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Encyclopedia of Southern Italy – T

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Tabula Bantina: See Bantine Table.

Tagliacozzo (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 6,814 (2006e).

tammorriata (tammuriata): Campanian couple-dance. It is usually accompanied by lyric songs called strambotti, and tammorra tambourines.

tammuriata: See tammorriata.

Tancred (de Hauteville): b. c AD 990; d. AD 1041. A minor baron in Normandy, he is best-known as the father of several sons who played important roles in the Norman conquest of southern Italy and the foundation of the kingdom of Sicily. Some sources state that his two wives were both daughters of Duke Richard I of Normandy, but this appears to have been a 16th Century fiction, perhaps designed to give the family line nobler roots.

The Children of Tancred de Hauteville

By his first wife Muriel (or Muriella, Moriella, Moriellam):

  • William Iron Arm, count of Apulia (1042-46)
  • Drogo, count of Apulia (1046-51)
  • Humphrey, count of Apulia (1051-57)
  • Geoffrey, count of the Capitanate (d.1071)
  • Serlo I, heir to the family estates in Normandy.

By his second wife Fressenda (or Fedesenda, Fresendis):

  • Robert Guiscard, count of Apulia (1057-59) and duke of Apulia (1059-85)
  • Mauger, count of the Capitanate (1056-59)
  • William, count of the Principate (1056-80)
  • Aubrey (Alberic, Alberad, Alvered, Alvred, or Alfred), remained in Normandy
  • Hubert (Humbert), remained in Normandy
  • Tancred, remained in Normandy
  • Roger I “Bosso”, Great Count of Sicily (1071-1101)
  • Fressenda, wife of Richard, count of Aversa & prince of Capua

Tancred: (d. Feb. 20, 1194). King of Sicily (r.1189-1194).

Taormina (anc. Tauromenium) (ME): A commune (204m) in the province of Messina. Area: 13 km˛. Population: 10,863 (2005e).

History: Ancient Tauromenium was founded in 403 BC by Dionysius I to replace the destroyed Naxos. In 358 BC, it received a colony on Naxian Greeks planted there by the tyrant Andromachus. Andromachus warmly welcomed Timoleon when he land at Tauromenium and supported him in his efforts to free Sicily from the other tyrants.

                Tauromenium was an early supporter of the Roman republic for which it received great benefits. During the period of the Roman Civil Wars, it unfortunately threw its support to Sextus Pompey when the latter seized control of Sicily. Octavian punished the city in 35 BC by exiling the population. A new colony was settled there and Tauromenium flourished for centuries thereafter.

                In AD 902, the original city was finally destroyed by the Saracens, who soon rebuilt it. In 1078, the Norman Count Roger I captured the place.

Points of Interest:

                Religious Monuments:

                Cathedral: Dating to the 13th century, it sits on the site of an earlier basilica. Much of the surviving structure dates to restorations in the 15th and 16th centuries. The main west door was created in 1636.

                Church of Sant’Agostino: Dating from 1448, it has a fine Gothic doorway. It is now the site for the Library.

                Church of Sant’Antonio: Dating from the 15th century, the structure has a fine doorway. It suffered damaged in July 1943 from bambs.

Taranta Peligna (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 492 (2006e).

tarantate: Women who had been supposedly received the poisonous bites of tarantula spiders and then performed a ritual dance (the tarantella) to cure themselves.

tarantel: An alternate term for the tarantella dance.

tarantella: A couple dance performed in 6/8 time. Now found in many varieties throughout southern Italy, it had its beginnings in and around ancient Tarentum (mod. Taranto) as a ritual dance performed to cure the supposedly poisonous bite of the tarantula spider.

tarantismo: Apulian term for the tarantella healing ritual.

Taranto, Province of: A province of Puglia. Population: 580,189 (2007e).

Communes of Taranto Province

Commune

Area

(km˛)

Population

(2007e)

Population

(2006e)

Population

(2001 census)

Population

(1991 census)

Avetrana

73.28

7104

7076

7,303

8,442

Carosino

10.79

6283

6222

6,070

5,959

Castellaneta

239.84

17254

17308

17,393

17,294

Crispiano

111.75

13283

13251

12,973

12,905

Faggiano

20.84

3518

3506

3,513

3,526

Fragagnano

22.04

5541

5546

5,639

5,482

Ginosa

187.06

22421

22338

22,146

21,907

Grottaglie

101.37

32746

32610

31,894

30,947

Laterza

159.63

15042

15040

14,996

14,505

Leporano

15.10

7254

7157

5,810

5,221

Lizzano

46.32

10284

10248

10,195

9,926

Manduria

178.33

31708

31811

31,747

31,453

Martina Franca

295.42

49133

49023

48,756

45,404

Maruggio

48.19

5465

5486

5,386

5,300

Massafra

125.52

31548

31343

30,923

30,623

Monteiasi

9.31

5318

5244

5,199

5,295

Montemesola

16.20

4212

4243

4,277

4,422

Monteparano

3.74

2361

2351

2,411

2,551

Mottola

212.33

16427

16504

16,575

16,795

Palagianello

43.27

7855

7772

7,483

7,136

Palagiano

69.15

15789

15785

15,815

14,910

Pulsano

18.09

10549

10533

10,240

10,216

Roccaforzata

5.72

1815

1762

1,756

1,702

San Giorgio Ionico

23.49

15906

15854

15,613

16,081

San Marzano di San Giuseppe

19.00

9079

9051

8,830

8,703

Sava

44.05

17052

17182

16,163

16,579

Statte

92.70

14666

14678

14,585

14,477

Taranto

217.50

196369

197582

202,033

217,809

Torricella

26.64

4207

4170

4,082

4,006

Total

2,437

580,189

580,676

579,806

589,576

Taranto (TA): A commune and provincial capital of the province of Taranto in Puglia. The earliest name of the city, Taras, may derive from the Illyrian word darandos (= “oak”), so-called because of the abundance of that type of tree. Another theory, however, suggests that the name derives from the Indo-European root ter- or tor- (= “current”).

tarantolati: An Apulian variety of the tarantella healing ritual.

Taras: An ancient sea god who had a cult center at the Great city of Taras/Tarentum in Magna Graecia.

tarentella: An alternate term for the tarantella.

tarentule: An alternate term for the tarantella.

tarě: a coin used principally in Sicily prior to the conquest of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. It was the equivalent of 20 grani, 40 tornesi, and, until 1784, 0.8737 lire. From 1784 to 1814, it was equivalent in value to 0.08497 lire.

Tarsia (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 2,284 (2006e).

Taurano (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 1,604 (2006e).

Taurasi (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 2,689 (2006e).

Taurisano (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 12,525 (2006e).

Tauromenium: A ancient wine produced in eastern Sicily. It was said to be of high quality and there is evidence that it drunk at Pompeii.

Tavenna (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 906 (2006e).

Taverna (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 2,650 (2006e).

Taviano (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 12,678 (2006e).

Teana (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

Teano (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  12,765 (2006e).

Teanum Sidicinum (mod. Teano [CE]): ancient capital of the Sidicini, it was captured by the Samnites in the 4th Century BC, and later taken by the Romans. Under the Roman Empire it became a flourishing city, second in Campania only to Capua.

Teate: Ancient name for Chieti.

Teate, Duchy of: See Chieti.

Teggiano (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Telemachus: Ruler of Akragas (r554-550 BC).

Telese Terme (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 6,329 (2006e).

Telesphorus, St: Pope. (rAD 125-136 or 138).

Tellus: an ancient Italic/Roman earth goddess, also called Terra or Terra Mater (Mother Earth).

Temesa: An ancient colony in Bruttium founded by Aetolian Greeks in the 6th century BC. Although mentioned by Strabo who noted the importance of its copper, its location is now uncertain. During the 4th century BC, it was seized by the Bruttians but survived until its abandonment during the 2nd Punic War. In 194 BC, the Romans found the colony of Tempsa on the site of Temesa.

Tempsa (Temesa; possibly also Nuceria): An ancient city of Bruttium, identified with modern Nocera Terinese (CZ). It appears that the earliest version of the name was Temesa, an Oscan word derived from the Indo-European *tem(e)- (‘dark’).

Teodoro: Bishop of Capua (r?). His term fell sometime between Ambrogio (740-744) and Stefano (786-?).

Teofania di Adamo: A possible alternate name of the infamous poisoner Tofana of Palermo.

Teora (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 1,565 (2006e).

Teramo, Province of: A province in the region of Abruzzo.

Communes of Teramo Province

Commune

Area

(km˛)

Population

(2007e)

Population

(2006e)

Population

(2001 census)

Population

(1991 census)

Alba Adriatica

9.50

11549

11341

10389

9365

Ancarano

14.41

1898

1897

1774

1753

Arsita

34.04

921

940

969

1061

Atri

91.44

11201

11234

11260

11378

Basciano

18.64

2498

2488

2381

2228

Bellante

49.88

7283

7241

6935

6296

Bisenti

30.89

2061

2091

2205

2511

Campli

73.87

7522

7595

7266

7356

Canzano

16.88

1861

1860

1809

1802

Castel Castagna

17.72

540

536

539

609

Castellalto

33.82

7231

7067

6637

5866

Castelli

49.73

1274

1302

1391

1600

Castiglione Messer Raimondo

30.83

2398

2430

2570

2590

Castilenti

23.52

1615

1609

1624

1635

Cellino Attanasio

43.97

2658

2692

2766

2936

Cermignano

26.09

1881

1903

1970

2196

Civitella del Tronto

77.65

5402

5441

5244

5421

Colledara

19.86

2265

2266

2199

2155

Colonnella

21.74

3495

3437

3272

3098

Controguerra

22.73

2491

2541

2480

2494

Corropoli

21.98

4195

4085

3752

3691

Cortino

62.72

774

766

847

1026

Crognaleto

124.18

1537

1552

1549

1778

Fano Adriano

35.43

419

413

392

432

Giulianova

27.33

22383

21955

21400

21865

Isola del Gran Sasso d’Italia

83.26

4961

4941

4883

4952

Martinsicuro

14.32

15639

1171

13428

12078

Montefino

18.47

1159

8059

1184

1259

Montorio al Vomano

53.37

8061

3446

8048

8918

Morro d’Oro

28.00

3468

8665

3317

3015

Mosciano Sant’Angelo

48.25

8728

4794

8313

7545

Nereto

7.01

4850

6871

4425

4428

Notaresco

37.98

6873

1708

6770

6502

Penna Sant’Andrea

11.04

1714

315

1761

1673

Pietracamela

44.32

300

13928

312

350

Pineto

37.74

14089

647

13095

11980

Rocca Santa Maria

61.23

632

23831

698

849

Roseto degli Abruzzi

52.80

24044

9227

22978

21101

Sant’Egidio alla Vibrata

18.24

9415

5415

8817

8004

Sant’Omero

33.98

5398

15264

5274

5119

Silvi

20.44

15329

52785

14478

12754

Teramo

151.88

53263

1662

51023

51756

Torano Nuovo

10.19

1664

2742

1684

1712

Torricella Sicura

54.08

2724

8749

2692

2645

Tortoreto

22.96

8893

1492

7836

7040

Tossicia

25.29

1474

1165

1497

1456

Valle Castellana

133.94

1158

15230

1278

1574

Total

1,947.64

301,188

298,789

287411

279852

Teramo (TE): A commune in the province of Teramo.

Teramo-Atri, Diocese of: A diocese in the Ecclesiastical Region of Abruzzo-Molise.

Suffragans:

Metropolitan: Pescara-Penne.

Conference Region:  Abruzzo-Molise.

Area: 1,480 km˛/ mi˛

Total Population: 217,962.

Catholic Population:

Total Priests: 187(Diocesan: 126; Religious: 61)

Permanent Deacons: 11.

Male Religious:

Female Religious:

Parishes: 186.

History:

Terina: A city of ancient Bruttium identified with modern Lamezia Terme (CZ). The name derives from an Eastern Italic word meaning “piece of land”, related to the Indo-European root *(s)ter- (‘stiff, solid’).

Terlizzi (BA): A commune in the province of Bari: Population: 27,422 (2006e).

Terme Vigliatore (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

Terminator: an official or “master of ceremonies” in some Sicilian cathedrals.

Termini Imerese (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.

Termoli (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 31,209 (2006e).

Termoli-Larino, Diocese of: A diocese in the Ecclesiastical Region of Abruzzo-Molise.

Suffragans:

Metropolitan: Campobasso-Boiano.

Conference Region:  Abruzzo-Molise

Area: 1,424 km˛/ mi˛

Total Population: 103,121

Catholic Population:

Total Priests: 68 (Diocesan: 62; Religious: 6)

Permanent Deacons: 8

Male Religious:

Female Religious:

Parishes: 51.

History:

Terra (also Terra Mater or Tellus): An ancient Italic/Roman earth mother goddess.

Terra di Lavoro (or Lavora): A province of the former Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. It was situated at the extreme northwest of the mainland portion of the Regno, bordering the Sea of Tuscany. Its territory encompassed part of ancient Campania.

Terranova da Sibari (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 5,234 (2006e).

Terranova di Pollino (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

Terranova Sappo Minulio (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio di Calabria.

Terrasini (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.

Terravecchia (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 969 (2006e).

Territorial Abbey: An abbey with some territory which functions in a similar manner as a diocese. The abbot is the Ordinary for the jurisdiction.

Terzigno (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.

Teura: An ancient town in Bruttium, identified with modern Tiriolo (CZ). The area around the town was called the Ager Teuranus. The name derives from the Indo-European root IE root *teu- (‘fat, strong”).

Teverola (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  12,098 (2006e).

Thalia (Thaleia): A nymph connected with ancient Mt. Aitna (Etna) in eastern Sicily. She was a daughter of Hephaestus. One of the many love interests of Zeus, she feared being discovered by Hera, Zeus’s wife. She thus went into hiding underground where she became the mother of the Palici, the twin gods who presided over the sacred springs-geysers on Mt. Etna.

Theodore (Theodorus) I: Pope. (rNov 24, 642-May 14, 649).

Theodore (Theodorus) II: Pope. (rDec 897).

Theodorus (Theodoros): ( b. Tarentum; fl. 4th century BC). Dancer. At some time during the campaigns of Alexander the Great, Theodorus accompanied Philoxenus in Asia Minor. When Philoxenus wished to purchase two slave boys for Alexander from Theodorus he wrote to the king for permission. Alexander not only refused to agree the transaction, he severely rebuked Philoxenus and added a general condemnation of Theodorus.

Theoxene: (fl. late 4th/early 3rd centuries BC). She was the wife of Agathocles, tyrant of Syracuse.

Therasia: an ancient Greek name used by Pliny the Elder (iii.14) for the Aeolian island of Vulcano, north of Sicily. The Romans adopted the name and it eventually evolved into the personal feminine name Theresa.

Thermae: Roman baths.i

Thermae Selenuritiae: See Aquae Labodes.

Theron I: Ruler of Akragas (r550 BC-?).

Theron II: Ruler of Akragas (r488-472 BC). He was victor in the Tethrippon in the Olympian Games in 476 BC.

Thomas Aquinas, St. (San Tommaso da Aquino): (b. 1225, Castello di Roccasecca, near Aquino, in the Kingdom of Sicily; d. Mar. 7, 1274, at Fossanova Abbey, Lazio, Italy). Philosopher, theologian, scholar. He was a “Doctor of the Church” (Doctor Angelicus, Doctor Universalis), often considered the greatest theologian of Roman Catholicism.

                Thomas was born into the important noble family of the Counts of Aquino and, through his mother, was related to the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II (His father was a nephew of Emperor Frederick I “Barbarossa”, the father of Frederick II). His father’s brother, Sinibald, was abbot of Monte Cassino. At an early age, Thomas’s family decided that he should follow a religious career and sent him to be trained by the Benedictines at Monte Cassino. At age 10, he was enrolled in the University of Naples, remaining there for six years. It was at this time that Thomas became strongly influenced by the Dominican Order and left the University at age 16 to go to Rome. Enroute, however, he was intercepted by his family who disapproved of his decision. He was brought back to his parents’ castle, where he was held against his will. A year or so later, Pope Innocent IV interceded on his behave and Thomas was freed. At the age of 17, he entered the Dominican order.

                Thomas continued his education at Cologne and Paris, finally graduating as a bachelor of theology. He entered a career as a teacher and a supporter of Aristotelian science.

                The influence Thomas had on the Roman Catholic Church cannot be stressed enough. His most important work, the Summa Theologiae, is often considered second in importance only to the Bible itself.

                Even during his own lifetime, Thomas was considered exceptional. He refused attempts to make him archbishop of Naples and abbot of Monte Cassino, preferring his academic work.

                He was a strong believer in mysticism, especially after having his mystic experience while celebrating Mass on December 6, 1273. According to later sources it was said he heard a voice speak to him from the cross complimenting him on his writing. Because of this, he ceased working on his great Summa Theologiae, believing that God was trying to tell him to leave it as it then was. It was also said that on at least one occasion, he seemed to levitate off the ground.

                In January 1274, Thomas received a directive from Pope Gregory X to attend the Second Council of Lyons. Although in poor health, he set out on the arduous journey. While enroute he realized that he was dying and attempted, without success, to reach a Dominican house. When this was found to be impossible, he was brought to the Cistercian monastery of Fossa Nuova in Lazio, where he died a few weeks later on March 7, 1274. The monks of the monastery, seeking to take advantage of Thomas’s death, had his body quickly dismembered and the flesh boiled away. The bones could then be sold as holy relics.

                Thomas’s family connections to the Hohenstaufen dynasty brought him under suspicion when the French Charles I of Anjou seized the Sicilian throne in 1266. Dante, in his Divine Comedy (Purg. xx.69), as well as other writers, claimed that Thomas’s death was the result of poisoning, secretly ordered by Charles.

                Thomas was canonized as a saint by Pope John XXII on July 18, 1323.

Thoosa: a sea nymph of Sicily, a daughter of Phorcys. By the god Poseidon, she became the mother of the monstrous Cyclops Polyphemus. The sister of Scylla and Echidna, she was, like them, often depicted as a mermaid. Her name derives from the Greek thoôsa or thoos meaning “swift”, and it is believed that she originally was a goddess who presided over dangerous swift ocean currents.

Thrasydaeos: Ruler of Akragas (r472-470BC).

Thurii: ancient city of Magna Graecia, S Italy, in Bruttium, on the Gulf of Tarentum (now Taranto). It was founded by Pericles in 443 B.C. to replace ruined Sybaris. New Greek colonists came, among them the city planner Hippodamus, Herodotus and Lysias. Thurii became an ally of Rome and was pillaged (204 B.C.) by Hannibal. Rome revived (193 B.C.) the colony, but it did not thrive.

Thucles: the oikistos, or leader of the Greek colonists, who founded Naxos in Sicily in c734 BC.

Tiggiano (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 2,896 (2006e).

Timaeus: (b. c.345 BC, in Tauromenium, Sicily; d. c250 BC). Historian. The son of Andromachus, tyrant of Tauromenium, he was forced to flee from his home when Agathocles captured the city in 312 BC. He resettled at Athens, remaining there for the next 50 years. In c260 BC, he returned to Sicily, residing at the court of Hiero II in Syracuse for the last decade of his life. His principal works were a History of Sicily and a History of Pyrrhus. The first work covered Sicilian history from earliest times until the death of Agathocles in 289 BC. The second work picked up where the second left off and continued to the year 272 BC.  Timaeus drew information from many of earlier historians and supplemented them with inscriptions and official records. He was the first Greek historian to create a standardized system of chronology based on the Olympiads. Although he strived for chronological accuracy, he relied almost exclusively of written records rather than first-hand information. He was also highly prejudiced in his opinions of various historical figures, praising some to excess while ruthlessly condemning others. This lack of objectivity caused later historians like Polybius to criticize his work. He showed a special contempt towards Agathocles, though this was understandable in light of his own experiences with him.

Timasitheos: an athlete of ancient Kroton. He was victor in wrestling at the Olympian Games in 512 BC.

Time calculation: Prior to the Risorgimento, time was calculated using a 24 hour clock. The day began as sunset (referred to as Ave Maria) and progressed from 1 to 24 o’clock. Because the actual time of sunset varied throughout the year, clocks were readjusted every two weeks. After the unification of Italy, this practice was officially replaced by the standard method of time-keeping with each day beginning at midnight. The old system, however, remained in common use especially among the lower classes. It long remained in use in Sicily.

Timoleon: (b. c394 BC, Corinth; d. 337 BC, Syracuse). Liberator of Sicily. Born into one of Corinth’s most notable families, Timoleon was praised for the great courage he showed in battle when he saved the life of his brother Timophanes at great risk to himself. Later, however, when Timophanes attempted to overthrow the democratic government of Corinth and set up a tyranny, Timoleon was forced to kill his kill. This action created a dilemma for the Corinthians. On one hand, Timoleon had saved their democracy, but on the other he had committed fratricide, one of the worst crimes in the Greek world, to do so. In 344 BC, while this debate was still unresolved, a deputation from Syracuse arrived at Corinth. The envoys desperately request help from the Corinthians to settle the terrible factional conflict that was then tearing Syracuse and the rest of Greek Sicily apart. For the Corinthians this request was a perfect way to settle their own problems over Timoleon’s fate. It was decided that he should be sent to Sicily at the head of a small force in an attempt to bring peace there. There were those who must have honestly believed that Timoleon’s talents could accomplish this seemingly impossible undertaking, while others believed that it would prove to be a suicide mission. Either way, their own problem over Timoleon’s fate was solved.

                At the time of Timoleon’s expedition, Greek Sicily was in the grip of a contest between Hicetas and Dionysius the Younger over the control of Syracuse. The Siciliot Greek population, which had suffered so greatly from this conflict, saw Timoleon as a savior. Despite the small size of his force, he was able to drive both of the would-be tyrants from Syracuse. He then set about returning the stricken city to normalcy and peace. Nearly depopulated by the violent chaos of the previous years, Syracuse needed a new influx of people if it were to survive. Timoleon sent out word that all those who had suffered exile were now free to return home. He also encouraged new colonists from the other cities of Greek Sicily, from Italy, and from mainland Greece to relocate to Syracuse. For the next two years Timoleon worked tirelessly on rebuilding Syracuse’s size and strength, on rewriting the city’s legal codes, and on establishing a new constitution based on democratic principles.

                Timoleon’s achievements soon caught the attention of the Carthaginians who controlled the western portion of Sicily. It had been to their advantage to have Greek Sicily weak and divided. They were able to maintain firm control over their holdings free from any threat by the Greeks and, at the same time, exert their own influence on the petty tyrants who dominated the Siciliot Greek cities. Now, the stability which Timoleon was bringing to Syracuse was seen as a serious threat to Carthaginian power. Should he return Syracuse to its former glory, he could use it as a base for uniting the whole of Greek Sicily. Before it was too late, the Carthaginians decided to take direct action. A massive army, 80,000 strong, was organized and placed under the command of Hasbrubal and Hamilcar. This force was assigned the mission of invading eastern Sicily and ending Greek power there once and for all. Faced with this threat, Timoleon was able to raise a force of only about 12,000 men. Nonetheless, in 339 BC, he marched to face the invaders. When the battle as the river Crimissus began, the Carthaginians seemed to had all the advantages and expect a quick and easy victory. The battle, however, ended in one of the greatest victories ever won by a Greek army over a non-Greek “barbarian” force. The key to the Greek victory was simple; Timoleon was a military genius who few generals could ever hope to equal.

                The victory won at the Crimissus left Carthaginian Sicily helpless. Timoleon might have seen fit to continue marching west and sweep the Carthaginians from Sicily just as they had wished to do to the Greeks. But Timoleon was not interested in such projects. He knew that his own force was probably too small to have achieved a complete victory over the Carthaginians. And it would probably be only a matter of time before Carthage dispatching a new army to the island to try to regain its lost territory. He therefore concluded a new treaty with the Carthaginians. The river Halycus was fixed as the border between the two powers and Carthage was to give up its support of the petty Greek tyrants.

                Timoleon could now turn his attentions back to restoring Greek Sicily. He successfully drove Hicetas from Leontini and Mamercus from Catana, replacing their tyrannies with new constitutional democracies. Eventually, Greek Sicily was restored to peace and prosperity. When he was finally satisfied with the state of affairs, Timoleon voluntarily relinquished his powers and planned to spend the remainder of his years as a simple private citizen of Syracuse. Unfortunately, fate proved unkind to the great leader. Not long after his retirement, he was suffered complete blindness. In 337 BC, at the age of 57, he died. The people of Syracuse gave Timoleon a grand state funeral and buried him in a tomb in the city’s marketplace. The site was later embellished with a colonnade and a gymnasium was built nearby which was named the Timoleonteum in his honor.

Tione degli Abruzzi (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 353 (2006e).

Tiriolo (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 4,055 (2006e).

Tisandros: An athlete of ancient Naxos, in Sicily. He was victor in boxing at the Olympian Games in 572 BC, 568 BC, 564 BC and 560 BC.

Tisikrates: an athlete of ancient Kroton. He was victor in the Stadion at the Olympian Games in 496 BC and 492 BC.

Titianus: (fl. late 4th century AD). Roman administrator. He served as governor of Sicily (consularis Siciliae) in AD 398.

Tito (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

Titular Bishop: A bishop not assigned as the Ordinary of a diocese. Titular sees are historical dioceses no longer in existence.

Tocco Caudio (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 1,593 (2006e).

Tocco da Casauria (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

Todaro: a surname found in southern Italy. It derives from the Greek personal name Theodoros (Theodore).

Tofana of Palermo (or perhaps Teofania di Adamo): (d.1730). Poisoner. A native of Palermo, she was a member of the dreaded clandestine society known as the Secret Poisoners. While in Palermo, she trained other women in the art poisoning, including Hieronyma Spara, who later established a faction of the society in Rome. Tofara later moved the base of her movement to Naples. She created a unique liquid poison, known as Aqua della Tofana, which she sold in small glass phials inscribed with the words “Manna of St. Nicholas of Bari” and decorated with an image of that saint. Despite her long career, she managed to remain free from arrest until she had reached an advanced age. When she learned that the authorities were seeking her, she took refuge in a monastery. When discovered she was arrested and tortured. She finally confessed to having provided poison for at least 600 murders. Her Aqua della Tofana was a highly concentrated form of arsenic, virtually undetectable in the small dose it needed to be fatal.

ton, Neapolitan: a measure of weight used under the Two Sicilies. It was equal to 1,000 kilogrammes, or 2,205 lbs avoirdupois, 35 lbs lighter than the standard English ton.

Tollo (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 4,243 (2006e).

Tolve (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

Tora e Piccilli (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  1,029 (2006e).

Torano Castello (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 4,835 (2006e).

Torano Nuovo (TE): A commune in the province of Teramo.

Torchiara (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Torchiarolo (BR): A commune in the province of Brindisi. Population: 5,069 (2006e).

Torella dei Lombardi (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 2,242 (2006e).

Torella del Sannio (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 839 (2006e).

Torino di Sangro (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 3,119 (2006e).

Toritto (BA): A commune in the province of Bari: Population: 8,768 (2006e).

Tornareccio (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 1,963 (2006e).

Tornimparte (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 2,966 (2006e).

Toro (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 1,511 (2006e).

Torraca (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Torre Annunziata(NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.

Torrebruna (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 1,075 (2006e).

Torrecuso (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 3,527 (2006e).

Torre del Greco(NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.

Torre de’ Passeri (PE): A commune in the province of Pescara.

Torre di Ruggiero (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 1,222 (2006e).

Torregrotta (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

Torre le Nocelle (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 1,356 (2006e).

Torremaggiore (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 17,027 (2006e).

Torrenova (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

Torre Orsaia (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Torre Santa Susanna (BR): A commune in the province of Brindisi. Population: 10,606 (2006e).

torre saracena: See Saracen tower.

Torretta (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.

Torrevecchia Teatina (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 1,493 (2006e).

Torricella (TA): A commune in the province of Taranto.

Torricella Peligna (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti.

Torricella Sicura (TE): A commune in the province of Teramo.

Torrioni (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 613 (2006e).

Torrone: a popular traditional nougat confection made with honey, almonds or hazelnuts, and egg whites. There are many varieties found in different parts of Italy.

Tortiglione, Paolo: (b. 1965, in Naples). Composer.

Tortora (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 6,040 (2006e).

Tortorella (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Tortoreto (TE): A commune in the province of Teramo.

Tortorici (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

Tossicia (TE): A commune in the province of Teramo.

Trabia (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.

Traeis fl.: A river in ancient Bruttium, identified with the modern Trionto river in the province ov Cosenza. Its name appears to derive from the Indo-European root *dreu- (‘to run’).

Traetta, Tommaso: (b. 30 March 1727, Bitonto. d. 6 April 1779, Venice). Composer. He studied under Porpora and Durante at the Conservatory of St. Maria di Loreto in Naples. Moving to Rome, he came under the influence of Jommelli. In 1762, he was director of the Mannheim orchestra, and, in 1765, became director of the Conservatorio dell’Ospedaletto at Venice. His works include the opera Sofonisba.

Tramonti (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Tramutola (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

Trani (BA): A commune in the province of Bari: Population: 53,485 (2006e).

Trapani, Province of: A province of Sicily. Population: 434,738 (2007e)

Communes of Trapani Province

Commune

Area

(km˛)

Population

(2007e)

Population

(2006e)

Population

(2001 census)

Population

(1991 census)

Alcamo

130.79

45237

45098

43890

42621

Buseto Palizzolo

72.72

3161

3170

3197

3210

Calatafimi-Segesta

154.79

7292

7341

7496

7636

Campobello di Mazara

65.77

10763

10876

11270

12570

Castellammare del Golfo

127.14

14863

14832

14573

13515

Castelvetrano

206.43

30394

30351

30518

30272

Custonaci

69.57

5150

5079

4814

4571

Erice

47.30

28763

28887

29338

29420

Favignana

37.45

4383

4311

4137

4335

Gibellina

45.02

4468

4533

4677

5027

Marsala

241.64

82337

81884

77784

80177

Mazara del Vallo

275.51

51369

51425

50377

47750

Paceco

58.26

11259

11166

10949

11348

Pantelleria

83.02

7635

7620

7224

7484

Partanna

82.42

11373

11407

11379

11741

Petrosino

44.54

7545

7550

7330

7329

Poggioreale

37.62

1649

1652

1715

1822

Salaparuta

41.68

1771

1771

1835

1889

Salemi

181.71

11274

11356

11578

12321

Santa Ninfa

63.52

5234

5264

5087

5294

San Vito Lo Capo

59.68

4108

4053

3798

3567

Trapani

271.72

70648

70872

68346

69497

Valderice

52.90

11802

11649

11374

10613

Vita

8.88

2260

2288

2435

2701

Total

2,462

434,738

434,435

425121

426710

Trapani (TP): A commune and provincial capital of the province of Trapani.

Trappeto (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.

Trasacco (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 6,143 (2006e).

Trebisacce (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 9,159 (2006e).

Trecase (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.

Trecastagni (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 9,236 (2006e). The name means “three chestnut trees.”

                The principal monument is the Chiesa Madre which was designed by Antonello Gagini. Although better known as a sculptor, Gagini skill as an architect is proven by this structure which is sometimes called “the purest Renaissance building in Sicily.”

Trecchina (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

Treglio (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 1,417 (2006e).

Tremestieri Etneo (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 21,321 (2006e).

Trenta (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 2,722 (2006e).

Trentinara (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Trentola-Ducenta (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population: 15,493 (2006e).

Trepuzzi (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 14,525 (2006e).

Trevico (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 1,191 (2006e).

Tribuzio: Bishop of Capua (rAD 461-483).

Tricarico (MT): A town in the province of Matera located 65 km from Matera. Population: 6,036 (2006e); 6,115 (2004). Alt.: 698 m. Population Designation: Tricaricesi. Patron Saint: S. Potito

                The origin of the town’s name is debated. According to one theory, it derives from the Latin trigarium, a racetrack for horses.

                The existing town was founded in AD 849 by the Lombards as a stronghold. In 1048, the Normans made it the seat of a county.

                The Cathedral of Santa Maria Assunta was constructed by Robert Guiscard in 1061. Near the town is the shrine of Santa Maria delle Fonti, the site of an annual town festival held on the 1st Sunday in May.

                The frazione of Calle has its own patron saint, Madonna del Carmine (Feast Day: July 15).

Tricarico, Diocese of: A diocese in the Ecclesiastical Region of Basilicata.

Suffragans:

Metropolitan: Potenza-Muro Lucano-Marsico Nuovo.

Conference Region: Basilicata.

Area:  1,237 km˛/ mi˛

Total Population: 39,686

Catholic Population:

Total Priests: 36 (Diocesan: 30; Religious: 6)

Permanent Deacons: 0.

Male Religious:

Female Religious:

Parishes: 32

History:

Tricase (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 17,909 (2006e).

triccheballacche: A traditional Neapolitan percussion instrument. Mallets are attached to a wooden frame is create a type of wooden clapper.

Trifanum: A town of the ancient Aurunci mentioned by Livy. It was situated in the modern province of Caserta, in northern Campania, but its exact location remains uncertain.

Triggiano (BA): A commune in the province of Bari: Population: 27,310 (2006e).

trinacria: an ancient symbol depicting three bent legs joined at the thighs by a central head of Medusa to form a triangular shape. It’s three-corners are meant to represent the three points of the island of Sicily.

Trincaria: An ancient name for Sicily. It derives from the triangular shape of the island.

Trinitapoli (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 14,396 (2006e). It is one of the three communes of the province of Foggia which will be transferred to the newly created province of Barletta-Andria-Trani in 2009.

triptych (Ital. trittico): a painting rendered on three adjoining wooden panels.

Tripi (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

trireme: an ancient Greek warship.

Trivento (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 5,168 (2006e).

Trivento, Diocese of: Diocese in the Ecclesiastical Region of Abruzzo-Molise.

Suffragans:

Metropolitan: Campobasso-Boiano.

Conference Region: Abruzzo-Molise.

Area: 1,234 km˛/ mi˛

Total Population: 56,105

Catholic Population:

Total Priests: 72 (Diocesan: 68; Religious: 4)

Permanent Deacons: 1.

Male Religious:

Female Religious:

Parishes: 58.

History:

Trivento (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

Troia (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 7,310 (2006e).

Troina (EN): A commune in the province of Enna. Population: 9,832 (2006e).

trompe l’oeil: a work of art designed to trick the viewer through perspective.

Tropea (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.

Tufara (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso.

Tufillo (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 515 (2006e).

Tufino (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.

Tufo (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 911 (2006e).

Tuglie (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 5,299 (2006e).

Turans: An Etruscan goddess equivalent to the Roman Venus.

Turi (BA): A commune in the province of Bari: Population: 11,339 (2006e).

Turrivalignani (PE): A commune in the province of Pescara.

Tursi (MT): A commune in the province of Matera. Population: 5,327 (2006e).

Tursi-Lagonegro, Diocese of: A diocese in the Ecclesiastical Region of Basilicata.

Suffragans:

Metropolitan: Potenza-Muro Lucano-Marsico Nuovo.

Conference Region: Basilicata.

Area: 2,509 km˛/ mi˛

Total Population: 124,942.

Catholic Population:

Total Priests: 78 (Diocesan: 65; Religious: 13)

Permanent Deacons: 8.

Male Religious:

Female Religious:

Parishes: 71.

History:

Tusa (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

Two Sicilies, Kingdom of the: The name Two Sicilies was used in the Middle Ages to mean the kingdoms of Sicily and of Naples. Alfonso V of Aragon, who in 1442 reunited the two kingdoms under his rule, styled himself king of the Two Sicilies. Under his successors the kingdoms were again separate, but the title was revived during Spanish domination (1504-1713) of both kingdoms and after the accession (1759) of a cadet branch of the Spanish line of Bourbon to Naples and Sicily. Ferdinand IV of Naples (Ferdinand III of Sicily) officially merged the two kingdoms in 1816 and called himself Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies. Both the Sicilians, who thus lost their autonomy, and the pope, who saw his theoretical suzerainty over the two kingdoms ignored, protested the change. A popular uprising (1820) instigated by the Carbonari forced Ferdinand to concede a constitution, but Austrian intervention (1821) after the Congress of Laibach restored his absolute power. The reactionary regimes of his successors Francis I, Ferdinand II, and Francis II finally ended when Sicily and Naples fell to the forces of Garibaldi in 1860. In 1861, Gaeta, Francis’s last fortress, surrendered to Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia, and the Two Sicilies became part of the kingdom of Italy.

                Through most of its history, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies maintained the same overall size. In area it was about 2/3 the size England. In 1843, it was estimated that the mainland portion of the kingdom was c31,600 square miles in size, or about 2,700 square miles larger than Ireland. Another source (The New American Cyclopaedia, 1860 ed. Vol IX) put the area of the kingdom at 41,521 square miles. In 1837, it had a population of over 8 million, of which 6 million inhabited the mainland (or Neapolitan) portion of the kingdom, and the remaining 2 million lived on Sicily and its neighboring smaller islands. Other sources from about the same period give somewhat different figures. Josiah Conder (A Dictionary of Geography, Ancient and Modern. 1834) gives the kingdom an area of 43,000 square miles and a population of 7,450,000.  Henry Howard Brownell (The Eastern, or Old World: Embracing Ancient and Modern Italy. 1862) describes the Two Sicilies as having an area of 42,131 square miles (Naples: 31,621 sq. miles; Sicily: 10,510 sq. miles) and a population of 8,904,472 (Naples: 6,612,892; Sicily: 2,291,580).

tyrannos (Eng. tyrant): an ancient Greek ruler who lacked hereditary rights to hold power.

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