pope. (rMar. 18, 417-Dec 26, 418).

Zotto: Duke of Benevento (AD 571-591). A Lombard. Paul the Deacon referred to him as “primus Langobardorum dux in Benevento…Zotto” and says he ruled Benevento for 20 years. He was succeeded by Archis I. Some sources date his tenure at AD 584 to 604.

Zumpano (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,980 (2006e).

Zungoli (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 1,344 (2006e).

Zungri (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valetia.

Zurlo, Count Giuseppe: (b. 1759, in Naples; d. Nov. 10, 1828, in Naples). Statesman. Entering into a legal career, he became a judge and, in 1798 was appointed minister of finance. In 1803, he was ousted from this office by the machinations of Acton. In 1809, Murat appointed him minister of the interior. After that king’s fall and death, Zurlo followed the queen into exile at Trieste. In 1818, he was allowed to return home by King Ferdinand. In 1820, he was again appointed as minister of the interior but soon retired.

Zurlo, Giuseppe M.:(d. 1801, in Naples). Ecclesiastic. A cardinal, he served as bishop of Calvi (1756-1782) and archbishop of Naples (1782-1801).

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