Encyclopedia of Southern Italy G-P

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Ggabella: a term for tax or rent formerly used in Sicily. The term derives from the Arabic kabala (=tax).gabelloto (Lat. gabellotus): A Sicilian term for a person who rents an estate from a landowner and sublets portions of it to peasant farmers; a tax-farmer or the manager of a landowner’s estate. The term derives from gabella = “rent.”Gaeta: A port city in the province of Latina, on the southern coast of Lazio. It formerly was a part of the Campanian province of Caserta. It was a principal citadel for the kingdom of Naples and often served as a sanctuary for both the kings of the Regio and the popes.Rulers of GaetaAD 839-866Constantine: First Hypatus of Gaeta. He was the son of Count Anatolius, a Byzantine Greek noble. He soon raised his son Marinus I to share rule with him.AD 839-866Marinus I. Son of Constantine. He held the title of co-Hypatus and/or comes (count).AD 866-906Docibilis I. He was married to Matrona, daughter of Bonus and probably niece of Constantine. It appears that he overthrew Constantine and Marinus I. He first ruled as prefect, taking the title of hypatus in 877.Soon after taking power he associated his son John I with rule of Gaeta.AD 867/906-933John I Gaetano: A male personal name found mainly in the regions of Campania and Sicily. It derives from an earlier Latin form Caietanus, meaning “inhabitant of Caita (mod. Gaeta).”Gaggi (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.History: Founded in the 9th Century as Hagg (= pilgrim) by the Saracens, the name was changed to Scaggi under the Normans. This eventually evolved into Kaggi, which it remained until 1939, when the name was officially changed to Gaggi. The Norman king Roger II gave the town to the Monastery of Savoca. Afterwards attached to the town of Taormina, in 1639 it became a fief of the Berriles, the Princes Branciforte of Scordia. It later came into the possession of the Marchese De Spuches, remaining a possession of that family until 1760.Gagliano Aterno (AQ): A commune in the province of L‘Aquila. Population: 312 (2006e).Gagliano Castelferrato (EN): A commune in the province of Enna. Population: 3,788 (2006e).Gagliano del Capo (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 5,484 (2006e).Gagliardi, Rosario: (b. 1698, at Siracusa; d. 1762). Architect. A leading promoter of the Sicilian Baroque style, he designed the cathedral at Modica in 1702. Other examples of his work is the domed basilica of S. Giorgio (1744-66), with its great approaching staircase of 250 steps, and many of the palazzi and churches in the rebuilt Noto.Gagliato (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 556 (2006e).Gaius, St.: (dates uncertain). Martyr. With fellow martyrs Fortunatus (1) and Antus, he is one of the patron saints of Salerno.Galati Mamertino (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Galatina (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 27,659 (2006e).Galatone (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 15,884 (2006e).Galatro (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.Gallicchio (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Gallipoli (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 21,204 (2006e). A seaport city in southern Puglia situated on a rocky peninsula on the east coast of the gulf of Taranto. The name derives from the Greek kallipolis (= beautiful town).Gallo Matese (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  719 (2006e).Gallodoro (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Gallonistus: (fl. Mid 7th Century AD). Ecclesiatic. He is the first known bishop of Adria. In 649, he attended a synod in Rome called by Pope Martin I.Galluccio (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  2,342 (2006e).Galofaro: An alternate name for the Capo di Faro.Galugnano (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce.Gambatesa (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 1,635 (2006e).Gamberale (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 369 (2006e).Gamorai: The noble class of ancient Syracuse. It’s members claimed descent from the city’s original colonists.Gangi (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.Garaguso (MT): A commune in the province of Matera. Population: 1,171 (2006e).Gargano, Giovanni: (b. March 1907, Bitonto). Librettist with the Compagnia d’operette.Garigliano, River: A river in south-central Italy.  It forms at the confluence of the rivers Gari (also known as Rapido) and Liri. The name Garigliano actually derives from “Gari-Lirano” (that is “Gari from the Liri”). For the most part of its 40 km length, the Garigliano River marks the border between the Italian regions of Lazio and Campania. Known as the Verde (=Green) river in medieval times, it marked the southern boundary of the Papal States.It was the site of many conflicts throughout history. In 1503, the Spanish under Gonsalvo Fernandez de Cordoba defeated the French beside this river, and heavy fighting took place here during World War II (Nov. 1943-May 1944).Gasparina (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 2,232 (2006e).Gasparis, Annibale de: (b. Apr. or Nov. 9, 1819, Bugnara (AQ); d. Mar. 21, 1892, Naples). Astronomer. Between 1849 and 1865, he discovered 9 asteroids. In 1851, he won the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society. From 1864 to 1889 he was the director of the Capo di Monte Observatory in Naples. He was honored by having asteroid 4279 De Gasparis, the lunar crater de Gasparis, and the lunar Rimae de Gasparis named after him.Gaudiosus, St. (the African)(1): (d. 452 at Naples). Ecclesiastic. Having served as bishop of Abitina in the province of Africa, he was exiled in AD 440, by the Vandal king, Geiseric. He resettled at Naples, where he founded a monastery. Feast Day: Feb. 27.Gaudiosus (2): (fl. 1st half of the 7th century). Ecclesiastic. Bishop of Naples (rAD 637-644).Gaudiosus (3): (fl. middle of the 7th century). Ecclesiastic. Bishop of Salerno (bef. AD 646).  He was apparently related to the Ducal house of Naples. He was succeeded by Luminosus.Gaudiosus (4): Bishop of Capua (r649-660). He was present at the Lateran synod of AD 649.Gela, Ancient: An important city of ancient Sicily. Founded in c688 BC by Greek colonists from Rhodes and Crete, Gela’s name appears to derive from that of the nearby river Gela. The river’s name derives from a Greek verb meaning “smiling.”Gela (CL): A commune in the province of Caltanissetta. Population: 77,245 (2006e).Gelasius I, St.: Pope. (rMar. 1, 492-Nov 21, 496).Gelasius II (John of Gaeta): (b. Gaeta) Pope (rJan 24, 1118-Jan. 28, 1119). He served as the papal chancellor of Pope Paschal II and succeeded him on the papal throneGelon (or Gelo) I: (d. 478 BC). Tyrant of Gela and, later, of Syracuse. Gelon was also a notable athlete. He competed for Gela in the Olympian Games in 488 BC, and was victor of the tethrippon (a four-horse chariot race).Gelon (or Gelo) II: (d. 216 BC). Co-King of Syracuse. The son of Hieron II and Phistis, he was the co-ruler of Syracuse with his father. He married Nereis, a daughter of Pyrrhus of Epirus. The couple had two children; a son, Hieronymus, who succeeded Hieron as king of Syracuse, and a daughter, Harmonia, who was killed by a mob in c214 BC.Gemito, Vincenzo: b. 1852. d. 1929. Sculptor. He flourished in Naples throughout much of the second half of the 19th century and established a bronze foundry there. After suffering a mental breakdown in 1887, he did not resume his career until 1909. Among his works are statues of a Neapolitan Fisherboy and of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.Genetic makeup of Southern Italians: Modern genetic studies show that the modern population of Sicily is closely related to the populations of the southern Italian mainland and of Greece. The North African-Saracen element, once thought to predominate in western Sicily, some little significant genetic contribution.genos (pl. gene): an ancient Greek clan or group of families.Genzano di Lucania (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Geoffrey (Godefroi, Goisfredus) of Hauteville: (b. in Normandy; fl. 2nd half of the 11th century/1st half of the 12th century.). Norman nobleman. A son of Tancred of Hauteville by his first wife Muriella, he arrived in southern Italy in c1053 with his half-brothers Mauger and William. Soon after his arrival, he participated in the Battle of Civitate (June 18, 1053).Gerace (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.Geraci Siculo (Sic. Giraci or Iraggi)(PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.Gerard (Gerardus), Blessed: (originally surnamed Tum, Tune, Tenque or Thom). b. c1040, probably Sasso di Scalo, near Amalfi; d. Sept. 3, 1120, Jerusalem. Founder of the Order of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem (aka Knights Hospitaller, Knights of Rhodes, Knights of Malta, and Cavaliers of Malta). Although some sources claim that he was born in Martigues in Provence, or at the Chateau d’Avesnes in Hainaut, most reliable authorities make him a native of Amalfi. Having arrived in Palestine as a soldier or merchant at the end of the 11th Century, he joined other Amalfitans who operated a hospice at Jerusalem which cared for Christians pilgrims. Around c1100, he became provost of this group and reorganized it into the religious Order of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem.Gerberto: Archbishop of Capua (r 977-981).Germanus, S.: (fl. 1st part of the 6th century). Ecclesiastic. Bishop of Capua (rAD 516-540). In AD 519, he was among the legates sent by Pope Hormisdas to Constantinople.Gerocarne (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.Gervasius (1): (fl. mid 4th century). Ecclesiastic. He is listed as the first known bishop of Bari and was present at the council of Sardica in AD 347.Gervasius (2): (fl. 2nd part of the 7th century). Ecclesiastic. He was bishop of Taranto in AD 659.Gessopalena (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 1,624 (2006e).Gesualdo (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 3,691 (2007e); 3,760 (2006e).Gesualdo, Carlo: b. Mar. 8, 1566, Venosa. d. Sept. 8, 1613. Nobleman and composer. The Prince of Venosa, he is best known for being involved in a grisly scandal. Having discovered his wife in bed with the Duke of Anzio, he had the latter killed by his henchmen. He then savagely murdered his wife with his own hand, disemboweling her and slitting her throat. The guilt he suffered from this act eventually drove him insane. He died of blood-poisoning caused by chronic constipation. Despite his sordid personal life, he was a brilliant composer of 6 madrigal books, 2 sacrae cantiones and 1 libro di responsorial.Ghibellines (Ghibellini): the pro-imperial faction during the secular power struggle between the Holy Roman Emperors and the papacy. They were powerful supporters of the Swabian rulers in Naples/Sicily but concentrated mostly in northern Italy after the conquest of the Regno by Charles I of Anjou. Their opponents were the pro-papal Guelfs (Guelfi). Their name derives from the German Waiblingen, a castle in SW Germany belonging to the Hohenstaufens.Giano Vetusto (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  649 (2006e).Giaquinto, Corrado: (b. 1703, Molfetta; d. 1765, Naples). Painter. A pupil of F. Solimena in Naples, he moved to Rome in 1723. Most of his subsequent career was spent there except for visits to Turin and Madrid (1753-1762). In Spain he was an official painter of Ferdinand VI and a director of the Royal Academy of Painting. He returned to Naples in 1765 and died shortly after. Principal Works: Capella Ruffo [S. Lorenzo in Damaso, Rome, 1734].Villa della Regina [near Turin, 1733, 1739-40].San Giovanni Calibita [Rome, 1740-41].Santa Croce in Gerusalemme (Rome, 1744-1745).Palazzo Reale [Madrid, 1755].Palazzo Reale [Aranjuez, Spain].Giardinello (Sic. Jardineddu)(PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.Giardini Naxos (ME): A commune in the province of Messina. It was from here, on August 9, 1860, that Garibaldi embarked for his invasion of the Italian mainland.Giarratana (RG): A commune in the province of Ragusa.Giarre (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 26,932 (2006e).Gibellina (TP): A commune in the province of Trapani.Giffone (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.Giffoni Sei Casali (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Giffoni Valle Piana (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Gildone (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 845 (2006e).Gimigliano (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 3,389 (2006e).Ginestra (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Ginestra degli Schiavoni (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population:  565 (2006e).Ginosa (TA): A commune in the province of Taranto.Gioi (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Gioia dei Marsi (AQ): A commune in the province of L‘Aquila. Population: 2,288 (2006e).Gioia del Colle (BA): A commune in the province of Bari. Population: 27,736 (2006e).Gioia Sannitica (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  3,611 (2006e).Gioia Tauro (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.Gioiosa Ionica (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.Gioiosa Marea (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Gioja, Flavio: (b. Amalfi, Naples, or Positano; fl. 1302). Inventor and marine pilot. He is credited with perfecting the sailor’s compass by suspending a magnetized needle over a fleur-de-lis design. The needle was enclosed in a small box with a glass cover. The compass had already been in use in the Mediterranean for some time before Gioja. Marco Polo is sometimes credited with bringing the compass back from China. While the Chinese did indeed develop a compass, there is evidence that a primitive device based on a lodestone was used by the ancient Greek mariners. Gioja’s decision to use the French fleur-de-lis design for his compass to win the support of the king of Naples, the French-born Charles I of Anjou.Giordani, Giuseppe (called Giordanello): (b. 19 Dec. 1745, Naples. d. 4 January 1798, Fermo, Italy). Composer. The son of singer and composer Carmine Giordani, he studied music at Conservatory of Loreto at Naples. In 1771, he produced his first opera at Naples. In 1791 he became Maestro di Capella at Fermo Cathedral. During his career he wrote over 30 operas and oratorios. The canzonetta Caro Mio Ben is attributed to him.Giordano, Luca: (b. 1634, Naples. d. 1705, Naples). Painter. A pupil of J. Ribera, he moved to Rome in 1656 where he came under the influence of Pietro da Cortona and other members of the Neo-Venetian school. He produced a number of copies of Renaissance-era masterpieces, working with such speed and simplicity that he earned the nickname “Luca Fapresto.” He visited several cities in northern Italy including Bologna, Parma, Florence and Venice. From 1692 to 1702, he was a court painter to the Spanish king Charles II. Principal Works:Storie della Vergine [church of S. Maria della Salute, Venice, 1667].Church of Sant’Agostino degli Scalzi [Naples, 1658].Church of San Gregorio Armeno [Naples].Church of Santa Brigida [Naples].Ceiling of the Gallery in Palazzo Medici-Riccardi [Florence, 1682-1702].Paintings in Escorial, Palazzo Reale, and Prado [all Madrid, 1692-1702].Frescoes in the Capella del Tesoro di San Martino [Naples, 1704].Giordano, Umberto Menotti Maria: (b. 26 Aug. 1867, Foggia. d. 12 Nov. 1948, Milan). Composer. Having received his musical education at the Royal College of Music in Naples, he produced his first opera, Marina, in that city. Moving to Milan, he achieved only minor success until 1896 when he produced his opera Andrea Chenier. His work in similar to that of Puccini and Leoncavallo.Giovanna I: See Joanna I, Queen of Naples (r1343-1382).Giovanna II: See Joanna II, Queen of Naples (r1414-1435).Giovanni: Bishop of Capua (r ?-966). Archbishop of Capua (r966-973).Giovanni (John) II: Duke of Naples (AD 915-919). He was the probable son of Gregory IV and the probable father of Marino (Marinus) I.Giovanni (John) III: Duke of Naples (AD 928-963). He was the probable son of Marino (Marinus) I and the father of Marino (Marinus) II. He married Teodora (Theodora) of Byzantium.Giovanni (John) IV: (d. 1002). Duke of Naples (AD 999-1002). He was the son of Sergius (Sergio) III and the father of Landolfo.Giovinazzo (BA): A commune in the province of Bari. Population: 20,827 (2006e).Giratiosus: (fl. 1st half of the 7th century). Ecclesiastic. Bishop of Naples. He succeeded Caesarius in either AD 638 or 641, and was succeeded by Eusebius in either AD 646 or 649.Girgenti: Former name for Agrigento.Girifalco (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 6,390 (2006e).Gissi (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 3,034 (2006e).Giuggianello (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 1,232 (2006e).Giugliano in Campania (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.Giuliana (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.Giuliani, Mauro: (b. 27 July 1781, Bisceglie. d. 8 May 1829, Naples). Composer and musician. He is considered one of the greatest guitar virtuosos of the 19th century. During the course of his career he produced 150 compositions for guitar.Giuliano Teatino (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 1,328 (2006e).Giulianova (TE): A commune in the province of Teramo.Giungano (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Giurdignano (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 1,802 (2006e).Gizzeria (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 3,946 (2006e).gnorimoi: ancient Greek term for the noble or aristocratic class. The term is synonymous with eupatridai.Godrano (Sic. Cutranu) (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.Goffredo: Archbishop of Capua (r 1137-1157).Gorgias of Leotini: (fl. c485-380 BC). Greek sophist.Gorgoglione (MT): A commune in the province of Matera. Population: 1,094 (2006e).Goriano Sicoli (AQ): A commune in the province of L‘Aquila. Population: 595 (2006e).Gragnano (NA): A town of Campania located about 2 miles E of Castellammare di Stabia.Grammichele (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 13,145 (2006e).Gran Sasso (d’Italia): A massif of the Abruzzian Apennines. Its principal summit, Monte Corno (alt. 10,154 feet; 2,914 meters), is the high point of the Apennine chain.Grand Duke (Ital. Granduca): A title of recent origins, created to distinguish certain sovereign Dukes from simple Dukes.Graniti (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.grano: a coin used in the kingdom of Naples, equivalent in value to 2 tornesi or 3 quattrini, 12 cavalli. Until 1784, it was equal to 0.0437 lire. From 1784 to 1814, it was valued at 0.0425 lire.Grassano (MT): A commune in the province of Matera. Population: 5,618 (2006e).Gratteri (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.Gravina di Catania (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 27,982 (2006e).Gravina in Puglia (BA): A commune in the province of Bari. Population: 43,671 (2006e).Grazzanise (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  6,835 (2006e).Greci (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 840 (2006e).Greek Colonies in Magna Graecia and Sicily:ColonyRegionYear Founded (BCE)Mother City/RegionAkragasSicily580GelaAlaliaCorsica546PhocaeaAnconaItaly390Sicilian refugeesCumaeCampania730-25Chalcis & Cyme (Euboea)EliaLucania535PhocaeaEnnaSicily633SyracuseGelaSicily688Rhodes/CreteHeracleaLucania443/2Taras & ThourioiHimeraSicily649/48Zancle & EuobeaKamarinaSicily599/98SyracuseKauloniaBruttium675Kroton/AchaeaKataneSicily729Naxos & ChalcisKrotonBruttium710AchaeaKyme (Cumae)Campania750ChalcisLaosLucania510SybarisLeontinoiSicily734ChalcisLiparaoff Sicily580KnidosLokri EpizephyrioiBruttiumearly 7th centuryLokris OpuntiaMegara HyblaeaSicily728MegaraMetapontionLucania770-720AchaeaMylaeSicily717/16ZancleNaxosSicily734ChalcisNeapolisCampania650Cumae (Kyme)NolaCampaniaPre 500Chalcis (dubious)Pithekoussai(Ischia)Campania775-750Chalkis & EretriaPoseidoniaLucania625-600SybarisRhegiumBruttium743-720ZancleSelinusSicily628Megara HyblaeaSirisItaly670KolophonSybarisBruttium720AchaeaSyracuseSicily734CorinthTarasCalabria706SpartaTerinaBruttium6th centuryKrotonTyndarisSicily396Sparta/SyracuseVeliaLucania530Phocaea  Gregory I “the Great”, St: (b. cAD 540, Rome; d. Mar. 12, 604, Rome). Pope. (r Sept 3, 590- Mar 12, 604). He succeeded Pelasgius II and was succeeded by Sabinian.Gregory II, St.: Pope. (rMay 19, 715-Feb 11, 731).Gregory III: Pope. (rMar 18, 731-Nov 28, 741).Gregory III: (d. AD 870). Duke of Naples (AD 865-870). He was the son of Sergius (Sergio) I and the father of Sergius (Sergio) II.Gregory IV: Pope. (r827-Jan 844).Gregory IV: Duke of Naples (AD 898-915) and Byzantine Patrician. He was the son of Sergius (Sergio) II and the probable father of Giovanni (John) II.Gregory V: Pope. (rMay 3, 996-Feb 18, 999).Gregory VI: Pope. (rApr/May 1045-Dec 20, 1046).Gregory VII, St: Pope. (rApr. 22, 1073-May 25, 1085).Gregory VIII: Pope. (rOct 21-Dec 17, 1187).Gregory IX: Pope. (rMarch 19, 1227-Aug 22, 1241).Gregory X: Pope. (rSept 1, 1271-Jan 10, 1276).Gregory XI: Pope. (rDec 30, 1370-March 26, 1378).Gregory XII: Pope. (rNov 30, 1406-July 4, 1415).Gregory XIII: Pope. (rMay 13, 1572-Apr 10, 1585).Gregory XIV: Pope. (rDec 5, 1590-Oct 15/16, 1591).Gregory XV: Pope. (rFeb 9, 1621-July 8, 1623).Gregory XVI: Pope. (rFeb. 2, 1831-June 1, 1846).Gricignano di Aversa (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  9,479 (2006e).Griko: A modern Greek dialect spoken in two small areas on the southern Italian mainland.Grimaldi (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,820 (2006e).Grimoald I: (b. cAD 610-671). Duke of Benevento (AD 651-662). He was king of the Lombard Kingdom of Italy from 662 to 671/2.Grisolia (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 2,420 (2006e).Grottaglie (TA): A commune in the province of Taranto. Its name derives from the caves (grottos) and ravines carved into the local limestone.Grottaminarda (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 8,336 (2006e).Grotte: A commune in the province of Agrigento. Population: 6,050 (2006e).Grotteria (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.Grottole (MT): A commune in the province of Matera. Population: 2,518 (2006e).Grottolella (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 1,935 (2006e).Grumento Nova (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Grumo Appula (BA): A commune in the province of Bari. Population: 12,797 (2006e).Grumo Nevano (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.Guagnano (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 6,050 (2006e).Guaimar: Prince of Capua (1038-1047). Also Prince of Salerno.Gualtieri Sicamino (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Gualtiero: (fl. late 12th century). Bishop of Troia and Grand Chancellor of Sicily in 1195.Gualtiero da Ocre: Grand Chancellor of Sicily under King Manfred.Gualtiero de Palearia: (fl. early 13th century). Grand Chancellor of Sicily in 1206.Guardavalle (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 5,117 (2006e).Guardia Lombardi (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 1,937 (2006e).Guardia Perticara (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Guardia Piemontese (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,567 (2006e).Guardia Sanframondi (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population:  5,472 (2006e).Guardiagrele (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 9,621 (2006e).Guardialfiera (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 1,196 (2006e).Guardiaregia (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 784 (2006e).Guelfs (Guelphs, Guelfi): the pro-papal faction who battled the Ghibellines during the struggle for secular power in Italy between the Popes and the Holy Roman Emperors. The Guelf power was established in southern Italy after Charles I of Anjou conquered the Regno in 1266.Guglielmino, Francesco: (b. 1872, Aci Catena (CT). d. 1956, teacher, classical scholar and poet.Guglielmo: Archbishop of Capua (r 1135-?).Guglionesi (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 5,365 (2006e).Guido of Anagti: (fl. 2nd part of the 12th Century). Ecclesiastic. While serving as bishop of Cefalù, in AD 1187-88, he ceded to the Jews of Syracuse a tract of land to enlarge their cemetery.Guilmi (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 473 (2006e).Guiscard, Robert: See Robert Guiscard.HHackert, Philipp: (b. Prenzlau, 1737; d. Florence, 1807). Painter. In 1782 he came to Naples where he became principal painter to his friend King Ferdinand IV. Among his works was a series of victories of the Russian navy, views of the seaports of Naples and Sicily, and several Italian landscapes.Hades (Ades): (1)Greek god of the Underworld. He was the equivalent to the Roman god Pluto.                (2) The ancient Greek Underworld or land of the dead.Hadrian (Publius Aelius [H]adrianus): (b. Rome or Italica, Spain, Jan. 24, AD 76; d. Baiae, July 16, 138). Roman Emperor (rAD 117-138).Halesa: See Alaesa.Halesus, River: See Alaesus river.Halex River: See Alex River.Haluntium: See Aluntium.Hamilcar (Abd-Melqart = “servant of Melqart”) Barca (1): (d. 480 BC). Carthaginian general. The son of Hanno Sabellus, a Carthaginian general, Hamilcar’s mother was a Greek from Syracuse. His brother, Hasdrubal, was also a well-known commander who campaigned in Sardinia. In 480 BC, Hamilcar was invited by Terillus, the deposed tyrant of Himera, to invade Greek Sicily and restore him to power. Hamilcar saw this as an opportunity for an even grander scheme and formed a large army and navy capable of conquering the entire island for Carthage. He advanced eastwards and laid siege to Himera, on the north coast of Sicily. The city was defended by Theron, the tyrant of Akragas, who appealed for help to Gelon of Syracuse. Gelon, knowing that he was no match for Hamilcar’s forces in a pitched battle, devised a ruse. Learning that Hamilcar was awaiting the arrival of Greek mercenaries, Gelon successfully pretended that his army was the awaited force. By the time the Carthaginians had discovered their mistake, Gelon men were inside the enemy camp. The surprise was total and the Carthaginians were completely routed. Hamilcar, who had been engaged in offering burnt sacrifices at a pyre when the attack took place, realized that his situation was hopeless. Rather than face capture, he threw himself into the flames and was completely comsumed.                Hamilcar’s son, Gesco, was unable to return home in Carthage because of his father’s disgrace and took refuge in the western Greek city of Selinus where he lived as an exile. Gesco’s son, Hannibal Barca (1), later avenged his grandfather’s defeat and death by leading his own invasion of Greek Sicily in 410 BC. When he captured Himera, Hannibal had 3,000 Greek captives cruelly tortured and offered up as human sacrifices to the honor of his grandfather Hamilcar.Hamilcar: (fl. 2nd half of 4th century BC). Carthaginian general. He was a Carthaginian commander (strategus) who was defeated by Timoleon at the battle of Crimissus in 339 BC. It is unknown whether he survived the battle but a new commander, Gisco, was appointed as the new commander soon after.Hannibal (Hanba’al = “mercy of Baal”) Barca (1): (d. 406 BC). Carthaginian general. He was the son of Gesco, and the grandson of Hasbrubal Barca (1). Hannibal had a life-long hatred of the Greeks because of the defeat of his grandfather at Himera in 480 BC. In 410 BC, an opportunity for revenge presented itself when a war broke out between Greek Selinus and Elymian Segesta. The latter appealed for help to their ally, Carthage, while Selinus did the same with Syracuse, the most powerful Greek city in Sicily.                In 409 or 408 BC, Hannibal arrived in Sicily with a large army and launched an attack on Selinus and captured the city. This, however, was only his first step against the Greeks. Moving eastwards, he captured Himera, the site of Hasdrubal’s defeat and death seventy-two years earlier. Hannibal then committed an act meant both to avenge the death of Hasdrubal and instill fear in his Greek enemies. Taking 3,000 Greek captives, he had them tortured and sacrificed to the spirit of his grandfather. He then returned to Carthage where he was welcomed as a hero.                While Hannibal was in Carthage, Syracuse was torn apart by a civil war which disrupted the city and left it without effective leadership. The Carthaginians took advantage of the situation, sending Hannibal back to Sicily in 406 BC. He established a new city, Thermae, on the north coast of the island, populating it with the Greek survivors of the now-destroyed Himera. He then launched a new invasion of Greek Sicily, leading his army against Akragas. His force consisted of Carthage’s best elite troops, along with Iberian, Campanian, Baleric and Libyan mercenaries. Akragas was well-defended with a force of its own, supported by Greek Siciliot allies from Syracuse, Gela, Kamarina, Messana, and several Greek cities from Magna Graecia. They also had units of paid Greek and Campanian mercenaries. Both armies were well-matched and Hannibal was unable to break the city’s defense. As the Carthaginians laid siege to Akragas, their camp was struck with plague. As the sickness spread, it claimed many lives including Hannibal. His command was taken over by his relative, Himilco, who, in the spring of 405 BC, finally captured Akragas. The campaign which began as Hannibal’s personal vendetta against the Greeks continued on after his death. In the end, the Carthaginians failed to drive the Greeks from Sicily but secured Carthage’s hold on the western part of the island.Hannibal (Hanba’al = “mercy of Baal”) Barca (2): Carthaginian general, born in 247 BCE, son of Hamilcar Barca; traveled with his father to conquer Spain when he was nine; from age 18 to 25, Hannibal carried out his brother-in-law Hasdrubal’s plan to consolidate Carthaginian rule on the Iberian Peninsula; Hasdrubal was assassinated in 221 BCE and Hannibal was chosen to lead the Carthaginian army in Spain; by 219 BCE, Hannibal had gained control of Spain between the Tajo and Iberus rivers, with the exception of Saguntum, which he captured in 218 BCE; Hannibal had violated Carthage’s treaty with Rome and Rome declared war on Carthage, thus began the Second Punic War; in 218 BCE, Hannibal marched with 40,000 troops to Rome, allying himself with various tribes and Italian cities along the way; in 211 BCE, Hannibal attempted to take Rome but failed to breakthrough the Roman fortifications; the Romans would retake Capua and the Italian allies of Hannibal were lost to him as a result; Hannibal’s brother, Hasdrubal, was called to help Hannibal in Italy but on his march from Spain, Hasdrubal was defeated and killed by the Roman consul Gaius Claudius Nero in the Battle of the Metaurus River; Hannibal returned to Carthage to defend against the Roman invasion led by Scipio Africanus the Elder in 203 BCE; the Roman invasion was successful and the Second Punic War ended in 202 BCE; always the leader and hater of Rome, Hannibal changed the Carthaginian constitution, reduced corruption in the government, and re-financed the city so that he could fight again; the Romans took Hannibal’s actions as a break in the peace and forced Hannibal to flee to Syria and the safety the court of King Antiochus III; Hannibal fought with the Syrians against Rome, but when the Syrians signed a treaty with Rome Hannibal fled again in 195 BCE this time to King Prusias II of Bithynia, in northern Asia Minor; when the Romans demanded his surrender, Hannibal committed suicide in 183 BCE.Hatria: Ancient name for Atri (TE).Hauteville (Altavilla) Dynasty: The first dynasty of the Kingdom of Sicily that ruled from 1130 to 1198. Originally a family of petty nobles from lower Normandy, many attempts have been made to connect them with more ancient and royal roots. These, however, are highly suspect and their origins remain obscure. According to one story, they were descended from a Norman named Hialt, who had founded a small village called Hialtys Villa (= “High Town”), in the Cotentin region of Normandy. It is from this village, whose location remains controversial, that the family derived its name. Many scholars identify it with Hauteville-la-Guishard.The family’s first member of any note was a minor noble named Tancred, whose children and other descendents played important roles in the formation of the kingdom of Sicily, the Crusades and ever in English history.Heiponion: A city of ancient Bruttium. Ancient name for Vibo Valentia.Hellenistic period: Greek chronological term; in Sicily and Southern Italy it lasted from 323 to 241 BC.Henry VI: (b.1165; d: near Messina, 1197). Holy Roman Emperor (r1190-1197). King of Sicily (r 1194-1197). He was the son of Emperor Frederick I “Barbarossa” and Beatrice (Beatrix) of Burgundy. Elected as King of the Romans at the age of 4, he succeeded his father as Emperor in 1190. Through his wife Constance, daughter of the late Roger II, he laid claim to the throne of Sicily when William II died. In 1191, upon being crowned at Rome, Henry made an unsuccessful attempt to invade the Sicilian kingdom. In 1193, he bribed Duke Leopold of Austria to turn his famous hostage, King Richard I of England, over to him. About a year later, Richard was freed after the payment of a huge ransom. Henry used this windfall to finance the creation of a new army and launched another expedition against Sicily. This time, Henry was successful and crowned king of Sicily at Palermo in 1194. He was the father of the famous Emperor Frederick II “the Great.”Henry VII: King of Sicily (nominally king under his father, Frederick II) (r1212-1217).Hephaestiades: See Aeoliae Insulae.Heraclea: ancient Greek city, in Lucania, S Italy, not far from the Gulf of Tarentum (Taranto). There Pyrrhus defeated the Romans in 280 B.C. Bronze tablets giving Roman municipal laws were found nearby.Heraclettus (Heraklettos, Heraclitus): (b. Tarentum; fl. late 4th century BC). Harpist. A member of Alexander the Great’s court, he was one of the performers at the mass-marriage ceremony at Susa in 324 BC.Heraclia: (fl. 3rd century BC). Syracusan noblewoman. A daughter of Hieron II, she was the wife of Zoippos. In 214 BC, she, along with her sister Damarata, and mother Philitis, were murdered by a mob.Herculaneum (mod. Ercolano): An ancient city of Campania, destroyed in AD 79 by the same eruption of Mt. Vesuvius that buried Pompeii. The city lay at the W base of the volcano and was buried by the pyroclastic material discharged during the eruption. The site of the city was not rediscovered until 1709.Herculis promontorium: (mod. Capo Spartivento). A headland of Bruttium, it is the southernmost point on mainland Italy.Herdonia (mod. Ordona): A town in ancient Apulia. It was destroyed by Hannibal during the Second Punic War, and its inhabitants were dispersed to Thurii and Metapontum. Although it was later rebuilt by the Romans, it remained a place of no consequence.Hereditagium: A Late Latin term used in Neapolitan and Sicilian law, referring to something that is held by hereditary right.Herennia Gens: An ancient Roman gens (or clan). Of Samnite origins, the Herennii had established themselves in Campania prior to the Samnite/Roman wars. Immigrating to Rome, they became an influential plebian house whose members distinguished themselves during the Samnite and Punic wars. They were the hereditary patrons of the Marii.Hermocrates: (fl. late 5th century BC). Syracusan statesman and general. At the peace conference of Gela (424 BC), he warned the Sikels about dealing with the Athenians. Later at Syracuse (418-416 BC) he issued a similar warning about Athens. During the subsequent Athenian expedition against Syracuse, he played an important role in the city’s defense, serving as advisor (415), plenipotentiary general (414), and advisor to the Spartan general Gylippus (413). In 412 BC, he was sent as admiral to Asia. Following the battle of Cyzicus (410 BC), while still serving in this post, he was exiled in absentia by the radical democracy led by his enemy Diolcles, which had taken power in Syracuse. Thanks to a financial gift from Pharnabazus, the Persian satrap of either Dascylium or Hellespontine Phrygia, Hermocrates returned to Sicily with a private army. He moved to the western part of the island, seizing control of Selinus, and using it as a base to raid Carthaginian territory. After his attempt to win amnesty from Syracuse failed in 408 BC, he attempted to seize control of that city with the help of local supporters. Among the latter was Dionysius I, the future tyrant. Hermocrates’s attack, however, failed and led to his death. It is uncertain whether he planned to set up a tyranny himself although he was known to be a strong opponent of radical democracy.Hernici: A people of ancient Italy of Sabine origins who lived in Latium between the Lago di Fucino and River Sacco. They were bounded by the Volsci on the south and by the Aequi and Marsi on the north. They were able to maintain their independence and strength for some time, finally coming into conflict with the Romans in 362 BC. In 306 BC, their chief town Anagria (mod. Anagri) was captured by the Romans who turned it into a prefecture. The other Hernician towns of Ferentinum, Aletrium and Verulae continued to maintain their independence. The Hernici disappear as an independent people by 225 BC and it is assumed that they had been granted full Roman citizenship and had been entirely absorbed by that time.Herodotus: historian of the Persian Wars.hetaireia: in ancient Greek term for a club or an association of citizens.Hiera (mod. Marettimo): The westernmost of the seven principal islands of the Aeoliae Insulae (Aeolian Islands), off the N coast of Sicily.Hieron I: Tyrant of Syracuse (r478-467 BC). He was victor in the Horse Race at the Olympian Games in 476 BC and 472 BC. In 468 BC, he was victorious there in the Tethrippon.Hieron II: (b. 305 BC; d. 215 BC). King of Syracuse (r270-215 BC). The illegitimate son of a Syracusan noble named Hierocles, he claimed to be a descendant of Gelon, tyrant of Syracuse (r485 BC-478 BC). After serving on the staff of Pyrrhus of Epirus, he became the commander of Syracuse’s army in 275 BC. He married the daughter of Leptines, a powerful and wealthy nobleman of the city. After defeating the Mamertines near Mylae (mod. Milazzo), he was proclaimed king by the Syracusans in 270 BC. In 264 BC, he continued his war with the Mamertines, intending to break their power in NE Sicily. The Mamertines appealed to both the Carthaginians and Romans for help to defend their base at Messana, creating a crisis that sparked off the First Punic War. The arrival of a Roman army under Appius Claudius Caudex to support the Mamertines motivated Hieron to form an alliance with the Carthaginian commander Hanno. When the latter was defeated by the Romans, Hieron withdrew back to Syracuse. In 263 BC, faced with a probable attack by the Romans, Hieron agreed to sign a treaty of alliance with Appius Claudius. In return for support against the Carthaginians, Hieron was guaranteed his throne and control over SE Sicily. Hieron thereafter remained a loyal ally of Rome throughout the remainder of his long reign.                In general, Hieron’s reign was a prosperous one for Syracuse. He was free to build up his kingdom’s defenses with the blessings of the Romans. His court was center for art and science. Hieron encouraged his kinsman Archimedes in his education and studies.                When Hieron died in 215 BC at age 90, he was succeeded by grandson Hieronymus but the latter’s youth and inexperience left him vulnerable to the plots of his guardians. The peace and stability created by Hieron quickly fell into strife and chaos.Hilarius, St.: Pope. (rNov 19, 440-Feb 29, 468).Himera: ancient city on the north coast of Sicily, founded by Greeks in the 7th cent. B.C. Here in 480 B.C. (a traditional date) forces led by Gelon routed the Carthaginians led by Hamilcar. Years later the Carthaginians destroyed (409 B.C.) the city. The citizens moved to nearby Thermae (modern Termini). The poet Stesichorus was born in Himera.Hipponium (mod Vibo Valentia): A colony in Bruttium founded in c600 BC by Greeks from Locri Epizephyrii. Although little is known of its history, the city attempted to resist Dionysius I of Syracuse in 388 BC but was captured and sacked. It later managed to successfully rebel against Syracuse but, in c356-4 BC, it was captured by the Bruttians.                In 192 BC, the Romans founded the Latin colony of Vibo Valentia on the site of Hipponium. It grew into a flourishing city and attained the status of a municipium.Hippostratos: An athlete of ancient Kroton. He was victor in the Stadion at the Olympian Games in 564 BC and 560 BC.Histonium: Ancient name for Vasto.Historical Periods, Sicilian: Note that certain gaps showing in the chart below were periods where there was no clear dominating culture in Sicily. Certain periods showing overlapping years were times when the island was divided or undergoing transition from one ruling culture to another.PeriodTime SpanBronze Agec2500-c900 BCIron Agec900-c734 BCArchaic periodc734-c480 BCHellenistic period323-241 BCRoman period241 BC-AD 476Byzantine periodAD 533-902Saracen periodAD 827-1093Norman period1061-1194Swabian period1194-1265Angevin period1265-1288Aragonese period1288-1458Spanish period1458-1713Savoyard period1713-1720Austrian period1720-1734Bourbon period1734-1860Italian Period1860-present
Hohenstaufen Dynasty: Swabian (German) dynasty which ruled the Regno from 1194 to 1266.Holy Father: An honorific for the Pope.Honorius I: Pope. (rOct 27, 625-Oct 12, 638).Honorius II: Pope. (rDec 15, 1124-Feb 13, 1130).Honorius III: Pope. (rJuly 18, 1216-Mar 1227).Honorius IV: Pope. (rApr 2, 1285-Apr. 3, 1287).Horace: (full name: Quintus Horatius Flaccus). Roman satirical poet; born 65 BCE in Venusia. His father was believed to have been a manumitted slave. His family had enough wealth to allow Horace to study in Athens from 46 to 44 BCE. His “base” roots did not prevent him from joining the staff of M. Brutus in Asia (c43 BCE) and he fought at the Battle of Philippi. Following this defeat and the subsequent suicides of Cassius and Brutus, Horace left the military and began writing in 41 BCE. In c39/38 BCE he was he was already friends with fellow poets Vergil and Varius, who introduced him to C. Cilnius Maecenas, a leading patron of the arts. Horace published his first book of satires in 35 BCE and his second in 31 BCE. Horace’s Epistles 2.1 to Augustus were commissioned and published in 12 BCE. Horace died suddenly in 8 BCE.Hormisdas, St.: Pope. (rJuly 20, 514-July 19, 523). He was the father of Pope Silverius (r536-537).Horta: Etruscan goddess of agriculture.Humphrey: Count of Apulia (r1051-1057).Hyele: Original name for the ancient city of Velia (Elea).Hyginus, St.: Pope. (rAD 136/138 – 140/142).Hyperbios: an athlete of ancient Syracuse. He was victor in the Stadion at the Olympian Games in 420 BC.Hyrium (or Uria): A city of ancient Apulia. 
Iapyges (Iapygians)
: An ancient Indo-European people of Illyrian origin related to the Messapii, who inhabited the heel of Italy prior to their absorption by the Romans. The Messapii can, in fact, be considered the southernmost Iapygian tribe.
Idrisi (sometimes Edrisi), Abu Abdullah Mohammed ben Mohammed: (b. Spain, 1099). Muslim scholar and geographer. He spent many years at the court of the Norman king Roger II at Palermo where, in c1150, he created a giant silver globe of the world showing the latest geographical knowledge to that time. He also composed an accompanying volume in Arabic. From the description of this globe and volume, it appears that Idrisi had knowledge of the African lakes which formed the sources of the Nile.
Ikkos: an athlete of ancient Taras. He was victor in the Pentathlon at the Olympian Games in 444 BC.
Inarime: Ancient name for Ischia.
Innocent I, St.: Pope. (rDec 22, 401-March 12, 417).
Innocent II: Pope. (rFeb 14, 1130-Sept 24, 1143).
Innocent III: Pope. (rJan 8, 1198-July 16, 1216).
Innocent IV: Pope. (rJune 25, 1243- Dec 7, 1254).
Innocent V: Pope. (rJan 21-June 22, 1276).
Innocent VI: Pope. (rDec 18, 1352-Sept 12, 1362).
Innocent VII: Pope. (rOct 17, 1404-Nov 6, 1406).
Innocent VIII: Pope. (rAug 29, 1484-July 25, July 25, 1492).
Innocent IX: Pope. (rOct 29-Dec 30, 1591).
Innocent X: Pope. (rSept 15, 1644-Jan 7, 1655).
Innocent XI: Pope. (rSept 21, 1676-Aug 11/12, 1689).
Innocent XII: (original name: Antonio Pignatelli del Rastrello). (b. March 13, 1616, in Spinazzola; d. Sept. 27, 1700, Rome). Pope (rJuly 12, 1691- Sept 27, 1700). Having served as Apostolic Nuncio to Poland and Austria, he became a cardinal in 1681. He served as archbishop of Lecce in 1671 and archbishop of Naples (1686-1691) before being elected pope in 1691.
Innocent XIII: Pope. (rMay 8, 1721-Mar. 7, 1724).
Inscripition Painter: (fl. 570 BC – 530 BC). Vase-Painter. A Greek artist centered at Rhegion (modern Reggio di Calabria). He was the founder and leading artist of the Chalcidian School of vase-painting. Working in the black-figure technique, the Inscription Painter decorated mostly large vases: amphorai, hydriai, and kraters. He was very careful to coordinate the shape of the vase with its decoration. His style is marked by the use of large areas of added red and white, little inner detail on the figures, and a balance of light and dark areas. His style was influenced by those of Athens, Corinth, and Ionian Greece. His name derives from the inscriptions he added to his works.Intenente: A provincial governor under the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. These officials were appointed by the king and served for a period of three years. The Indendente exercised power over the civil, financial, and military administration of his province. Supporting the Intenente was a secretary and a council, although the number of councilors depended on the importance of the province.: first class (Napoli, Terra di Lavoro, Principato Citra): 5 members; second class (Principato Ultra, Basilicata, Capitanata, Terra di Bari, Terra d’Otranto, Calabria Citra, Calabria Ultra II): 4 members; third class (Calabria Ultra I, Molise, Abruzzi): 3 members.
Interamia Praetutiorum: Ancient name for Teramo. Located in southern Picenum, at the confluence of the rivers Vezzola and Tordino, it was originally founded by the Praetutii.
Introdacqua (AQ): A commune in the province of L‘Aquila. Population: 2,027 (2006e).
investiture: the appointment of bishops and archbishops in the Roman Catholic Church.Iolaus: A figure in ancient Greek mythology, he was a kinsman and companion of Heracles. He is usually identified asbeing the son of Iphicles, the half-brother of Heracles. A hero-cult developed around Iolaus at Thebes and in mainland Greece which was brought west by Greek colonists. Cult centers to Iolaus have been identified in Sardinia and Sicily.Ionadi (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.
Iron Age: Archaeological period, dating in Sicily from 900 to 734 BC.
Irsina (MT): A commune in the province of Matera. Population: 5,484 (2006e).
Isca sullo Ionio (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 1,571 (2006e).
Ischia: (anc. Aenaria, Pithekoussai, Pithecusa, Inarime) (NA). An island is situated off the coast of Campania, at the NW end of the Gulf of Naples. The earliest inhabitants on the island established themselves during the Bronze Age. A settlement existed on Mt. Epomaeus which traded with the Mycenaeans. The earliest Greek colony in Italy was established here by settlers from Eretria and Chalkis in the early 8th Century BC. Soon afterwards Greeks from this colony founded Kyme (Cumae) on the mainland (which, in turn, founded Neapolis [Naples]). Both of these settlements were ideally placed to facilitate trade with the Etruscans located to the north. There have been a number theories related to the origins of Ischia’s ancient names. Pliny explained that the Greek name Pithekoussai (Pithecusa) derived from the local clay deposits, while the Latin name Aenaria was connected with the story of Aeneas’s landing. It has also been speculated that the latter name may have derived from the abundant copper (Lat. aeneus= “made of copper”) from there. Eventually the Greek colony on the island was abandoned because of seismic and volcanic dangers. It eventually came under the control of the Greek city of Neapolis (Naples) and became a noted center for ceramics, fruit and fine wine. The seismic/volcanic nature of the island has led to it sometimes being identified with Homer’s land of the Arimi, the site where the monstrous Typhon (Typhoeus) lies buried.Ischia (Na): A commune in the province of Napoli.
Ischia, Diocese of:
Metropolitan: Napoli.
Conference Region: Campania
Area: 46 km²/ mi²
Total Population: 46,702
Catholic Population:
Total Priests: 46(Diocesan: 35; Religious: 11)
Permanent Deacons: 5
Male Religious:
Female Religious:
Parishes: 25
Ischitella (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 4,427 (2006e).
Ischomachos (or Isomachos): An athlete of ancient Kroton. He was victor in the Stadion at the Olympian Games in 508 BC and 504 BC.
Iscla: Medieval name for Ischia.Isernia, Province of: A province in the region of Molise. Population: 89,577 (2006e).Communes of Isernia ProvinceCommuneArea(km²)Population(2007e)Population(2006e)Population(2001 census)Population(1991 census)Acquaviva d’Isernia13.73469468468531Agnone96.27555156285,8426,207Bagnoli del Trigno36.658108358771,131Belmonte del Sannio20.218628789211,048Cantalupo nel Sannio15.51741737736761Capracotta42.38104310631,1221,314Carovilli41.69149615041,5281,618Carpinone32.47124212601,2541,296Castel del Giudice14.69355348353412Castelpetroso22.62165116751,6441,722Castelpizzuto15.29154153143134Castel San Vincenzo22.36571572577591Castelverrino6.15124127130177Cerro al Volturno23.70144014611,4401,682Chiauci15.72275271277337Civitanova del Sannio55.949509369491,015Colli a Volturno24.26139113971,4071,374Conca Casale14.54238244269294Filignano32.02747749756897Forlì del Sannio32.36791794833918Fornelli23.08200520021,9851,821Frosolone49.62327633013,4053,531Isernia68.75216162160821,15220,933Longano27.07717719725811Macchia d’Isernia17.87944948909963Macchiagodena34.30192019281,9592,143Miranda22.27106810761,0831,143Montaquila25.32248424642,4742,527Montenero Val Cocchiara21.88557572608683Monteroduni37.02239924112,3952,409Pesche12.65149814981,312958Pescolanciano33.999379461,0021,094Pescopennataro18.80329343387502Pettoranello del Molise15.53482490428397Pietrabbondante27.338939099611,108Pizzone33.14339343328392Poggio Sannita20.618568669401,217Pozzilli33.83227922622,2012,017Rionero Sannitico29.03117711701,1311,281Roccamandolfi53.79103110441,0731,164Roccasicura29.01595605627699Rocchetta a Volturno24.02108210711,0831,108San Pietro Avellana44.92568613662726Sant’Agapito15.81134813571,3321,187Santa Maria del Molise17.09679675654747Sant’Angelo del Pesco15.45387402416461Sant’Elena Sannita14.05292283277287Scapoli16.888359089491,033Sessano del Molise24.758358519271,029Sesto Campano36.60249525052,9453,141Vastogirardi60.72782793798864Venafro45.11114371151411,19810,107Total1,528.8589,0438957789,85291,942
Isernia (IS): A city and provincial capital of the province of Isernia, in Molise. It situated 23 miles W of Campobasso on the west slope of the Apennines. Population: 21,608 (2006e).
Isernia-Venafro, Diocese of: A diocese in the ecclesiastical region of Abruzzo-Molise.Basic Information on the Diocese of Isernia-Venafro (2006)(Source: Catholic-hierarchy.org)Ecclesiastical ConferenceRegionAbruzzo-MoliseMetropolitanCampobasso-BoianoSuffragans-Area740 km² (285 mi²)Total Population63,000Catholic Population60,000Total Priests75Diocesan Priests63Religious Priests12Permanent Deacons12Male Religious24Female Religious46Parishes48History: •  Diocese of Isernia erected in the 5th century.•               Dioceses of Isernia and Venafro are united into the Diocese of Isernia e Venafro on June 12, 1852.•               Named is changed to Diocese of Isernia-Venafro on September 30, 1986.

Islam in Italy: Although in medieval times, the vast majority of Muslims in Italy resided in the southern part of the country, only about 20% of the country’s million or so Muslims now reside there. The majority of Muslims in modern Italy are of North African origin. In 1992 there were approximately 304,000 Muslim immigrants in Italy, comprising about 29% of the total legal immigrant population. By the end of 1999, the Italian Ministry of Interior estimated that the Immigrant Muslim population had grown to between 650,000 and 700,000, of which 436,000 had legal status. Government statistics estimated that about 34% of the foreign population of Italy at the beginning of 2005 were Muslim, totaling between 960,000 and 1,030,000 (1.4% of the total Italian population.)Legally Resident Muslim immigrants in Italy at the end of 1998(Source: Hadid, Yvonne Yazbeck, ed.Muslims in the West: From Sojourners to Citizens.State of Origin(Largest Groups)# in Italy% of the totalMuslim PopulationMorocco145,84333.4Albania67,00015.8Tunisia47,26710.8Senegal35,8978.2Egypt25,5535.8Algeria13,3243.0Pakistan11,3202.5Bangladesh11,2012.5Somalia10,8182.4Iran6,8141.5Turkey6,6301.5Nigeria6,4471.4Yugoslavia6,5001.4Bosnia5,3391.2Iraq4,5190.9Macedonia4,1260.5 Isnello (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.Isola del Gran Sasso d’ltalia (TE): A commune in the province of Teramo.Isola delle Femmine (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.
Isola di Capo Rizzuto (KR): A commune in the province of Crotone. Population: 14,461 (2006e).
Isole Tremiti (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 417 (2006e).
Isomachos: See Ischomachos.Ispani (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Ispica (RG): A commune in the province of Ragusa.Itala (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.
Italian Emigration and Immigration:
Italian Emigration by RegionRegion1883188418851886188719061907190819111913Piedmont        52,33578,663Liguria        7,0529,428Lombardy        65,06987,133Venetia        97,588123,853No. Italy        222,044299,077Emilia        32,45939,134Tuscany        37,44245,599Marches        17,23232,069Umbria        12,09817,851Latium        9,12125,962Cent. Italy        108,352160,615Abruzzi e Molise        32,02562,038Campania        54,14978,633Apulia        21,31841,837Basilicata        10,42616,153Calabria        30,38255,910Sicily        50,789146,061Sardinia        5,35912,274So. Italy        203,448412,906Total Italy169,101147,017157,193167,829215,665787,977704,675486,674533,844872,598Source: Rothwell. Foerster. The Italian Emigration of Our Times. 1924/1969; The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 8
Destination of Italian Emigrants 1887190619071908  Europe82,474     Europe & Mediterranean 276,042288,774248,101  Egypt867     Tunis633     Algeria1,375     Transoceanic 511,935415,901238,573  U.S. & Canada38,853     Argentine Republic,
Uruguay, & Paraguay54,499     Brazil & rest of South
America, Mexico and
Central America33,003     South America (w/o
declared destination)3,108     Asia, Africa, Oceania853     Total # Emigrants215,665787,977704,675486,674  Source: Appleton’s Annual Cyclopedia 1888; The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 8. 
Italian Immigration to the United States1831-187025,0821870-188055,7591880-1890307,309189052,093189176,055189262,137189372,916189443,967189536,961189668,060189759,431189858,613189977,4191900100,1351901135,9961902178,3751903230,6221904193,2961905221,4791906273,1201907285,7311908128,503Total: 1831-19082,743,059Source: The Catholic EncyclopediaItalian-Americans: According to the National Italian American Foundation (www.niaf.org/research/contribution.demographic/ consulted 08/03/06) about 15% of the American population was of Italian ancestry. This meant that there were (1990) nearly 15 million Americans of full Italian background. If those with only partial Italian ancestry were considered, the number rose to c26 million. The states with the highest number of Italian Americans were (according to the 1990 US census): California: 1,500,000.Connecticut 650,000.Massachusetts 845,000.New Jersey 1,500,000.New York 2,900,000.Pennsylvania 1,400,000.Rhode Island 200,000.Florida (800,000).Illinois (730,000).Ohio (640,000).Michigan (412,000).Texas (314,000).Maryland (253,000).
According to the records of the United States Immigration Bureau, between 1821 and 1892, 526,749 Italians immigrated to the U.S. Over the subsequent 6 years (1893 to 1899), the number of Italian arrivals increased to 417,367.
Italian-Americans and Italians, Prejudice against           
Considerable prejudice was shown towards Italian immigrants and their descendants in much of the United States during much of the 20th Century. Several derogatory terms came into use to refer to the immigrants and their offspring.Derogatory terms used against Italians and Italian Americans
(Source: The Racial Slur Index. www.rsdb.org/)
(Warning: Some readers may find terms in this table to be offensive. This list is added for educational purposes. It is meant to show the extent of prejudice against Italian immigrants to America and to Americans of Italian descent.)TermSourceBlack DagosDerived from the belief that some Sicilians are of partly Black African origins.BolognaDerives from the Italian city Bologna.Brown Pants/ShirtsA derogatory term coined during World War II by American Gis to refer to Italian soldiers. It was claimed that the Italians were such cowards that they soiled themselves from fear in battle.Burnt PizzaMeant to refer to the dark-skinned Italians.CalzoneItalian foodChopA person of mixed Chinese-Italian blood (Chink+Wop).DagoOriginally coming from Spain. “Diego” was a common name in Italy at the time this slang was first used.DagowopA combination of Dago and Wop.EggplantOften used to imply that Italians, especially of darker complexion, were of African blood.Eggplant-
ParmesanA person of mixed African-Italian blood.EuroA term used to refer to all Europeans, including Italians. Usually used as a pejorative.FonzieA term originating from the popular character of that name on the Happy Days TV show.Garlic BreadDerived from the tasty Garlic flavored bread favorite among Italians.Garlic BreadthReferring to the use of garlic in Italian cuisine.GeepFrom Pinnochio’s “father” Gepetto.GinaCommon Italian name.GinnyIn reference to popular Italian garb Ginny T’s, now more commonly known as wife beater shirts.GinoCommon Italian name.GinzoDerives from the word Guinea.GoombahFrom the Italian word “Compare” (pronounced ‘cumpa’) meaning “a close friend.” Considered a slur when used by non-Italians to describe an Italian male.Grape-SmasherRefers to the Italian wine-making practice of smashing grapes with their feet.Grape-StomperRefers to the Italian wine-making practice of smashing grapes with their feet.Grease Ball/BagMultiple origins. The most common being that the Italian people supposedly have an abnormally oily dermis and epidermis. Sometimes called a Greaser.GuidetteFeminine version of Guido.GuidoNorthern term referring to Italians who try to portray a mafia mentality. Feminine version is Guidette.Guinea PigAn overweight ItalianGuinea/GinneyPronounced “gi-nee.” Originally used in the 1740s as “Guinea Negro,” it referred to any Black or any person of mixed ancestry. By the 1890s it was being applied to Italians—probably because of their darker complexion in comparison to northern Europeans. By 1911 the term began being applied to Hispanics, although the reference to Italians is the most common. Derived from Sicilian immigrants who paid in Italian currency, Guineas.HightalianA derogatory term for upper-class, wealthy, snobbish Italians.HotheadDerived from the belief that Italians had short, violent tempers.I-TieA corruption of the word “Italian.”IROCItalian Retards Out Crusing. A term popular especially popular in the Eastern United States.JaboneeA term used by native-born Italian Americans in reference to newly arrived Italian immigrants, who could not speak English.JewopA person of mixed Jewish-Italian blood (Jew+Wop).KatzenfresserAn anti-Italian slur of German origin meaning “cat-eater.”LapostaItalian slang for lazy person with a small penis.LuigiFrom a character in a popular video game. Used to refer to a tall, thin Italian. (see Mario).MacaroniRefers to the popular Italian pasta.MakaronifresserAn anti-Italian slur of German origin meaning “macaroni-eater.” The term is particularly rude because the term essen , used in reference to a human eater, is replaced with fressen, used in connection with animals.MarioFrom a character in a popular video game. Used to refer to a fat Italian. (see Luigi).McWopA person of mixed Irish-Italian blood (Mick+Wop).MeatballA reference to Italian cuisine.Med WopA combination of Mediterranean and Wop.MelanzanaFrom the Italian word for Eggplant. Used to refer to a person of dark complexion.MingliaA derogatory term derived from the Sicilian dialect word for “dick.”MoolieA short form of Melanzane.MoolignonA variation of Melanzane. Possibly a combination of Moolie and hooligan.PIGSPortuguese+Italian+Greek+Spanish. Used to refer principally to Mediterranean males because of so-called “piggish” behavior towards women.PizzabagelA person of mixed Jewish-Italian blood. Especially popular in New York.Pizza NiggerA pejorative derived from the belief that many Italian are of Black African origins.PolentoneA term used by southern Italians for Northern ItaliansIt refers to the Northern Italian cuisine called polenta which the southerners considered an inferior dish.PortawopA person of mixed Portuguese-Italian blood.ProvoloneDerives from provolone cheese. Used for a Italian with “cheesy” tastes.RaguA term derived from the word meaning pasta sauce.Rasta FazoulA person of mixed Jamaican-Italian blood. (Pasta+Rastafarian)RizzoA pejorative which originated from advertisements for Rizzo brand pasta sauce placed on dumpsters.SalamiDerives from the belief that Italians have a body odor resembling salami.Spaghetti vendorSelf-explanatory.Spaghetti-SlurperDerives from the popular Italian pasta dish.Spaghetti-TwisterDerives from the popular Italian pasta dish.SpaghettoA term for an Italian who acts “Black.”SpicA term originally attached to those of Hispanic origins. By the late 19th century, it had been extended towards Italians as well.SpiderA term for Italian-American inspired by a character named Spider in the movie “Goodfellas.”StallionDerives from the movie Rocky, Stallion being the nickname of the title character.SwapA person of mixed Mexican-Italian blood. (Spic+Wop)TerroneA term applied to southern Italians. It derives from the Italian word Terra = land, earth. A “terrone” was a person who worked the earth, i.e. a peasant.TonyDerived from the tag attached to the luggage of poor Italian immigrants to America (TO NY = to New York).Tony SopranoA term deriving from the name of a character in the television show “The Sopranos”. It is meant to imply that all Italian-Americans are connected to the mafia.Uni-browA term of derision derived from the belief that both Greeks and Italians have this physical trait.WallioneA term of friendship between Italians, but considered to be derogatory when used by a non-Italian.WhopperA variation of Wop.Won Ton ParmesanA person of mixed Asian-Italian blood.Wonder Bread WopA term used by Italians for an Italian who rejected his heritage in favor of “WASP” American culture.WOPA term of disputed origins. According to one belief it means “Without Papers” or “Without Official Papers”, and is meant to imply that the Italian immigrants arrived illegally. Another theory is that it meant “Working On Pavement” referring to immigrants working as street vendors or outdoor workers. A third theory is that it is a corruption of the Neapolitan dialect word “guappo” (pronounced “woppo”) meaning to a criminal or strong bully.WopalockA person of mixed Polish-Italian blood. (Wop+Polock)WopskiA person of mixed Polish-Italian blood.ZipA term used by native-born Italian-Americans for new Italian immigrants because they spoke their mother tongue so quickly.Italica Romaea Sebasta Olympia (or Isolympia): A competitive festival of games founded by the Roman Emperor Augustus in AD 2. Styled after the more famous Olympic Games of Greece, this Neapolitan festival appears to have remained a local affair until the time of Emperor Claudius (rAD 41-54). Claudius gave them full imperial recognition and support, thus making them far more attractive to the major athletes from throughout the Roman Empire. As a result it soon developed into one of the major festivals of its kind. Held every four years in August, there is evidence that the games survived well into the 4th Century. Competitions included athletic events (including footraces, one of which was for girls), as well as dramatic and musical events. Some events were restricted exclusively to citizens Often cash prizes were awards as well as symbolic trophies. This festival was the only one known in which competitors were paid living expenses: 1 drachma per day for the first half of the games and 2 or 3 drachmas for the 2nd half.
                A damaged Roman Era inscription (IvO [Inschriften von Olympia]56.11-28) found at Olympia sheads a little light on the Neapolitan games, which it referred to the “Italic isOlympic games”, males aged seventeen to twenty years participated in boys’ category. Those older could compete at the mens’ level.
Italiotes: A name given to the pre-Roman Greek-speaking inhabitants of the Italian peninsula, between Neapolis and Sicily (people there are still sometimes, albeit very rarely, referred to as Italiotes). During the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, the Italiotes were distinguished from the non-Greek Italic inhabitants of southern Italy.
: (d. 1253). Ecclesiastic. He served as Bishop of Caiazzo. He was exiled by Emperor Frederick II for being disloyal to the Papacy.
Jacurso (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 742 (2006e).
James I: King of Sicily (Trinacria) (r1285-1295).
Januarius, St.: (b. Italy; d. cAD 305). Christian martyr. Having become bishop of Beneventum (mod. Benevento) during the reign of the Roman emperor Diocletian, he became caught up in the great persecution against the Christians. When some local Christians were arrested, Januarius, accompanied by his deacon and lictor (Saints Eutychius and Acutius), went to visit the prisoners only to be seized themselves. The Christians were condemned to death and sentenced to be thrown to the wild beasts. When the animals left them unharmed, the sentence was changed to beheading. Following the executions a Christian woman named Eusebia secretly collected some of Januarius’s blood which remained on the beheading stone. She brought the “relic” to the Bishop of Naples and it eventually came to be stored in the Cathedral at Naples. In 1389, the “miracle of St. Januarius’s blood” was first mentioned in the historic record. Twice each year the vial said to contain the blood is brought forth in the Cathedral. Within the vial can be seen a dried red-colored substance which, after a period of time (and some jiggling), liquefies. It is believed that so long as the miracle occurs, Naples remains safe. Failure of the so-called “blood” to liquefy, as has been known to happen on rare occasions, means disaster. The substance within the vial has never been reliably examined scientifically. Modern chemists have stated that it was possible for their medieval counterparts to create a substance resembling blood in appearance which would remain a solid when at rest but would liquefy when agitated. Interestingly, the “miracle” of liquefaction has occurred at least 7 times while jewelers were repairing the reliquary in which the blood is kept. It also created no small amount of embarrassment when, in 1799, the liquefaction occurred indicating that the saint had given his blessing to the new, but short-lived Parthenopean Republic. Januarius nearly lost his status as patron because of this when the Republic was overthrown a few months later.
Jelsi (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 1,867 (2006e).
jizyia: a poll tax originally paid by non-Muslims in Sicily during the Saracen period. It was later imposed by the Normans on the Jews of Sicily who continued to pay it until 1492 when they were expelled from the island.
Joachim I: See Joachim Murat, King of Naples (r1808-1815).
Joachim of Fiore: (b. c1130; d. Mar. 30, 1202). Ecclesiastic. Abbot of the Franciscan abbey at Fiore in Calabria. He authored the “Everlasting Gospel” or Revelationes, a book of prophesies, in which he claimed that the world would end in 1260.
Joan I: See Joanna I, Queen of Naples (r1343-1382).
Joan II: See Joanna II, Queen of Naples (r1414-1435).
Joanna (Giovanna, Joan) I: (b. 1327; d. May 22, 1382). Queen of Naples (r1343-1382). Daughter of Charles, Duke of Calabria, she married her cousin, Andrew of Hungary, and was crowned Queen of Naples in 1343. She arranged Andrew’s murder in September 1345. In 1349, she married Louis of Taranto, with whom she shared the throne until 1362. She made two further marriages, James, king of Majorca (1363) and Otho of Brunswick (1376). In 1382, Charles of Durazzo, overthrew Joanna and had her imprisoned. She was executed on his orders on May 22, 1382.
Joanna (Giovanna, Joan) II: (b. 1370; d. Feb. 2, 1435). Queen of Naples (r1414-1435). The daughter of King Charles of Durazzo, she succeeded her brother on the throne of Naples in 1414. Her method of rule was tyrannical and she involved Naples in intrigues with the Papacy, France and Aragon. Her numerous changing of potential heirs led to a succession crisis between Anjou and Aragon upon her death on Feb. 2, 1435.
John I, St.: Pope. (rAug 13 523-May 18, 526).
John I of Amalfi: Ruler of Amalfi (r1004-1007).
John I (called Ammirapolo) of Bari: Byzantine strategos of Bari (r989-990).
John II: Pope. (rJan 2, 533-May 8, 535).
John III: Pope. (rJuly 17, 561-July 13, 574).
John IV: Pope. (rDec 24, 640-Oct 12, 642).
John V: Pope. (rJuly 12, 685-Aug 2, 686).
John VI: Pope. (rOct 30, 701-Jan 11, 705).
John VII: Pope. (rMar. 1, 705-Oct 18, 707).
John VIII: Pope. (r Dec 14, 872-Dec 16 882).
John IX: Pope. (rJan 898-Jan 900).
John X: Pope. (rMar 914-May 928).
John XI: Pope. (rFeb/Mar 931-Dec 935).
John XII: Pope. (rDec 16, 955-May 14, 964).
John XIII: Pope. (rOct. 1, 965- Sept. 6, 972).
John XIV: Pope. (rDec 983-Aug 20, 984).
John XV: Pope. (rAug 985-Mar 996).
John XVI: Antipope (r997-998).
John XVII: Pope. (rJune-Dec 1003).
John XVIII: Pope. (rDec 25 1003-July 1009).
John XIX: Pope. (rApr/May 1024-Oct. 20, 1032).
John XXI: Pope. (rSept 8, 1276-May 20, 1277). Although he was only the 19th official pope to have the name of John, he was known as John XXI. The discrepancy arose because John XVI was an antipope and because of a mistaken belief by some papal historians believed that there was a pope named John between Pope John XIV and the true Pope John XV (whom they sometimes thus called XVI).
John XXII: Pope. (rAug 7, 1316-Dec 4, 1334).
John XXIII: Pope. (rOct. 28, 1958-June 3, 1963).
John Paul I: Pope. (rAug 26-Sept 28, 1978).
John Paul II: Pope. (rOct 16, 1978-Apr. 2, 2005).
Jommelli, Nicolo: (b. September 10, 1714, in Aversa. d. August 25, 1774, in Naples). Composer. Trained by Leonardo Leo, he produced his first operas Errore amoroso and Odoardo before turning 24. His career took him to Rome, and many of the other chief cities of Italy, as well as Vienna, and Stuttgart (where he served as musical director from 1751 to 1753). He eventually returned to Naples in 1768 but was unable to recapture the popularity which he had enjoyed there in his youth.Joppolo (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.
Joppolo Giancaxio (AG): A commune in the province of Agrigento. Population: 1,220 (2006e).
Joseph I Bonaparte: (b. 1778, Corte, Corsica; d. 1844). King of Naples (r. 1806-1808) and King of Spain. Eldest surving brother of Napoleon Bonaparte, he married Julie Clary, sister of Desiree Bernadotte. After serving in several diplomatc positions for his brother, he received the crown of Naples in 1806. Although also claiming domain over Sicily, that island remained under Bourbon-English control throughout his reign. Despite later negative propaganda, Joseph was an enlightened monarch and was genuinely dedicated to aiding and advancing the lives of his subjects. Under his brief reign, the law codes were reformed and the financial and educational systems of the kingdom modernized. The centuries-old feudal system was also finally brought to and end thanks to Joseph and his successor Joachim Murat. In 1808, he reluctantly gave up the Neapolitan throne for that of Spain. His Spanish reign was continually troubled with rebellion. In 1813, he suffered a major defeat at Vittoria at the hands of the Duke of Wellington.
Jourdan, Count Jean Baptiste: b. Apr. 29, 1762, in Limoges; d. Nov. 23, 1833, in Paris. French general. After a distinguished military career, he rose to the rank of Marshal of the Empire and grand eagle of the legion in 1804. In 1806 he was appointed governor of Naples, where he became the close friend and chief advisor to King Joseph Bonaparte. He later accompanied him when he moved to Spain.
Juliana of Cumae, St.: (d. AD 305). Christian martyr. A virgin from the city of Cumae, her hand was sought by the Roman prefect. When his proposal was rejected, he had Juliana arrested, tortured and beheaded. A later version of her story added new embellishments. She was then said to have been from the Anatolian city of Nicomedia and there martyred. Her relics were later transferred to Cumae where they became the center for her cult. When depicted in art, she is shown either surrounded by flames or binding the devil. Her feast day is February 16.
Julianus: (fl. late 7th century). Ecclesiastic. Bishop of Naples in c690. He held the see for a period of 7 years.
Julius I, St.: Pope. (r Feb 6, 337-Apr. 12, 352).
Julius II: Pope. (rOct 31, 1503-Feb 21, 1513).
Julius III: Pope. (rFeb 7, 1550-Mar 23, 1555).Juvara, Tommaso Aloysio: (b. 1809, Messina; d. 1875, Rome.). Engraver. Having received his artistic training in Rome and Parma, he returned to his native Messina in 1836. In 1846 he became professor of engraving at the University of Naples. He later served as director of chalcography at Rome. During his career he won 18 medals for his works including the gold medal of the Berlin Academy. His best works were based of the paintings of Guercino, Camucinelli, Mancinelli, and Raphael. At age 67, he committed suicide in Rome.
Juvarra (or Juvara), Filippo: (b. 1678 or 1685, Messina. d. 1735 or 1736, Madrid). Architect and scene-designer. Born into a family of gold-smiths and sculptors, he received his early training in his native Sicily. In 1703, he moved to Rome where he became influenced by the architecture of Carlo and Francesco Fontana. Becoming a member of the Academy of San Luca in 1706, his first important work was the chapel of Antamori in the church of San Gerolamo della Carita’ (Rome, 1708). During this period he also worked as a scene designer for several private theaters in Rome. After returning for a time to Messina, he became (1714) the first court architect to King Victor Amadeus of Savoy in Piedmont. In 1735, he moved to Madrid at the invitation of King Philip V. He died soon after.Principal Works:Chapel of Antamori in the church of San Gerolamo della Carita’ (Rome, 1708).Basilica di Superga (Turin, 1715-1718).The facade of the church Santa Cristina (Turin, 1715-1718).Palazzo Martini di Cigala (Turin, 1716).Quartieri Militari (Turin, 1716-1728).The big stair-case and a facade of Palazzo Madama (Turin, 1718-1721).The Stupinigi’s house of hunt (Turin, 1729-1731).Church del Carmine (Turin, 1732-1736).Palazzo Reale (projected, Madrid, 1735). Granja di Sant’Ildefonso (projected, Madrid, 1735).Palazzo di Aranjuez (projected, Madrid, 1735).
kaid (
caïd): a title used in the Kingdom of Sicily under the Normans. Originally a Saracen title meaning “master” or “leader”, it was usually given those Saracens or converted Christian Saracens who served as palatine officials or members of the curia. Sometimes, however, it was held by certain European Christians like the Englishman Thomas Brun. The Latin version found on documents was gaitus or gaytus.
Kamarina: See Camarina.Kamenae: See Camenae.
Katane: See Catana.
Kaulonia (Lat.: Caulonia): A city of ancient Bruttium.
Keton: An athlete of ancient Locri Epizephyrii. He was victor in the Pentathlon at the Olympian Games in 448 BC.
Killichiroi: the lower class of ancient Syracuse.
King (Ital. Re): A national ruler or sovereign leader
Kniaziewicz, Karol: (b. May 4, 1762, at Courland, Poland; d. May 9, 1842, at Paris). Polish general. He served as commander of the 1st Polish Legion under Dombrowski in Italy during the French invasion of 1798. He distinguished himself in battles at Calvi, Terracina, Gaeta (which he captured), and in the capture of Naples.koíniks: an ancient Oscan unit of dry measure. Equivalent of the ancient Greek choenix, it was about the same as a modern quart.
Koller, Baron Franz von: (b. Nov. 27, 1767 in Munchengratz, Bohemia; d. Jan. 25, 1826, in Naples). Austrian general. A staunch supporter of Napoleon, he accompanied that Emperor into exile on Elba in 1814. He later commanded the Austrian army that had been dispatched in 1821 to crush the reform government in Naples and restore King Ferdinand I as an autocrat. In Naples he collected a considerable library and art collection. His many antique vases were later purchased by the king of Prussia to become part of the collection of the museum of Berlin.
Konsentia (Lat. Consentia): A city of ancient Bruttium.
Krison: an athlete of ancient Himera in Sicily. He was victor in the Stadion at the Olympian Games in 448 BC, 444 BC and 440 BC.
Kroton (Croton): A city of ancient Bruttium.
Kvaisstur: a magistrate in the ancient Oscan-speaking peoples of southern Italy.
Kyme (Lat. Cumae): See Cumae. 
LLabellum: Ancient name of Lavello (PZ).Lablache, Luigi: (b. Dec. 6, 1794, in Naples; d. Jan. 23, 1858, in Naples). Singer. The son of a French merchant from Marseilles, he came to the attention of Joseph Bonaparte who placed him in a music conservatory in Naples. A troublesome youth who disliked the structure imposed at the conservatory, he had to be forced to complete his studies there by being threatened with imprisonment. He finally began his singing career in 1812 as a singer in opera buffo. He spent these early years performing in minor theaters in Naples, Messina and Palermo. In 1817 he finally performed at La Scala theater in Milan. The success of his performance there launched his career in the major theaters of northern Italy, Vienna, and elsewhere. In 1830, he returned to Naples to become royal chapel-master and to perform at the San Carlo theater. He soon returned to touring Europe, spending most time performing in London, Paris, and, occasionally, Naples. Lablache’s incredible artistic skill and dedication to excellence, coupled with his great range and pure voice made him one of the most popular singers of his age. For a time he was the singing master and personal friend of the queen of England.Lacco Ameno (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.Lacedonia (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 2,979 (2006e).Lachrymae Christi: (= “tears of Christ”). A noted wine produced for centuries in and around Naples and much of Campania. Under the Bourbons, the wine was considered so fine that it was produced only in a small quantity for use almost exclusively by the royal family.Ladislaus: King of Naples (r1386-1414). He was opposed by Louis II of Anjou (r1390-1399).Laganadi (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.Lago (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 2,934 (2006e).Lagonegro (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Laidulf: Prince of Capua (993-999).Laino Borgo (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza.Laino Castello (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 909 (2006e).Lamachos: an athlete of ancient Tauromenium in Sicily. He was victor in the stadion at the Olympian Games in 56 BC.Lama dei Peligni (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 1,460 (2006e).Lamarque, Count Maximilien: b. July 22, 1770, in St. Sever, France; d. June 1, 1832, in Paris. French soldier and political orator. After a distinguished military career, he entered into the service of Napoleon, fighting for him as a brigadier-general at Austerlitz. He participated in the French invasion of the Kingdom of Naples, participating in the capture of Gaeta in 1806. He also was responsible for crushing an insurrection in Calabria. In 1807, he defeated a British force and was promoted to the rank of general of division. Under King Joachim Murat he successfully captured the island and citadel of Capri from the British garrison under Sir Hudson Lowe. In later years, following Napoleon’s return from Elba, Lamarque served with loyalty. After Waterloo and Napoleon’s final exile, Lamarque was forced to flee from France. He settled in Amsterdam for a time before being allowed to return home.Lametus fl. (mod. river Amato, Calabria): An ancient river in Bruttium. According to one theory, the name is of ancient Illyrian origin, related to the Indo-European root *lama- (‘swamp, puddle’).Lamezia Terme (formerly Nicastro) (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 70,365 (2006e); 18,150 (1901).Lamezia Terme, Diocese of:Suffragans:Metropolitan: Catanzaro – Squillace.Conference Region: Calabria.Area: 915 km²/ mi²Total Population: 137,223.Catholic Population:Total Priests: 80 (Diocesan: 67; Religious: 13).Permanent Deacons: 22Male Religious:Female Religious:Parishes: 60.History:Lampedusa e Linosa (AG): A commune in the province of Agrigento. Population: 6,078 (2006e).Lanbadusha: Arabic name for the island of Lampedusa.Lanciano (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 36,306 (2006e). It is located 13 miles SE of Chieti.Lanciano-Ortona, Archdiocese of:Basic Information on the Archdiocese of Lanciano-Ortona (2004)(Source: Catholic-hierarchy.org)Ecclesiastical ConferenceRegionAbruzzo-MoliseMetropolitanChieti-VastoSuffragans-Area305 km² (117 mi²)Total Population90,855Catholic Population90,205Total Priests70Diocesan Priests37Religious Priests33Permanent Deacons3Male Religious36Female Religious91Parishes42History: Diocese of Lanciano is erected on April 27, 1515.Diocese of Lanciano is elevated to an Archdiocese on February 9, 1562.The Diocese of Ortona is erected in 1570.The Archdiocese of Lanciano and Diocese of Ortona are united as the Archdiocese of Lanciano (e Ortona) in 1834.The Archdiocese of Lanciano (e Ortona) becomes the Archdiocese of Lanciano e Ortona on November 24, 1945.The Archdiocese of Lanciano e Ortona becomes the Archdiocese of Lanciano-Ortona on September 30, 1986.  Landenulf of Capua: Bishop of Capua (r AD 879 – ?).Landenulf I of Capua: Prince of Capua (r885-887).Landenulf II of Capua: Prince of Capua (982-993).Lando: Pope. (rJuly/Aug 913-Feb/Mar 914).Lando I of Capua: Prince of Capua (r843-861).Lando II of Capua: Prince of Capua (r861).Lando III of Capua: Prince of Capua (r882-885).Landolfo: (fl. early 11th Century). The son of Giovanni IV (Duke of Naples AD 999-1002), he was adopted by the infamous Marozia, senetrix of Rome.Landolina, Giovanni Battista: (fl. late 17th / early 18th Centuries). Marchese di S. Alfano. Following the destruction of the Sicilian city of Noto in the great earthquake of 1693, he was responsible having the city rebuilt on a new site about 10 km from the original one. Working with three local architects, he designed the new city in a careful layout, structured as much on current socio-economics as practicality. Laid out on a hill, the wealthy aristocrats were given the highest elevations where they could enjoy the cleanest air and best views. The cathedral and its piazza mark the center of the town, while the districts for the poor classes stretched along the urban edges. In 1730, Giovanni’s son, Francesco, disregarded his father’s social town pattern by building his Palazzo Landolina at the town center beside the cathedral.Landulf I of Capua: Prince of Capua (r840-843).Landulf I of Capua: Bishop of Capua (r 843-879).Landulf II of Benevento: See Landulf IV of Capua.Landulf II of Capua (1): Prince of Capua (r863-879). He usurped the power in Capua from his nephew in 863.Landulf II of Capua (2): Bishop of Capua (r 879-882; 882 – ?).Landulf III of Capua: (). Prince of Capua (co-ruler 901-943). After the death of Atenulf I, he shared power with Atenulf II (r911-940), Landulf IV (r939 or 940-943), and Atenulf III Carinola (r933-943).Landulf IV “the Red” of Capua: (d. 961). Prince of Capua (r939/940-961) and Prince of Benevento (as Landulf II) (r939/940-961). He was raised to power when his father made him co-ruler. Upon his father’s death he immediately sent his elder brother Atenulf to Benevento and his cousin Landulf to Capua. Both men, believing that they were going to be killed, fled to Guaimar II of Salerno. In modern times, Landulf has figured into the bizarre psychology of Adolf Hitler who believed that he was the reincarnation of Landulf.Landulf V of Capua: Prince of Capua (959-968).Landulf VI of Capua: Prince of Capua (968-982).Landulf VII of Capua: Prince of Capua (999-1007).Landulf VIII of Capua: Prince of Capua (1057-1058).Langobardi: Italian name for the Lombards.Lapio (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 1,702 (2006e).Lappano (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 984 (2006e).L’Aquila: (formerly Aquila, Aquila), Province of: A province (area: 2,485 mi² [5,034.6 km²]) in the region of Abruzzo. It produces cereal crops, flax, hemp and fruits.Communes of L’Aquila ProvinceCommuneArea(km²)Population(2007e)Population(2006e)Population(2001 census)Population(1991 census)Acciano32.36380396401538Aielli34.701460150614771473Alfedena40.27800787716741Anversa degli Abruzzi31.78400409431439Ateleta41.691203122712321371Avezzano104.0440277397053833737179Balsorano58.013695370637053643Barete24.33662664633635Barisciano78.561788178717981768Barrea86.96769771776864Bisegna46.15332345342467Bugnara25.771072107610351161Cagnano Amiterno60.241423143115091685Calascio39.84165169150224Campo di Giove30.45896916907926Campotosto51.58730737683865Canistro15.781053105010421018Cansano40.21268269270357Capestrano43.089529639601141Capistrello60.855402545654295597Capitignano30.63662666689742Caporciano18.29255265265324Cappadocia67.42510519519660Carapelle Calvisio14.48909295125Carsoli95.275322524350865068Castel del Monte57.83480507527707Castel di Ieri18.79355362405437Castel di Sangro84.055819579856265475Castellafiume24.61110510811049987Castelvecchio Calvisio15.09187192198246Castelvecchio Subequo19.231141116712411448Celano91.7711050110751097510893Cerchio20.111716170816691735Civita d’Antino29.111059108210761065Civitella Alfedena29.50316310280299Civitella Roveto45.353378340233303260Cocullo31.72282280317416Collarmele23.701005102610551051Collelongo57.171404144315141596Collepietro15.24246257270364Corfinio18.2110301023997968Fagnano Alto24.48446452446499Fontecchio16.89410425422469Fossa8.63673673661630Gagliano Aterno33.36316312314396Gioia dei Marsi63.392274228822842275Goriano Sicoli21.77616595633685Introdacqua36.972053202718311675L’Aquila466.9672222719896850366813Lecce nei Marsi65.981711173117521699Luco dei Marsi44.595841581155415347Lucoli109.749729639441046Magliano de’ Marsi67.963827381035403497Massa d’Albe68.471566156714361291Molina Aterno11.84429432463554Montereale104.392722280329303114Morino52.581519153115451603Navelli42.12614616625700Ocre23.54106310591020984Ofena36.72588608611757Opi49.37469470462534Oricola18.4010571037950897Ortona dei Marsi52.66722737803988Ortucchio35.621968197119781931Ovindoli58.841263127012001204Pacentro71.991269128212791405Pereto41.11738721704637Pescasseroli92.542204222521302207Pescina37.514437448445064699Pescocostanzo52.251196120212161285Pettorano sul Gizio62.381320131412551293Pizzoli56.113402333530472598Poggio Picenze11.62103810361011917Prata d’Ansidonia19.66525545547616Pratola Peligna28.277879789278147939Prezza19.711060107010921231Raiano29.102969297729732726Rivisondoli31.65717726686792Roccacasale17.23713714754768Rocca di Botte29.77746690522449Rocca di Cambio27.62487498447447Rocca di Mezzo87.141544154714261531Rocca Pia44.80183189189253Roccaraso49.951672169016041668San Benedetto dei Marsi25.253977409140063916San Benedetto in Perillis19.01132133145175San Demetrio ne’ Vestini16.331755169516051553San Pio delle Camere17.27586583554554Sante Marie40.061291130413421497Sant’Eusanio Forconese7.97406416443462Santo Stefano di Sessanio33.29120114118142San Vincenzo Valle Roveto43.372525255525772757Scanno134.042048207321332352Scontrone21.38605601595561Scoppito53.042927285727572251Scurcola Marsicana30.012684266925012332Secinaro32.05438441480558Sulmona58.3325238253072530425454Tagliacozzo89.406820681465326452Tione degli Abruzzi40.24343353380485Tornimparte65.873011296629583016Trasacco51.416130614359985956Villalago35.29619622636738Villa Santa Lucia degli Abruzzi27.67174185206305Villa Sant’Angelo5.26436432431480Villavallelonga73.4494996110041070Villetta Barrea20.54647649595623Vittorito14.0496095510121142Total5,034.46305400305101297424297838 L’Aquila (formerly Aquila, Aquila): A city and regional capital of Abruzzo. It is the  provincial capital of the province of L’Aquila. Population: 71,989 (2006e). Located about 55 miles NE of Rome, it is situated at the foot of the Gran Sasso d’Italia. It is the site of a 13th century cathedral. The economy is based in part on saffron-growing and lace-manufacturing.                The city was founded in 1240 by Emperor Frederick II, on the site of ancient Amiternum, the birthplace of Sallust. It suffered from earthquakes in 1688, 1703, and 1706.                The city grew in size and prosperity to become second in the kingdom of Naples only to the capital itself. At the height of its power in the early 16th century, it could field a militia of 15,000 armed men.                Under the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, it was the capital of the province of Abruzzo Ultra. In 1856, the population was about 12,000. According to New American Cyclopaedia (1858 ed) it had 24 churches and “numerous monastic houses.”Basic Information on the Metropolitan Archdiocese of L’Aquila (2004)(Source: Catholic-hierarchy.org)Ecclesiastical ConferenceRegionAbruzzo-MoliseMetropolitan-SuffragansDiocese of AvezzanoDiocese of Sulmona-ValvaArea1,516 km² (585 mi²)Total Population108,300Catholic Population106,000Total Priests155Diocesan Priests121Religious Priests34Permanent Deacons2Male Religious48Female Religious287Parishes147History: •  Diocese of L’Aquila erected on February 20, 1257.•               Diocese of L’Aquila elevated to an Archdiocese on January 19, 1876.•               Archdiocese of L’Aquila becomes a Metropolitan on August 15, 1972. Laran (Larun): Etruscan god of war. He was often depicted as naked, holding a spear and wearing a helmet.Larcii: An important family of ancient Rome. It was originally of Etruscan origins.Larino (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 7,208 (2006e).Larunda: an ancient Italic/Sabine goddess. An earth mother-goddess, some sources name her as the mother of the Lares. Her name is said to mean “may she cause the eath to turn green.”La serpe: a long strip of cloud that occasionally lies against the southern base of Mount Etna. It is usually a portent of rain.Lasa: A class of Etruscan goddesses or nymphs who watched over graves. They were often the companions of the love goddess Turun.Lascari (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.Laterza (TA): A commune in the province of Taranto.Latiano (BR): A commune in the province of Brindisi. Population: 15,208 (2006e).Latronico (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Lattarico (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 4,414 (2006e).Latymnus Mons: A mountain in ancient Bruttium, located near Croton.Laureana Cilento (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Laureana di Borrello (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.Laurenzana (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Lauria (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Laurino (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Lauro (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 3,629 (2006e).Laus: A Greek city in ancient Lucania. Located near the mouth of the river Laus, it was founded by refugees from Sybaris following the destruction of that city in 510 BC. The city was short-lived and played no significant role in history. It was deserted by the time of Pliny (AD 1st Century). The modern town of (Marcellina di) Santa Maria del Cedro (CS) sits on the site of the ancient city.Laus (mod. Lao), River: An ancient river on the southern Italian mainland. The river rises in the Lucanian Apennines and is a considerable stream throughout its length. It emptied into the Gulf of Laus (mod. Golfo di Policastro) near the modern town of Santa Maria del Cedro (CS). According to Pliny, Ptolemy and Strabo, it formed the boundary between ancient Lucania and Bruttium. The name of the river, and the associated Greek town, is believed to be related to the Indo-European root *lou(e)- (‘to wash’).Lavello (anc. Labellum) (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza. Population:  (2006e).Laverna: an ancient Italic goddess, queen of the underworld. It was a custom to pour libations to her using the left hand.Laviano (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Lavinium: An ancient town of Bruttium, near the modern town of Scalea (CS). Because it was situated in the valley of the Laus river, it is believed that its name is name is derived from that waterway.lazzaroni (sing. lazzarone) A derogatory term used for the lowest social and economic classes of Naples during the Spanish and Bourbon eras. These included street peddlers, porters, boatmen, beggers, and the masses of homeless. The term derives from lazzaro, an Italian word for “leper”, and seems to refer to the begger Lazarus mentioned in the parable of Christ. During medieval times lepers were required to wear short drawers and a hooded shirt. The costume was retained until the modern era by the lazzaroni. At the end of the 18th Century, when the lazzaroni formed an important and violent faction of supporters for the Bourbons, it was estimated that they numbered around 40,000.left-handedness: The belief that left-handedness was considered evil or immoral is a survival from Roman times. Typically it was considered bad-luck to enter a building using the left foot first and left-handed people were viewed with suspicion. The Latin term for “left” (= sinister) has been borrowed by the English language as a negative word.Lecce (anc. Lupiae) (LE): A commune and provincial capital in the province of Lecce. Population: 92,688 (2006e). Lecce, Province of: A province of Puglia. Population of the Province of Lecce1871493,5941901706,5201936 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2005 2006 2007  Communes of Lecce ProvinceCommuneArea(km²)Population(2007e)Population(2006e)Population(2001 census)Population(1991 census)Acquarica del Capo18.374956494447344779Alessano28.486591661565566552Alezio16.535329523350845162Alliste23.476611658160546213Andrano15.475095511851605112Aradeo8.519764977996769688Arnesano13.473752370934533451Bagnolo del Salento6.761884186718581809Botrugno9.682954299530463069Calimera11.147360735173027328Campi Salentina45.1110964109811124211594Cannole20.021773176117651765Caprarica di Lecce10.822620267328132968Carmiano23.6612297123251216012176Carpignano Salentino48.043843386838433889Casarano38.0820457205062057920164Castri di Lecce12.223059307731123058Castrignano de’ Greci9.524121416441073985Castrignano del Capo20.275422542354745314Castro4.442519252525572421Cavallino22.341176711667106219314Collepasso12.686600663866916874Copertino57.7624303243532229423475Corigliano d’Otranto28.065779576256335627Corsano9.085760575457355345Cursi8.184203416641224190Cutrofiano55.729190925090899577Diso11.563186320132983372Gagliano del Capo16.145465548456605764Galatina81.6227636276592808129296Galatone46.5415905158841589516153Gallipoli40.3521201212042026620090Giuggianello10.061229123212861320Giurdignano13.751811180217931750Guagnano37.796027605061936629Lecce238.39935299268883303100884Lequile36.368313827279467645Leverano48.7714053140041391413526Lizzanello25.011086210709101619321Maglie22.3615099151951525515223Martano21.849565958895169594Martignano6.351777178417701846Matino26.2811658116201161511370Melendugno91.069649966793078789Melissano12.427446748874487124Melpignano10.932223223422092156Miggiano7.643662367837533666Minervino di Lecce17.883874388139494113Monteroni di Lecce16.4913715137571367713382Montesano Salentino8.472751275427652626Morciano di Leuca13.393485348935123521Muro Leccese16.545169515852675173Nardò190.4830886307233052031490Neviano16.065648567359256330Nociglia10.902560259326692766Novoli17.778324835284848771Ortelle9.952459247624892520Otranto76.155481549252825114Palmariggi8.781584158616031622Parabita20.8494249345955710039Patù8.546144173217471696Poggiardo19.8015099616560756071Porto Cesareo34.675273512044194044Presicce24.095669570256295794Racale24.471069610657103219978Ruffano38.8296459597953010092Salice Salentino59.008829886188638963Salve32.794612459945564524Sanarica12.751462147114461495San Cassiano8.612177219222232263San Cesario di Lecce7.988097799273577351San Donato di Lecce21.165837576957185641Sannicola27.326034602561526414San Pietro in Lama7.933696371537333788Santa Cesarea Terme26.453110307630953014Scorrano34.856955688767556671Seclì8.651971194519091808Sogliano Cavour5.174141414640784061Soleto29.955579555155375338Specchia24.744981500349374966Spongano12.133824383238143850Squinzano29.282548150401535515821Sternatia16.514452258326992811Supersano36.191730446946024651Surano8.8514071175517911800Surbo20.3412594138421272910560Taurisano23.3212759125251243611842Taviano21.182888126781250612322Tiggiano7.5014553289628712628Trepuzzi23.6717889145251414714380Tricase42.645241179091738616390Tuglie8.4011941529953085601Ugento98.724311118361082411301Uggiano la Chiesa14.3314271428643414454Veglie61.357524142591402213639Vernole60.572116753575927792Zollino9.893696214321942279Total2,759.41808939807,424787,825803,977  Lecce, Metropolitan Archdiocese of: A Metropolitan archdiocese in the ecclesiastical region of Puglia.Suffragans: Brindisi–Ostuni, Nardò–Gallipoli, Otranto, Ugento–Santa Maria di Leuca.Metropolitan:Conference Region: .Area: km²/ mi²):Total Population:.Catholic Population:Total Priests: (Diocesan: ; Religious:)Permanent Deacons:Male Religious:Female Religious:Parishes:.History:                Diocese of Lecce established in 1057.                Promoted to a Metropolitan Archdiocese on Oct. 20, 1980.Lecce nei Marsi (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 1,731 (2006e).Leni (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Lent Traditions: In the Abruzzo region, it is a tradition to cut a paper figure of an old woman with 7 feet. The figure is meant to represent Lent, and is hung on the chimney on Ash Wednesday, 7 weeks before Easter. As each week passed, a member of the family, usually a child, cuts off one of the figure’s feet.                A long-held Lenten tradition consists of a cord being stretched on Ash Wednesday from one window to another, at the center of which is hug a figure made of rope and rags. The figure is decorated with 7 features and holds a spindle and distaff in its hands. Elsewhere on the same cord are hung a herring, garlic, an onion, a bit of charcoal (or dried cod-fish). All of these are symbolic of the traditional Lenten meal. As this decoration is being created and hung, the makers repeat a rhyme:Quarésema puverella.Va dicendo pe’ la terra:Chi me da’ ‘na fuglitélla?E noglie, noglie?Chi mi da’ dù far’ ammoglie?Chi mi da’ la stuppetéllaPe’ fa’ fila’ quarésema puverella?”Poor old LentGoes wandering o’er the earth, a-crying:Who will give me a drop of wine?Who, but who?Who will give me wherewithal to wed?Who will give a strand of hemoFor poor old Lent to spin?Source: Antiquary Magazine vol.36. Jan-Dec. 1900 p.200Every Sunday one of the feathers is removed from the central figure, and on Holy Saturday, as the churchbells ring, the figures are ritualistically burned as everyone rejoices.                An old tradition is found in the town of Roccacaramanico, in the province of Pescara. On Good Friday, 24 young men of the town are chosen to represent ancient Roman centurions. Half of the group dresses in red tunics, and the rest in green. They all carry lances and wear helmets. In a double line, and with great solemnity, the “soldiers” slowly march through the town to the parish church. On the lowest step of the church’s altar is placed the figure of Christ, having been earlier taken down from the cross and laid on cushions. The red tuniced “Romans” then enter the church, march around the nave, and then take up positions as sentinels around the figure of Christ. The green-tuniced detachment remains outside of the church as though standing guard. After an hour the two detachments switch places. This is repeated for the remainder of the day and throughout the night until dawn of Holy Saturday. It is believed that this is a survival of sacred play which originated in medieval times.Lentella (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 439 (2006e).Lentini (SR): A commune in the province of Siracusa, located 24 miles NW of Siracusa. Population: 24,356 (2006e).Leo I, St: Pope. (r September 29, 440-Nov 10, 461).Leo II, St.: Pope. (rDec 681-July 3, 683).Leo III: Pope. (rDec 26, 795-June 12, 816).Leo IV, St.: Pope. (rJan. 847-July 17, 855).Leo V: Pope. (rJuly-Sept 903).Leo VI: Pope. (rMay-Dec 928).Leo VII: Pope. (rJan 3, 936-July 13, 939).Leo VIII: Pope. (rJuly 964-Mar 1, 965).Leo IX, St.: Pope. (rFeb 12, 1049-Apr. 19, 1054).Leo X: Pope. (rMar 9, 1513-Dec 1, 1531).Leo XI: Pope. (rApr. 1-Apr 27, 1605).Leo XII: Pope. (rSept. 28, 1823-Feb 10, 1829).Leo XIII: Pope. (rFeb 20, 1878-July 20, 1903).Leo, Leonardo: (b. 5 August 1694, San Vito Degli Schiavi. d. 31 October 1744, Naples). Composer.Leoncavallo, Ruggiero: (b. 8 March 1857, Naples. d. 9 August 1919, Montecatini). Composer.Leonforte (EN): A commune in the province of Enna. Population: 13,993 (2006e).Leontini: ancient city, E Sicily, c.20 mi (32 km) S of Catania. It was founded (729 B.C.) as a colony of Chalcidian Greeks from the island of Naxos and, in the 5th century BC, passed under the rule of Syracuse. It was the legendary home of the Laestrygonians, a group of giants encountered by Odysseus. The site of ancient Leontini is now occupied by modern Lentini.Leotiskos: an athlete of ancient Messene in Sicily. He was victor in wrestling at the Olympian Games in 456 BC and 452 BC.Leontius (1): (fl. mid-7th century). Ecclesiastic. Bishop of Naples. He was present at the Lateran synod of AD 649. He held the see of Naples for 4 years.Leontius (2): (fl. 2nd half of the 8th century). Ecclesiastic. Bishop of Bari. He was present at the 2nd Council of Nicaea in AD 787.Leontius (3): (fl. late 6th/early 7th centuries). Byzantine official. After serving as Consul or Quaestor in Sicily, he remained an important figure. He received a number of letters from Pope Gregory I between AD 598 and 601.Leonymus: A mythological Greek king of Croton, in southern Italy who made war on neighboring Locri. According to Pausanias [3.19.12ff], he was wounded in battle by the ghost of the hero Ajax the Greater, who was fight on behalf of the Locrians. When the wound failed to heal, Leonymus went to Delphi to consult the oracle of Delphi. There he was told that he must travel to the mystical island of Leuke (the White Island). Here, it was said, that the souls of dead heroes dwelt, and here he had to seek out Ajax, for only he could cure the wound which he had inflicted. Leonymus found the White Island at the mouth of the River Ister (Danube) and was said to become the first living man to set foot there. Ajax agreed to heal him and while there, Leonymus also saw the shades of Ajax the Lesser, of Helen (who had wed Achilles in the afterlife), Patroclus, and Antilochus.Leporano (TA): A commune in the province of Taranto.Lequile (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 8,272 (2006e).Lercara Friddi (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.Lesina (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 6,278 (2006e).Letino (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population: 798 (2006e).Letojanni (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Lettere (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.Lettopalena (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 392 (2006e).Leucothea: In classical mythology, one of the Sirens. She had cult centers located in the cities of Neapolis (Naples) and Velia, in Magna Graecia.Levanzo (anc. PhorbantiaBucinna): One of the principal islands of the Isole Egadi, off the west coast of Sicily. Its highest point is 850 feet.Leverano (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 14,004 (2006e).Lex municipalis Tarentina: A municipal charter of the city of Tarentum (mod. Taranto) dating from the 1st Century BC. The surviving portion of the charter contains provisions about the responsibilities of municipal magistrates, building regulations, etc.Liber: Originally an ancient Italic god of animal and vegetation fertility god, he later came to a wine god similar to the Greek Dionysus. His festival on March 17 marked the day when Roman youths assumed the toga virilus, the symbol of adulthood. He was the son of Ceres and brother of Libera.Libera: An ancient Italic underworld (chthonic) goddess. She was the daughter of Ceres and sister of Liber, with whose worship she was usually connected. She was often identified with Persephone,Liberi (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population: 1,184 (2006e).Liberius: Pope. (rMay 17, 352-Sept 24, 366).Librizzi (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Licata (AG): A commune in the province of Agrigento. Population: 39,091 (2006e).Licinii: An important gens (clan) of ancient Rome. It was originally of Etruscan origins. The triumvir Marcus Licinius Crassus (d. 53 BC), the conqueror of Spartacus, belonged to this gens.Licodia Eubea (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 3,212 (2006e).Ligorio, Pirro: (b. c1510, Naples. d. 1583, Ferrara). Architect, painter, art writer and antique dealer. He was living in Rome in 1534, where he was creating paintings depicting historical events. In 1568, he moved to the court of Este in Ferrara.Principal Works:Paintings:Excavations of the Villa Adriana in the city of Tivoli- 1549.Books:Libro delle antichita’ di Roma- 1553.Architecture-Villa d’Este in Tivoli- (1550-1572).Casino di Pio IV in Rome (1559-1562).Palazzo Torres-Lancellotti- Rome.Niche of the courtyard of Belvedere- Rome.Liguori (or Ligorio), St. Alfonso Maria de: b. Sept. 26, 1696, at Marianella, near Naples; d. Aug. 1, 1787, at Nocera de Pagani.Lilybaeum, Cape: ancient name for the westernmost corner of Sicily.Lilybaeum: ancient city of Sicily, on the extreme western coast. It is the modern Marsala. It was founded (396 B.C.) by Carthage and became a stronghold. In the First Punic War it resisted a long Roman siege (250-242 B.C.). Rome finally captured the city in 241 BC and later used it as a base for the African campaign of Scipio Africanus Major. The city was famous for its harbor.Limatola (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 3,750 (2006e).Limbadi (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.Limina (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Limosano (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 894 (2006e).Linguaglossa (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 5,365 (2006e).Linus, St.: Pope (rAD 67-76). He was a native of Tuscany.Lioni (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 6,289 (2006e).Lipara: The principal island of the Aeoliae Insulae.Lipareae: See Aeoliae Insulae.Lipari (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Lipari (anc. Lipareae): (area: 37.6 km²). The principal island of the Isole Eolie (Lipari Islands).Lipari Islands: Also known as Isole Eolie. A chain of volcanic islands in the Mediterranean to the N of Sicily. According to legend, the ancient name, Lipara, derives from that of Liparus, a mythical king of the islands. A less-romantic theory states that the name comes from the Greek word liparos (= “fat” or “rich”).Lira (Neapolitan): The principal currency used in the Kingdom of Naples in 1812-1813 under Murat. It was subdivided into 100 centesimi and was equal to 1 French franc. Minted as a silver coin, its name derived from the Latin libra = pound.lire: a 3-stringed bowed fiddle, played on the knee. It is found mostly in Calabria.Liris (mod. Garigliano): A river in central Italy. Rising near the Fucinus lacus, it flows SSE to Sora, and then turns sharply to the SSW. At Isola dei Liri, its flows cascades and finally  flows through marshy ground at Minturnae to enter the Tyrrhenian Sea.Liscia (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 805 (2006e).Liternum (mod. Lago di Patria): A Roman colony founded in 194 BC in the Liternum Patria, 8 km N of Cumae. It is known that P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus retired to a villa located. Although Livy, in the 1st century AD, wrote that the colony had failed by his time, archaeological evidence contradicts him and seems to show that it survived until the 3rd century AD. The construction of the Via Domitia, in the late AD 1st century, brought the town a brief period of prosperity. The advance of malarial marshes led to the town’s ultimate decline.Liternum Patria: An ancient district along the northern coast of Campania. The Greeks established Kyme (Cumae), their first colony on the Italian mainland, here.Liveri (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.Lizzanello (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 10,709 (2006e).Lizzano (TA): A commune in the province of Taranto.Locorotondo (BA): A commune in the province of Bari: Population: 14,042 (2006e).Locri (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.Locri – Gerace, Diocese of:Suffragans:Metropolitan: Reggio Calabria – BovaConference Region: CalabriaArea: 1,248 km²/ mi²Total Population: 131,005.Catholic Population:Total Priests: 80 (Diocesan: 56; Religious: 24)Permanent Deacons: 2Male Religious:Female Religious:Parishes: 74History:Locri Epizephyrii (Lokroi Epizephyrioi): A city of ancient Bruttium. During the 7th century BC, a colony was established by Opuntian Greeks from Lokri on a site 85 km NE of modern Reggio Calabria. This city was the site where the lawgiver Zaleucus created what is often thought to be the earliest written Greek law code. The governement supported by this constutution was a hereditary oligarchic in nature.                Once securely established the Locrians began to send out their own colonies in the 6th century BC. These colonies, medma, Hipponium, and Metaurus, never attained any real level of independence, remaining largely dependent on Locri throughout their history.  Politically, Locri was closely allied with Syracuse and supported the latter during the Athenian expedition of 415-13 BC. They provided aid to Dionysius I during his operations in southern Italy. In 356 BC, after giving asylum to Dionysius II, it was seized by him for a time. After Dionysius returned to Syracuse, the Locrians regained control of their city and brutally killed Dionysius’s family who had remained there. A constitutional government was reestablished. From 280 to 270 BC, Locri established an alliance with Pyrrhus, donating treasure from their sanctuary of Zeus to finance his campaigns. After Pyrrhus withdrew from Italy, Locri formed an alliance with Rome which continued until the Secord Punic War. In 214 BC, the Locrians threw their support to Hannibal until, in 208 BC, control of the city was siezed by a pro-Roman faction. This allowed the city to escape severe reprisal when Rome emerged victorious. For several centuries under the Romans, Locri flourished as a municipium. It was only as the empire declined that Lorci began to suffer. During the 5th century AD the ancient city was finally abandoned.loggia: a roofed gallery or balcony.Lokroi Epizephyrioi: See Locri Epizephyrii.Lollia Gens: An ancient Roman plebian gens. Not appearing in history until the last decades of the Republic, it is believed to have been of Sabine or Samnite origins. The first member of this gens to attain the consulship was M. Lollius in 21 BC.Lollius (1): (fl. 3rd Century BC) A Samnite, he was held at Rome as a hostage after the Pyrrhic War. Escaping, he became the leader of a band of brigands and seized control of the stronghold of Caricinum in Samnium. He used this fortress as a base of operations for raiding the countryside. In 269 BC, he was defeated and his stronghold captured by the Romans under Q. Ogulnius Gallus and C. Fabius Pictor.Lollius, Quintus (2): (fl. 2nd – 1st Centuries BC). A Roman knight (eques) living in Sicily. Nearly 90 years old when Verres served as governor of Sicily (73-71 BC), he was victimized by the governor’s assistant Q. Apronius. When Cicero later prosecuted Verres for his crimes, Lollius was too feeble to testify, but his son Marcus Lollius served as his agent. Another of his sons, Quintus Lollius, while gathering evidence to use against Verres in Sicily, was murdered on the road. It was generally believed that the act was done by assassins hired by Verres but there is no evidence that anyone was ever officially prosecuted.Lombards: (It. Longobardi). A Teutonic people of Scandinavian origins. After a period of settlement in the area of the lower Danube, they invaded Byzantine-held Italy in the spring of AD 568. The name, usually translated as “Long Beards”, is a combination of two Germanic words lang ( = long) and bart ( = beard). Some researchers, however, believe that the second root is actually barta( = ax), thus changing the meaning of the name to “long axes”, referring to a favorite weapon of the Lombards.Longano (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 719 (2006e).Longi (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Longobardi: See Lombards.Longobardi (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 2,295 (2006e).Longobucco (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 4,077 (2006e).Loreto Aprutino (PE): A commune in the province of Pescara, located 4 miles from Chieti.Losna: Etruscan goddess of the moon.Louis: King of Sicily (Trinacria) (r1342-1355).Louis I of Anjou: (b. July 23, 1339, Château de Vincennes, France; d. Sept. 20, 1384, Biseglia Castle near Bari). King of Naples and Jerusalem (r1382-1384); Count of Anjou (1356–1360), Duke of Anjou (1360–1384), Count of Maine (1356–1384), Duke of Touraine (1370–1384), and Count of Provence and Forcalquier (1382–1384). He was the second son of King John II of France and Bonne de Luxembourg. After the French defeat by the English at the Battle of Poitiers (1356), Louis became a hostage and was sent to England in October 1360. He managed to escape and return to France, but was sent back by his father who considered his getaway to be dishonorable.                Between 1380 and 1382 he served as regent of France for his nephew Charles VI. Having been adopted as the heir of Queen Joanna I of Naples, Louis seized control of the counties of Provence and Forcalquier after Joanna’s overthrown and execution (May 12, 1382). He left France in an attempt to secure his claim to Naples, but could not oust Charles of Durazzo, who became King Charles III. Louis died in Bari and his claim to Naples was inherited by his son Louis II.Louis II of Anjou: (b. 1377; d. Apr. 29, 1417). King of Naples (r1390-1399) in opposition to Ladislaus (r1386-1414). He was the son of Louis I of Anjou, whose claim to the throne of Naples he inherited. On Nov. 1, 1389, he was crowned King of Naples by the antipope Clement VIII. Louis entered Naples in 1390 and held the city until Ladislaus recovered it in 1399. He would continue his contest with Ladislaus, driving the latter out of Rome in 1409. In the following year, Louis allied himself with the antipope John XXIII against Ladislaus. He was able to defeat his rival in battle at Roccasecca in 1411, but was never able to retake the Neapolitan throne. Retiring back into his French holdings, he died in 1417, and his claim to Naples passed to his son Louis III.Lucania: ancient region of S Italy. It had an area of about 3,900 sq. miles. It was bounded on the east by the Gulf of Tarentum (now Taranto) and by Apulia, on the north by Samnium and Campania, on the west by the Tyrrhenian Sea, and on the south by Bruttium. Italic tribes and Greek colonists lived there before the Roman conquest in the 3d cent. B.C. Their chief cities were Heraclea and Metapontum on the Gulf of Tarentum and Paestum and Buxentum on the Tyrrhenian coast. The non-Greek Lucanians were Samnites. The western portion of ancient Lucania is now in Campania; the larger eastern part is in Basilicata.Lucanians (Lucani): An ancient Indo-European Oscan-speaking people of southern Italy. The few Lucanian inscriptions which still survive are relatively late (4th-3rd centuries BC) and written using a Greek alphabet.It is known that the Lucanians moved south into “Oenotria” in the middle of the 5th century BC, driving the native Oenotrians, Chones, and Lauternoi, into the mountainous interior of the peninsula. The expansion southward eventually brought the Lucanians into direct conflict with the Greeks of Taras (Tarentum). The Tarentines utilized allies such as Alexander of Epirus to fight their wars with varying success.The initial contact between the Lucanians and the Romans was on good terms.Lucca Sicula (AG): A commune in the province of Agrigento. Population: 2,016 (2006e).Lucera (anc. Luceria) (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 35,017 (2006e).Luceria: A city of ancient Apulia, the modern Lucera (FG). Situated on the borders of Samnium and Apulia, it first appeared in history in 315/4 BC as a Samnite stronghold captured by the Romans. A Latin colony was established on the site, which was renewed by Augustus. It was during the reign of Augustus that a fine amphitheater was contructed on the site.                Luceria survived the collapse of the western Empire and maintained enough local importance to have a strong citadel constructed there in medieval times.Lucia (Lucy), St.: (date uncertain). Christian martyr. Many scholars believe that she is only semi-historical, if not completely fictitious, in nature. According to her legend, she was a native of the Sicilian city of Syracuse. When she took a vow of chastity and dedicated her life to Christ, her mother tried to arrange a marriage for her to a pagan. The mother immediately became seriously ill and Lucia prayed to St. Agatha to cure her. When the mother recovered she consented to Lucia’s wishes to break-off the unwanted marriage contract. The rejected bridegroom became so incensed that he denounced Lucy as a Christian to the Roman authorities. The Roman governor first attempted to convince her to renounce her faith but when this proved futile he condemned her to become a prostitute. When the guards came to take her away, however, she miraculously became so heavy that she could not be lifted. Her sentence was then changed to be tortured and executed. In one version of her story, it is stated that while being tortured, her eyes were put out. Because of this, she became the patron saint of the blind and those with eye disorders. Feast Day: Dec. 13.Lucilius, Caius: (b. 148 BC in Suessa Aurunca; d. 103 BC in Naples). Latin poet. As a youth he joined the Roman army and served under the younger Scipio in Spain. He is believed to have been a maternal great-uncle of the triumvir Pompey the Great. Lucilius had an important influence on Latin poetry and is considered the first important writer of Roman satire. Many fragments of his workers have survived though few are of any length.Lucito (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 857 (2006e).Lucius I, St.: Pope. (r June 25, 253-March 5, 254).Lucius II: Pope. (rMar 12, 1144-Mar 15, 1145).Lucius III: Pope. (rSept 1, 1181-Nov 25, 1185).Luco dei Marsi (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 5,811 (2006e).Lucoli (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 963 (2006e).Lucrino, Lago (anc. Lucrinus lacus): A lake in Campania, separated from the sea by a narrow strip of land, which, according to tradition, was created by the hero Hercules. Since ancient times, the lake was famous for its oysters.Lucy, St.: See St. Lucia.Lungro (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 2,966 (2006e).Lungro, Eparchate of:Suffragans:Metropolitan: Immediately subject to the Holy See.Conference Region: CalabriaArea: 493 km²/ mi²Total Population: 33,086Catholic Population:Total Priests: 34 (Diocesan: 32; Religious: 2)Permanent Deacons: 1.Male Religious:Female Religious:Parishes: 29.History:Luogosano (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 1,244 (2006e).Lupara (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 601 (2006e).Lupiae (LE): Ancient name for the city of Lecce.Lurs: An obscure Etruscan god about which little is known.Lusciano (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population: 13,636 (2006e).Lustitieratus Aprutii: A small state in the Abruzzi created by Frederick II in the 13th Century. It was centered of the city of Sulmona.Lustra (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Luzzi (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 10,102 (2006e).Lygdamis: An athlete of ancient Syracuse. He was victor in the pankration at the Olympian Games in 648 BC.Lykinos: an athlete of ancient Kroton. He was victor in the Stadion at the Olympian Games in 584 BC. 
MMacchia d’Isernia (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 948 (2006e).Macchia Valfortore (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 693 (2006e).Macchiagodena (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 1,928 (2006e).Macerata Campania (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population: 10,437 (2006e).Maddaloni (CE): a commune in Campania located 15 miles NE of Naples. Population: 38,420 (2006e).Madonie Mountains (anc. Nerbodes): a range of mountains in NE Sicily.Mafalda (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso.Maffa, Vincio: (fl. early 16th Century). Ecclesiastic. He was elected Bishop of Caiazzo in 1507, and served as theologian at the Lateran Council in 1512.Mafia: an infamous criminal organization centered on the island of Sicily.Mafioso (pl. mafiosi): member of the mafia.Magisano (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 1,275 (2006e).Magliano de’ Marsi (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 3,810 (2006e).Magliano Vetere (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Maglie (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 15,195 (2006e).Magna Graecia: [Lat. =Great Greece], Greek colonies of S Italy. The Greek overseas expansion of the 8th cent. B.C. led to the foundation of several towns and cities that became the centers of a new, thriving Greek culture on Italian soil. These Greek colonies were established mostly on both coasts of the southern Italian peninsula from the Bay of Naples and the Gulf of Taranto southward. Unlike Greek Sicily, the power and wealth of Magna Graecia began to decline by 500 B.C., due in large part to the wide-spread presence of malaria in the region as well as to endless warfare among the colonies. Only Tarentum (now Taranto) and Cumae managed to remain relatively secure for any extended period. Despite the political and social difficulties that existed in Magna Graecia, two important philosophical schools developed there during the 6th cent. B.C.; that of Parmenides at Elea and that of Pythagoras at Kroton. The Greeks of Magna Graecia, especially those at Cumae in Campania, served as conduits through which Greek civilization spread to the Etruscans of Capua and the Romans. The following are the chief cities of Magna Graecia (those colonized from Greece, except Thurii and Elea, go back to the 8th or early 7th cent. B.C.; those colonized locally are perhaps a century younger): on the east coast from north to south, Taras (Tarentum) (colonized from Sparta), Metapontum (from Achaea), Heraclea (from Tarentum), Siris (from Colophon), Sybaris (from Achaea), Thurii (from Athens, replacing Sybaris), Kroton (Croton, Crotona) (from Achaea), Caulonia (from Croton), Epizephyrian Locris (from Locris); on the west coast from north to south, Kyme (Cumae) (from Chalcis), Neapolis (mod. Naples; from Cumae), Poseidonia (Paestum) (from Sybaris), Elea (Velia) (from Phocaea in Ionia), Laos (from Sybaris), Hipponium (from Epizephyrian Locris), and Rhegium (now Reggio de Calabria; from Chalcis).magna regia curia: the highest court in the judicial system in the medieval kingdom of Sicily.Maia Maietas: The Roman version of the Italic goddess of Spring. She is also identified with the goddesses Fauna, Bona Dea, and Ops.Maida (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 4,358 (2006e).Maiella: An important massif in the Abruzzian Apennines. Its highest summit is Monte Amaro (alt. 9,130 ft; 2,795 meters).Maiera’ (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,296 (2006e).Maierato (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.Maio of Bari: (d. Nov. 10, 1160). A Lombard from Bari, he rose to become the Admiral (or more properly ammiratus ammiratorum = Emir of Emirs) of Sicily under the Norman kings. He became Chancellor of Sicily in 1150 or 1151, and was appointed Admiral by William I in 1154. He ousted Thomas Brun of England from the office of kaid or magister of the royal Diwan.Maiori (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Maiuri, Amedeo: (born: Jan. 7, 1886, Veroli [FR]; died: Apr. 7, 1963, Naples). Archaeologist. He is best-known for his work at Pompeii. From 1914 to 1924, he directed the Italian archaeological mission in Greece, and was especially active on Rhodes. He headed up several excavations and the building of a museum on the island. In 1924, he became the chief archaeologist at Pompeii, serving there as director until 1961. Focusing his efforts below the destruction layer, he was responsible for revealing the famous House of the Surgeon and the Casa d”Efebo. He also carried out excavations at other nearby sites like Herculaneum. In May 1932, he rediscovered the legendary Cave of the Sibyl near Cumae. From 1937 to 1948 he excavated on Capri, where he unearthed Tiberius’s Damecuta Villa, as well as the Villa Jovis.Majorano, Gaetano: See Caffarelli.Malapetzes: (fl. AD 1064). Byzantine commander of Otranto. He commanded a garrison consisting of Russian and Varangian mercenaries and successfully defended the city from Norman attack. Unfortunately, he neglected to demolish an ancient, splendid house belonging to his niece which abutted the interior of the city wall. The commander of the the attacking Normans, probably Count Geoffrey of Taranto, learned about the house and its unmarried occupant. Secretly sending rich gifts to the woman he promised to marry her if she would help him gain access to the city. She agreed to help and lowered ropes from the roof of her house over the city wall. Thus, the Normans were able to enter Otranto and capture the city. Malapetzes was able to escape by fleeing in a ship, but left his wife and children behind. There is no record of their fate.Maletto (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 4,040 (2006e).Maleventum: An ancient name for Benevento [BN].Malfa (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Malfalda (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 1,304 (2006e).Malito (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 865 (2006e).Malta (anc. Melita): An island nation situated about 58 miles S of Sicily. Area: 98 square miles.Malta, Sea of: See Sea of Sicily.Malvagna (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Malvito (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,897 (2006e).Mamatele (mamaliti, mamatili): a light northwest wind of Sicily.Mamertine: A notable wine produced in ancient times in the NE portion of Sicily. According to Strabo, it was the equal of the best of Italian wines. It was widely exported to Rome, Africa and beyond.Mamertines (Lat. Mamertini):Mammola (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.mamutones: masked performers who take part in processions in the Sicilian town of Mamoiada.Mandamento (pl. mandamenti): a mafia “district.” It normally consists of three mafia families with adjoining territories. Its head, called a capomandamento, usually sits on the governing Commission.Mandanici (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Mandatoriccio (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 2,976 (2006e).Mandocello: a large size mandolin. It is turned as a cello in CGDA.Mandola: an Italian lute. Its original form was bowl backed but modern versions are often flat backed like a cittern and have 8 strings.Mandolin: a small Italian lute with 8 (sometimes 12) strings and a flat back like a cittern.Manduria (TA): A commune in the province of Taranto.Manfred: King of Sicily (r1258-1266). Following his death, his body was interred near the bridge at Benevento, not far from where he fell in battle. His remains were dug up soon after by order of an archbishop of Cosenza, either Cardinal Bartolommeo Pignatelli or his successor, Tommaso d’Agni.Manfredonia (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 57,390 (2006e).Mango, Leonard de: (d. Feb. 19, 1843 at Bisceglie (BA); d. Istanbul). Painter. Having a natural talent for drawing, he received the patronage of a wealthy family of Bari, who financed his training at the Academy of Fine Arts of Naples. He studied there for eight years under the tutelage of some of the finest painters of that time. Upon graduation, he traveled to Istanbul, the capital of the Ottoman Empire. He remained there, employed as an Orientalist painter for the next 50 years.Mangone (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,766 (2006e).Mania: Etruscan guardian of the underworld and companion of Mantus.Maniace (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 3,627 (2006e).manna opt: a sweet pale yellow or white juice made from the bark of the manna ash tree, found chiefly in Calabria and Sicily and used as a natural laxative.Manocalzati (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 3,213 (2006e).Manoppello (PE): A commune in the province of Pescara.Manso (Mansone) I: Ruler of Amalfi (r966-1004).Manso (Manone) II: Ruler of Amalfi (r1034-1038).Mantus: Etruscan god of the underworld and companion of Mania. The northern Italian city of Mantua derives its name from his.Marano di Napoli (NA): A town in Campania situated 6 miles NW of Naples. Population: 58,996 (2006e).Marano Marchesato (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 2,948 (2006e).Marano Principato (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 2,667 (2006e).Maratea (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Marcedusa (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 496 (2006e).Marcellinara (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 2,170 (2006e).Marcellinus, St.: Pope. (rAD 296-304).Marcellus I, St.: Pope. (rAD 308-309).Marcellus II: Pope. (rApr. 9-Apr 30/ May 1, 1555).Marchesi (de Castrone), Salvatore: (b. Jan 15, 1822, Palermo; d. Feb 20, 1908, Paris). Baritone, singing teacher. He taught at the Die Wiener Musikhochschule in Vienna, Austria from 1859 to 1875.Marcianise (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population: 40,149 (2006e).Marcus (Mark), St.: Pope. (r Jan 18-Oct 7, 336).Maresca, Nicola (Duca di Serracapriola): (b. 1798). Statesman. He served as Minister Secretary of State/President of the Council of Ministers (Ministro Segretari di Stato –  Presidente del Consiglio di Ministri) in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in 1848.Marettimo (anc. HieraMaritima): the westernmost of the principal islands of the Isole Egadi, off the west coast of Sicily. Its highest point is Monte Falcone (2,224 feet).Margherita di Savoia (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 12,720 (2006e). It is one of the three communes of the province of Foggia which will be transferred to the newly created province of Barletta-Andria-Trani in 2009. Prior to 1879 it was called Saline di Barletta and was renamed to honor the queen of Italy.Maria: See Mary, Queen of Sicily (r1377-1401).Maria Carolina (Marie Caroline): Queen of Naples and Sicily (r. 1768-1812). The wife of Ferdinand I, King of the Two Sicilies, her strong will made her the de facto ruler of the Regno for much of her husband’s reign. Strongly devoted to strengthening her native Austria’s influence in southern Italy, she attempted to block that of England. Through diplomacy, however, the British succeeded in having her deposed from power and sent back to Austria.Marianopoli (CL): A commune in the province of Caltanissetta. Population: 2,150 (2006e).Marie Caroline: See Maria Carolina, Queen of Naples and Sicily (r. 1768-1812).Mariglianella (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.Marigliano (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.Marina di Gioiosa Ionica (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.Marineo (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.Marino I: Duke of Naples (rAD 919-928). He was the probable son of Giovanni (John) II and probable father of Giovanni (John) III and St. Athanasius I.Marino II: (d. AD 977) Duke of Naples (AD 963-977). He was the son of Giovanni (John) III and Teodora, and the father of Sergius (Sergio) III.Marinus: (fl. AD 9th Century). A Greek noble and Count of Castrum di Cuma (Cumae). By his wife Euprassia, he was the father of Sergius (Sergio) I (Duke of Naples AD 840-865).Marinus I: Pope. (rDec 16, 882-May 15, 884).Marinus II: Pope. (rOct. 30 942-May 946).Maritima: an ancient name for the island of Marettimo, in the Isole Egadi group off western Sicily.Maropati (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.Marrone, Patrizio: (b. 2 January 1961, Naples). Composer.Marrucini: An ancient people who once inhabited parts of Abruzzo. Related to, and possibly descended from the Marsi, their chief town was Teate (mod. Chieti).Marsa Ali: Arabic name for Marsala (TP).Marsala (anc. Lilybaeum; Arab. Marsa Ali) (TP): A commune in the province of Trapani. The modern name derived from the Arabic Mirsa-Ilahi (= Port of God).Marsala: a class of white wines which developed in western Sicily, named for the port city of Marsala, its principal center of production.Marsi: An ancient people who inhabited parts of Abruzzo. Related to the Sabines, mythology claimed that they were descended from Marsus, a son of the sorceress Circe, or from Marsyas, a Phrygian. They were the first of the Italic people to rebel against the Romans in 91 BC during the Social War. Among their chief towns were Marrubium and Alba Fucentia. They had strong beliefs in magic which have survived among their descendants to the present day.Marsico Nuovo (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Marsicovetere (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Martano (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 9,588 (2006e).Martignano (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 1,784 (2006e).Martin I, St.: Pope. (rJuly 649-Sept 16, 655).Martin I “the Younger”: King of Sicily (Trinacria) (r1395-1409).Martin II “the Elder”: King of Sicily (Trinacria) (r1409-1410).Martin IV: Pope. (rFeb 22, 1281-March 28, 1285). He was actually the third pope to use the name Martin but is called Martin IV because of a mistake by the chroniclers in identifying the two earlier popes, Marinus I and Marinus II, as “Martins”.Martin V: Pope. (rNov 11, 1417-Feb 20, 1431).Martina Franca (TA): A commune in the province of Taranto.Martinsicuro (TE): A commune in the province of Teramo.Martirano (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 988 (2006e).Martirano Lombardo (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 1,289 (2006e).Martone (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.Martucci, Giuseppe: (b. 6 Jan. 1656, Capua. d. 1 June 1909, Naples). Composer.Maruggio (TA): A commune in the province of Taranto.Marvuglia, Venanzio: (b. 1729, Palermo; d. 1814). Architect. He worked in and around Palermo.Mary (Maria): Queen of Sicily (r1377-1401).Marzano Appio (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population: 2,505 (2006e).Marzano di Nola (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 1,702 (2006e).Marzi (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 985 (2006e).Mascali (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 12,385 (2006e).Mascalucia (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 26,590 (2006e).Maschito (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Masone di Bari: Grand Chancellor under King Roger II of Sicily.Massa d’Albe (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 1,567 (2006e).Massa di Somma (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.Massa Lubrense (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.Massafra (TA): A town in Puglia situated 11 miles NW of Taranto. Population: 31,343 (2006e).Massa-Lubrense (NA): A town in Campania located 19 miles S of Naples. Population: 13,429 (2006e).massaria: a farm.Massicus mons: (mod. Monte Mássico). A mountain located in northern Campania mentioned by Pliny, Virgil and Florentius.Matera, Province of: A province in the region of Basilicata.Communes of Matera ProvinceCommuneArea(km²)Population(2007e)Population(2006e)Population(2001 census)Population(1991 census)Accettura89.272112216824362740Aliano96.291213123412841495Bernalda126.7212183121621195812037Calciano48.688398388931049Cirigliano14.93425435445532Colobraro65.931469148815351756Craco76.28802800796971Ferrandina215.559222927993589427Garaguso38.581183117111931270Gorgoglione34.221078109411791395Grassano41.085571561857926065Grottole115.882474251826073006Irsina262.215387548457326558Matera388.1459738594075778554919Miglionico88.922596259526302718Montalbano Jonico132.947797780679918688Montescaglioso173.2610043100791012110104Nova Siri52.106599658764185922Oliveto Lucano31.47546558587762Pisticci231.3917810178671781118311Policoro67.3115653155671509614551Pomarico128.744379442244825018Rotondella76.902997306132333712Salandra77.093022305431093363San Giorgio Lucano38.941416142915101820San Mauro Forte86.891887197423063025Scanzano Jonico71.507006696267116210Stigliano209.965154525956166576Tricarico176.935976603663187017Tursi156.055235532755106003Valsinni31.971708173917971965Total3,446.12203,520204,018204239208985 Matera (MT): a commune and provincial capital of the province of Matera. Population: 59,407 (2006e).Matera-Irsina, Archdiocese of: An archdiocese in the Ecclesiastical Region of Basilicata.Suffragans:Metropolitan: Potenza-Muro Lucano-Marsico Nuovo.Conference Region: Basilicata.Area: 2,020 km²/ mi²Total Population: 143,664.Catholic Population:Total Priests: 86 (Diocesan: 67; Religious: 19)Permanent Deacons: 1Male Religious:Female Religious:Parishes: 52.History:Mathilde de Hauteville: (b. 1063; d. 1094). Daughter of Count Roger I and Eremburge de Mortain, she married Robert, Count of Eu, before 1092.Matino (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 11,620 (2006e).Matrice (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 1,079 (2006e).Mattanza, La: a traditional large scale capture and slaughter of tuna fish off the coast of Sicily.Mattinata (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 6,461 (2006e).Maximus of Aquila, St.: (d. AD 250). Christian martyr. A deacon at Aquila (L’Aquila) in the Abruzzi, he was arrested by the Roman authorities who attempted to convince him to renounce Christianity. When he refused he was thrown to his death off of a cliff. He is the patron saint of L’Aquila.Mazara del Vallo (formerly Mazzara) (TP): A town in western Sicily located in a coastal plain about 26 miles S. of Trapani. Population: 51,425 (2006e).Mazzarino (CL): A commune in Sicily located 15 miles SE of Caltanissetta. Population: 12,280 (2006e).Mazzaroppi, Marco: (b. c1570, San Germano (mod. Cassino) [FR]; d. 1620) Painter. His principal works decorated the Monastery of Montecassino until its destruction during World War II.Mazzarra Sant’Andrea (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Mazzarrone (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 3,719 (2006e).Mazzeo: a surname found in southern Italy. It derives from Mazzeo, a derivation of the name Matteo (=Matthew).Measures used in Southern Italy, Historical:Ancient Greek:Areasquare plethron =100 × 100 feet; = 0.0875 ha. (Attic); =0.095 ha (Parthenon); = 0.1027 ha. (Olympic)square cubit= 0.197 sq. meters (Attic); 0.231 sq. meters (Olympic).square foot= 29.57 sq. cm (Attic); = 30.8 sq. cm (Parthenon); = 32.05 sq. cm (Olympic)Lengthparasange= 30 stadia; = 5,328-5,760 meters. This was considered the average distance a person could walk in about one hour.stadion(pl. stadia)= 6 plethra; = 600 feet; = 9600 fingers; = 177.6 metersschoinion (rope)=52.5 meters.plethron(pl. plethra)= 100 feet; =1600 fingers; = 29.57 meterspêchys (cubit)= 24 fingers = 44.36 cm (Attic) or 48.08 cm (Olympic)pous (foot)= 16 fingers; = 29.57 cm;daktylos (finger)= 1.85 cmDry Volumemedimnos= 6 hekteis; = 48 choinikes; = 192 kotylai; = 52.176 liters.(Some sources value 1 medimnos = 54 liters)artabêa measure of uncertain value. It is estimated to have been equal to either 30 or 40 choinikes.hekteus(pl. hekteis )= 8 choinikes; = 322 kotylai; = 8.696 literschoinix(pl. choinikes)= 4 kotylai; = 1.087 liters.kotylê(pl. kotylai)= 0.272 litersLiquid Volumemetrêtês= 4 kophinoi; = 12 choes; = 144 kotylai; = 37.4 (or 40.32) literskophinos(pl. kophinoi)= 3 choes; = 36 kotylai; = 9.35 (or 10.08) literschous(pl. choes)= 12 kotylai; = 3.12 (or 3.36) literskotylê(pl. kotylai)= 0.26 (or 0.28) litersWeighttalent-weight= 60 mnai; = 6000 drachm-weights; = 27.47 kgmna(pl. mnai)= 100 drachm-weights; = 457.8 gr.drachm-weight (holkê)= 4.578 grtalent-weight= 60 mnai; = 6300 coin-drachms; = 27.47 kgmna(pl. mnai)= 105 coin-drachms; = 457.8 grcoin drachm= 4.36 gr Ancient Roman:Areacenturia= 100 heredia; = 200 iugera; = 400 actûs; = 50.365 haheredium(pl. heredia)= 2 iugera; = 4 actûs; = 0.5036 haiugerum(pl. iugera)= 2 actûs; = 0.2518 haactus(pl. actûs )= 0.1259 haLengthmile(milia passuum)= 8 stades; = 1000 paces; =5000 feet; = 1.48 km.stadium(pl. stadia)= 125 paces; = 625 feet; = 185 meterspace(pl. passus)= 5 feet; = 1.48 metersfoot(pl. pes)= 29.57 cmDry Volumemodius(pl. modii)=16 sextarii, = 8.736 liters.sextarius(pl. sextarii)=0.546 litersLiquid Volumeculleus(pl.)= 20 amphorae; =160 congii; = 960 sextarii; =517.11 litersamphora(pl. amphorae)=8 congii; = 48 sextarii; =25.86 literscongius(pl. congii)= 6 sextarii; =3.23 literssextarius(pl. sextarii)= 0.54 litersWeightpound (libra, as)=12 ounces; = 327.45 (or 322.56) gr.ounce (uncia)=  27.29 (or 26.88?) gr. Medieval:Area  Length  Dry VolumeSalma (pl. salme)In 14th century Sicily, the salma was found in 2 different standards. The salma of western Sicily, often called the salma generale because it was more commonly used, was equal to 0.128 bushels (275 liters). That is. 1 bushel of grain was equal to 7.8 salme. In eastern Sicily, a larger salma was used. This unit was 20% larger than it’s western counterpart (= 0.154 bushels = 330 liters). The salma derived from an estimation of the minimum amount of grain needed to feed a single individual for a year.Liquid Volume  Weight   Early ModernArea  LengthCanna (Messina)2.3111 yardsDry VolumeCarro (Naples)56.3258 bushelsSalma (Sicily)7.8 bushelsSalma (Grosso)(Sicily)10 bushelsTomolo (Naples)1.5646 bushelsLiquid VolumeAlmude (Sicily)4.896 gallonsBarile (Naples)11.5732 gallonsBotta (Naples)128.879 gallonsBotta (Messina)108 gallonsCarro (Naples)257.757 gallonsSalma (Naples)40.2726 gallonsSalma (Naples)(oil)42.1667 gallonsSalma (Sicily)(wine)22 gallonsWeight   Medix tuticus: title of a chief magistrate in the various ancient confederations of Oscan-speaking peoples.Megellos: Co-Ruler of Akragas (fl. late 4th Century BC) with Pharistos.Meinardo of Poitiers: (fl late 11th Century). Ecclesiastic. He was the earliest known bishop of Ariano di Puglia (fl. 1070).Melanophila: a silica mineral occurring in the form of colorless cubic crystals. It receives its name (melano= black; phila=loving) because it turns black when heated. It is occurs in the sulfur found near Agrigento, Sicily.Melendugno (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 9,667 (2006e).Melfi (PZ): A town in Basilicata. Population: 17,182 (2006e).Melfi-Rapolla-Venosa, Diocese of: Diocese in the Ecclesiastical Region of Basilicata.Suffragans:Metropolitan: Potenza-Muro Lucano-Marsico Nuovo.Conference Region: Basilicata.Area: 1,320 km²/ mi²Total Population: 87,889.Catholic Population:Total Priests: 52(Diocesan: 42; Religious: 10)Permanent Deacons: 10.Male Religious:Female Religious:Parishes: 33.History:Melicuccà (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.Melicucco (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.Melilli (SR): A commune in the province of Siracusa.Melissa (KR): A commune in the province of Crotone. Population: 3,290 (2006e)Melissano (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 7,488 (2006e).Melito di Napoli (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.Melito di Porto Salvo (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.Melito Irpino (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 1,987 (2006e).Melizzano (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 1,872 (2006e).Melpignano (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 2,234 (2006e).Mendicino (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 8,757 (2006e).Menfi (AG): A commune in the province of Agrigento. Population: 12,914 (2006e).Menrva: Etruscan goddess. She was the counterpart of the Greek goddess Athena. She sprung full-grown from the head of the god Tinia, and was part of a triad of gods with Tinia and Uni. The Romans adopted her as their own goddess Minerva.Mephitis: An ancient Italic goddess who was invoked for protection from poisonous fumes. Her temples were often found near sulfurous lakes like Amsancti Lacus in Campania.Mercadante, Saverio Rafaele: (b. September 16 or 17, 1795 at Altamura (BA); d.December 17, 1870 at Naples). Composer. Having studied music at Naples, he was encouraged by Rossini to develop his skills in composition of opera. In the course of his career he worked in many of Europe’s great cities including Naples, Rome, Vienna, Madrid, Cadiz, Lisbon, Paris, and Milan. He composed 58 operas.Mercato San Severino (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Mercogliano (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 12,414 (2006e).Meri (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Merlo: A surname found in southern Italy. It derives from merlo (= blackbird), which originated in the Latin merula.Mesagne (BR): A commune in the province of Brindisi. Population: 28,117 (2006e).Mesma: A city of ancient Bruttium.Mesoraca (KR): A commune in the province of Crotone. Population: 6,842 (2006e).Messana (mod. Messina [ME]): An ancient name for Messina. It was commonly used by the Romans and appears to have been the Doric pronunciation of the city’s name. Most Greeks preferred the name Messene.Messapia (1): An ancient Greek name for Apulia (Puglia).Messapia (2): An ancient town in Apulia. It was situated between Uria and Brundisium. The modern Mesagne (BR).Messapus: A legendary Greek hero from Boeotia. It was said that Messapia was named for him.Messene (mod. Messina [ME]): An ancient name for Messina.Messina, Province of: A province in Sicily. Population: 653,861 (2007e). Communes of Messina ProvinceCommuneArea(km²)Population(2007e)Population(2006e)Population(2001 census)Population(1991 census)Acquedolci12.96548554595,3735,122Alcara li Fusi62.36227723082,4733,079Alì16.698708819331,050Alì Terme6.15257425852,5692,425Antillo43.40104910561,1281,279Barcellona Pozzo di Gotto58.89410144112941,25840,544Basicò11.98703713746904Brolo7.86562855895,4955,072Capizzi69.90342834483,5643,797Capo d’Orlando14.56130241295112,71011,948Capri Leone6.60438043204,0163,459Caronia226.55355535493,5894,116Casalvecchio Siculo33.37103210431,1521,447Castel di Lucio28.37143614591,5611,751Castell’Umberto11.47341834503,5643,915Castelmola16.40108811031,0921,123Castroreale54.74274827672,9103,126Cesarò215.75262126712,8153,280Condrò5.19489498523519Falcone9.32291429462,8582,856Ficarra18.62168317241,8032,020Fiumedinisi35.99158515991,6791,912Floresta31.09569577637923Fondachelli-Fantina42.00115711591,2351,643Forza d’Agrò11.18902905864948Francavilla di Sicilia82.11421042184,3475,096Frazzanò6.868478609591,203Furci Siculo17.86329033043,2853,321Furnari13.48351034943,3943,457Gaggi7.34287028452,6932,384Galati Mamertino39.06298430123,1273,419Gallodoro6.90387395409474Giardini-Naxos5.44930193789,1528,640Gioiosa Marea26.31719872287,2456,867Graniti9.96154115431,5871,621Gualtieri Sicaminò14.36189819102,0182,357Itala10.36168116621,6921,813Leni8.56669676641682Letojanni6.78267326642,4802,283Librizzi23.35183518591,9082,161Limina9.819279581,0061,141Lipari88.61108941080910,55410,382Longi42.12162015991,6531,784Malfa8.89872870851871Malvagna6.908638789731,190Mandanici11.65662673761843Mazzarrà Sant’Andrea6.60161516371,7551,918Merì1.87225521982,1861,984Messina211.23245159246323252,026231,693Milazzo24.23325903258632,10831,541Militello Rosmarino29.67135613841,4451,552Mirto9.43107210811,1041,244Mistretta126.76525253255,5416,195Moio Alcantara8.39784798805889Monforte San Giorgio32.33299330003,0883,226Mongiuffi Melia24.29727722783975Montagnareale16.23173117341,7871,841Montalbano Elicona67.43260026312,8383,477Motta Camastra25.29846856867965Motta d’Affermo14.619029009541,158Naso36.60425043334,5124,741Nizza di Sicilia13.18366736183,5863,539Novara di Sicilia48.78155715581,7312,197Oliveri10.29209720822,0992,083Pace del Mela12.10617261706,1175,471Pagliara14.57122312221,2371,428Patti50.18133911336113,10812,959Pettineo30.45147714911,5471,689Piraino17.20388338673,8033,734Raccuja25.06125412691,3891,692Reitano13.938858939511,062Roccafiorita1.14237255254266Roccalumera8.77413441354,0294,050Roccavaldina6.53118911731,1721,259Roccella Valdemone40.98780804841990Rodì Milici36.16230623162,3352,334Rometta32.50653665456,3076,113San Filippo del Mela9.81715971196,9526,606San Fratello67.07424343074,5615,055San Marco d’Alunzio26.11209821202,2022,396San Pier Niceto36.29299230523,0853,122San Piero Patti41.63325933183,5113,938San Salvatore di Fitalia14.89152615451,6791,954Santa Domenica Vittoria19.98112311371,1731,246Sant’Agata di Militello33.52130531303712,87612,796Sant’Alessio Siculo6.17136813581,3461,352Santa Lucia del Mela82.93475747374,7014,858Santa Marina Salina8.65836822808848Sant’Angelo di Brolo30.22350635893,8564,376Santa Teresa di Riva8.13904990578,9257,824San Teodoro13.90149715161,5781,689Santo Stefano di Camastra21.88449045104,6535,194Saponara26.02403540364,1313,945Savoca8.80171916681,6751,518Scaletta Zanclea5.05243524862,5782,677Sinagra23.92284028613,0413,173Spadafora10.30526352915,2345,119Taormina13.16110261096710,78010,120Terme Vigliatore13.40677167536,5615,941Torregrotta4.227,07569406,5426,052Torrenova12.98394038873,6913,414Tortorici70.16706171147,5358,484Tripi54.379689911,0441,225Tusa40.98319932243,3583,630Ucria26.19122112401,3701,646Valdina2.75125512501,2091,292Venetico4.38377837983,6913,497Villafranca Tirrena14.34903889198,5177,372Total3,247.08653,861655,640662,450646,871 Messina (ME): A commune and provincial capital of the province of Messina.Messina–Lipari–Santa Lucia del Mela, Metropolitan Archdiocese of: A Metropolitan archdiocese in the ecclesiastical region of Sicilia.Suffragans: Nicosia, Patti.Metropolitan:Conference Region: .Area:  km²/ mi²):Total Population: .Catholic Population:Total Priests:  (Diocesan: ; Religious: )Permanent Deacons:Male Religious:Female Religious:Parishes:.History: Messina, Francesco: (b. 1900, Linguaglossa, Catania. d. 1995, Milan). Sculptor. Principal Works: Boxer (Bronze): 1929.Alice (Bronze): 1946.Il Pugilatore (Marble).Meta (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.Metabon: A settlement of the ancient Oenotrians in southern Lucania. Its site was occupied by the later Greek city of Metapontum.Metapontum: ancient city of Magna Graecia, on the Gulf of Taranto, SE Italy. Settled by Greeks, c.7th cent. B.C., it flourished and gave refuge to Pythagoreans expelled from Croton. Pythagoras taught and died there. There are remains of a Doric temple, called Tavole Paladine, and other ruins. The Greek city appears to have been founded on the site of an earlier Oenotrian settlement called Metabon.metrope: a panel on the frieze of an ancient Greek temple.Metropolitan: The head of an ecclesiastic province. Normally, the archdiocese of a province.Metropolitana di Napoli: The underground rapid transit rail system of the city of Naples.Mezecius: A Byzantine rebel in Sicily in AD 668.Mezzogiorno:Mezzojuso (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.Miggiano (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 3,678 (2006e).Miglianico (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 4,611 (2006e).Miglierina (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 843 (2006e).Miglionico (MT): A commune in the province of Matera. Population: 2,595 (2006e).Mignano Monte Lungo (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population: 3,307 (2006e).Milazzo (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Mile, Italian: A former measurement used in Italy until the 19th Century. It was equivalent to 11/12 of an English mile.Mile, Neapolitan: A standard measurement used in the kingdom of the Two Sicilies. Different sources give contrasting equivalents as to its equivalent in English miles, ranging from 6,075 feet equal to 7,306 feet. One source, Thomas Milner’s A Universal Geography (1876), stated that 60 Neapolitan miles were equal to 1 degree on the equator, that is equal to 1 universal nautical mile.Milena (CL): A commune in the province of Caltanissetta. Population: 3,350 (2006e).Mileto (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.Mileto – Nicotera – Tropea, Diocese of:Suffragans:Metropolitan: Reggio Calabria – Bova.Conference Region: Calabria.Area: 943 km²/ mi²Total Population: 170,961Catholic Population:Total Priests: 136(Diocesan: 108; Religious: 28)Permanent Deacons:Male Religious:Female Religious:Parishes: 133History: Military Ordinatiate: A personal jurisdiction serving members of the armed forces of a particular country regardless of the country in which they are serving at any given time.Military/Naval terminology (Past & Present), Italian:ItalianEnglishaiutante maggioreBattalion adjutant. A high ranking officer assigned to assist the unit commander.Al Valore MilitareMilitary ValorAlpino (pl. Alpini)Elite Alpine soldier of the Royal Armyalto mareHigh Seas; International waters.ArieteBattering RamArtiglieriaArtilleryArtiglieria d’ArmataHeavy artilleryArtiglieria DivisionaleDivisional ArtilleryArtiglieria MarittimaMarine artilleryAutobilindaArmored carBaistrocchia style of grey-green tunic with an open collar named after General Baistrocchi, Secretary of War.barricatabarricadeBattaglione (pl. battaglioni)Battalion. Normally, an infantry battalione is formed from several companies under the command of a maggiore (major) or tenente colonnello (lieutenant colonel).It is the equivalent of an artillery gruppo (group).Battaglione Fanti dell’AriaInfantry of the Air BattalionBattaglione Nazionale ParacadutistiNational Parachute Battalionberetto da campagnaBlack field cap, similar to German Model 43 worn by Black Brigade.Bersaglieri (sing. Bersagliere)Elite corp of sharpshooters.This type of light infantry are perhaps the most famous Italian soldiers.They are distinguished by black cock feathers worn on their helmets or on their round, black hat with flat brim.Brigadiere (or generale di brigata)Brigadier General.BrigadieriSergeantBrigataBrigade. A unit consisting of several regiments under the command of a generale di brigata or a brigadiere (Brigadier General).BustinaLiterally, “small envelope”, reference to a style of side cap unique to the Italian armyCacciatori(= “hunters”). Light infantry equipped for fast movement.CapitanoCaptainCapitano di vascelloNaval Captain. This rank is equivalent to an army colonnello (colonel).CarabinaCarbine.Carabiniere (pl. Carabinieri)a soldier or military policeman armed with a carbine.Carabinieri RealiMilitary police, senior arm of the Royal Army.CavalleriacavalryCelereFast, quickChimicoChemicalChimico MortaioChemical mortarCohortA unit equivalent to a battalionColonnelloColonel. Equivalent to a naval Capitano di Vascello.Comando GeneraleGeneral HeadquartersCompagnia (pl. compagnie)Company. An infantry unit commanded by a captaino (captain). It was composed of a hundred soldiers, subdivided into plotoni (platoons),each commanded by tenente (lieutenant) or sotto-tenente (second lieutenant). It was the equivalent of a cavalry squadrone (squadron) or an artillery batteria (battery).Console GeneraleMilitia equivalent of a brigade general of the Royal ArmyControaera (pl. Controaeri)Anti-aircraftCorazzatoArmored CuirassierCorazzieriCuirassiers, cavalry who wear armored breastplatesCordellinoFine braided material(gaberdine) used in the manufacture of officers’ tunics and breeches.Croce al Valore MilitareMilitary Cross of ValorDivisioneDivisionEsceritoArmy.FanteriaInfantryGenerale di brigataSee BrigadiereGeneralfeldmarshallField MarshalGenerali (sing. Generale)Officers of general rankGenioa military specialist or engineer.GranatieriGrenadiersGrecaZigzag braid of Royal Army general’s peak capGruppoGroupGuardia alla FrontieraFrontier GuardGuardia di FinanzaFinance Guard. A dual purposed corps. Its primary function is to act as specialized police for tax and financial crimes. It is secondarily a military corps.Guardia Nazionale RepubblicanaNational Republican GuardGuastatoriAssault EngineersGuidaGuideIntendenteA military supply officer.LegioneLegion; unit equivalent to a regimentLugotente GeneraleMilitia equivalent of an army corps general of the Royal Army.MaggioreMajor.MarescialloField Marshall or senior warrant officerMarinaNavyMerito di GuerraWar meritMilizia ConfinariaFrontier MilitiaMilizia ControaereiAnti-aircraft militiaMilizia di FrontieraFrontier MilitiaMilizia ForestaleForestry MilitiaMilizia Nazionale della StradaNational Road MilitiaMilizia PortuariaPort MilitiaMilizia PostelegrafonicaPost and Telegraph MilitiaMilizia UniversitariaUniversity MilitiaMilizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza NazionaleVolunteer Militia for National SecurityMortaioMortarMoschetto Automatico BerettaBeretta Automatic machine-gun.Mostreggiaturecollar insignia designating unit ID & typeMotomitraglieriMachine-gunners on motorcycles.MotorizzataMotorizedMTMotor transportNAAFINavy, Army and Airforce InstitutesNappineTuft, pom-pom worn on Alpine-style capOchielloloop in rank braid on cuffsPlotonePlatoonPortuariaadjective for PortRaggruppamento/Raggruppamentitask forceRandomilitary rationsReggimento (pl. reggimenti)Regiment. A military unit formed by several battalions commanded by a colonnello (colonel).Reggimento Fanti dell’AriaInfantry Regiment of the AirRegiamarinaRoyal NavyRegio EsercitoRoyal ArmySaharianaa style of tropical tunic worn in the former Italian African colonies and in southern Italy.Sergente MaggioreSergeant-MajorSezione d’artiglieriaSection of artillery. A small artillery unit usually comprised of two cannons, howitzers. mortars. Several sections comprise a battery.Societa Romana Costruzioni Meccanichea company which manufactured antipersonnel hand grenades.Sotto TenenteSecond LieutenantSottufficiale(pl. Sottufficiali)non-commissioned officerSquadroneSquadron; a cavalry unit.Stato maggioreGeneral staff.TenenteFirst LieutenantTenente ColonelloLieutenant-ColonelTruppa/Truppeother ranksTruppe SpecialeSpecial TroopUfficialeOfficerUfficiale d’ordinanzaOrdinance officer. A lieutenant or second lieutenant assigned to a commander for a variety of tasks and services.Valore MilitareMilitary ValorZonaZone Militello in Val di Catania (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 7,984 (2006e).Militello Rosmarino (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Milo (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 1,064 (2006e). The commune has a notable view of the nearby Valle del Bove.Milon (or Milo): A political and military leader of ancient Kroton. Famous throughout the Greek World as an athlete, he was victor in the Olympian Games in Boys’ Wrestling in 540 BC, and in wrestling in 532 BC, 528 BC, 524 BC, 520 BC, and 516 BC.Miltiades (Melchiades), St.: Pope. (rJuly 2, 311 – Jan. 11, 314).Mime: a form of dramatic entertainment which developed among the ancient Greeks in Magna Graecia and Sicily. In its original form, mime combined dialogue with simple actions. It became a favorite entertainment of the Romans who adapted it into “pantomime”, which eliminated dialogue for exaggerated action. Roman mime was far cruder and lewd than the Greek.Mimica: a collection of hand gestures commonly used by southern Italian, often claimed by some to be an actual sign language. The roots of the mimica can be traced back to the ancient Greeks of Magna Graecia.Mineo (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 5,397 (2006e).Minervino di Lecce (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 3,881 (2006e).Minervino Murge (BA): A commune in the province of Bari: Population: 9,872 (2006e).Minervium: Ancient name for Squillace (CZ).Minori (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Minucii: An important family of ancient Rome. It was originally of Etruscan origins.Miqueletti: A small body of mountain fusiliers, who formerly belonged to the Neapolitan army. The term is related to the French Miquelets, originally the armed mountaineers of the Pyrenees.Mirabella Eclano (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 8,237 (2006e).Milabella Imbaccari (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 6,468 (2006e).Mirabello Sannitico (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 1,878 (2006e).Miranda (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 1,076 (2006e).Mirto (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Mirto, Fabio: (d. AD 1587). Ecclesiastic. He was elected Bishop of Caiazzo in 1537, and participated in the Council of Trent (1545-1563). At the end of his life he was serving as Apostolic nuncio to Paris.Misilmeri (Sic. Musulumeli)(PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.History: The communes name derives from the Arabic meaning “resting place of the Emir.”Misenum: The name for a promontory (Capo Miseno) and ancient port (Porte di Miseno) on the coast of Campania. The great Roman port of Misenum was constructed by Marcus Agrippa during the time of Augustus and long served as the principal base for the Roman fleet.                According to tradition, the name derived from the mythical Misenus, a follower of either Ulysses or Aeneas, who had been buried there.Missanello (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Misterbianco (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 46,602 (2006e).Mistretta (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.mithraeum: A shrine dedicated to the ancient god Mithras, a Persian deity linked to Zoroastrianism. Mithraism was a mystery cult favored particularly by Roman soldiers. Typically, a mithraeum was built underground. The best-preserved mithraeum in Southern Italy is at Santa Maria Capua Vetere, the site of ancient Capua.Modica (anc. Múrika; Sic. Muòrica)(RG): A commune in the province of Ragusa.Modugno (BA): A commune in the province of Bari: Population: 37,617 (2006e).Moiano (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 4,135 (2006e).Mojo Alcantara (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Moio della Civitella (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Mola di Bari (BA): A commune in the province of Bari: Population: 26,564 (2006e).Molfetta (BA): A commune in the province of Bari: Population: 60,062 (2006e).Molina Aterno (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 432 (2006e).Molinara (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 1,903 (2006e).Molise: A province in the former kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Naples). It was also known as Samnio (see which).Molise:Location: A region in southern Italy.Name: .Capital: Campobasso.Area: 4,438 km² (mi²) (19th in size). It is the smallest region in size in the Mezzogiorno.Number of Provinces: 2 (Campobasso; Isernia).Number of Communes (Municipalities): 136.Population: 320,074 (19th in number). It has the smallest population of all the regions of the Mezzogiorno.Population Density:  72.1/km² (2007). Demographics of Molise (figures per 1000 inhabitants) 200020012002Births8.27.98.1Deaths10.810.410.2Marriages4.33.73.9 History: Molise became a separate region in 1963, upon the splitting up of Abruzzi e Molise.Historical Population: 328,371 (1981); 330,900 (1991); 320,601 (2001); 320,907 (2006e).Landscape:Terrain:Molise, Communes of:Province of Campobasso:Acquaviva Collecroce, Baranello, Bojano, Bonefro, Busso, Campobasso, Campochiaro, Campodipietra, Campolieto, Campomarino, Casacalenda, Casalciprano, Castelbottaccio, Castellino del Biferno, Castelmauro, Castropignano, Cercemaggiore, Cercepiccola, Civitacampomarano, Colle d`Anchise, Colletorto, Duronia, Ferrazzano, Fossalto, Gambatesa, Gildone, Guardialfiera, Guardiaregia, Guglionesi, Jelsi, Larino, Limosano, Lucito, Lupara, Macchia Valfortore, Mafalda, Matrice, Mirabello Sannitico, Molise, Monacilioni, Montagano, Montecilfone, Montefalcone nel Sannio, Montelongo, Montemitro, Montenero di Bisaccia, Montorio nei Frentani, Morrone del Sannio, Oratino, Palata, Petacciato, Petrella Tifernina, Pietracatella, Pietracupa, Portocannone, Provvidenti, Riccia, Ripabottoni, Ripalimosani, Roccavivara, Rotello, Salcito, San Biase, San Felice del Molise, San Giacomo degli Schiavoni, San Giovanni in Galdo, San Giuliano del Sannio, San Giuliano di Puglia, San Martino in Pensilis, San Massimo, San Polo Matese, Santa Croce di Magliano, Sant`Angelo Limosano, Sant`Elia a Pianisi, Sepino, Spinete, Tavenna, Termoli, Torella del Sannio, Toro, Trivento, Tufara, Ururi, Vinchiaturo.Province of Isernia:Acquaviva D`Isernia, Agnone, Bagnoli del Trigno, Belmonte del Sannio, Cantalupo nel Sannio, Capracotta, Carovilli, Carpinone, Castel del Giudice, Castel San Vincenzo, Castelpetroso, Castelpizzuto, Castelverrino, Cerro al Volturno, Chiauci, Civitanova del Sannio, Colli a Volturno, Conca Casale, Filignano, Forli` del Sannio, Fornelli, Frosolone, Isernia, Longano, Macchia d`Isernia, Macchiagodena, Miranda, Montaquila, Montenero Val Cocchiara, Monteroduni, Pesche, Pescolanciano, Pescopennataro, Pettoranello del Molise, Pietrabbondante, Pizzone, Poggio Sannita, Pozzilli, Rionero Sannitico, Roccamandolfi, Roccasicura, Rocchetta a Volturno, San Pietro Avellana, Santa Maria del Molise, Sant`Agapito, Sant`Angelo del Pesco, Sant`Elena Sannita, Scapoli, Sessano del Molise, Sesto Campano, Vastogirardi, Venafro.Molise (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 180 (2006e).Moliterno (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Molochio (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.Monacelli: A legendary race of dwarfs said to inhabit the deep ravines near the town of Sorrento in Campania.Monacilioni (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 674 (2006e).Monasterace (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.Mondragone (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population: 26,626 (2006e).Monetary units in the Two Sicilies:Carlino = 10 grani; 12 carlini = 1 piastra.Ducato = 10 carini.Grano = 1/10 Carlino.Pistola =Piastra or Scudo (silver) = 12 carlini.Monforte San Giorgio (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Mongiana (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.Mongibello: A local Sicilian name for Mt. Etna (see which).Mongiuffi Melia (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Mongrassano (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,727 (2006e).Monopoli (BA): A commune in the province of Bari: Population: 49,846 (2006e).Monreale (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.Montagano (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 1,204 (2006e).Montagnareale (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Montaguto (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 545 (2006e).Montalbano Elicona (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Montalbano Jonico (MT): A commune in the province of Matera. Population: 7,806 (2006e).Montallegro (AG): A commune in the province of Agrigento. Population: 2,637 (2006e).Montalto: The highest summit (alt. 4,380 ft) of the Aspromonte in southern Calabria.Montalto Uffugo (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 18,272 (2006e).Montano Antilia (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Montaquila (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 2,464 (2006e).Montauro (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 1,386 (2006e).Montazzoli (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 1,056 (2006e).Monte di Procida (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli – region: CampaniaMonte San Giacomo (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Monte Sant’Angelo (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 13,600 (2006e).Montebello di Bertona (PE): A commune in the province of Pescara.Montebello Ionico (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.Montebello sul Sangro (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 115 (2006e).Montecalvo Irpino (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 10,180 (2006e).Montecilfone (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 1,547 (2006e).Montecorice (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Montecorvino Pugliano (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Montecorvino Rovella (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Montedoro (CL): A commune in the province of Caltanissetta. Population: 1,724 (2006e).Monte Epomeo (anc.Epomeus, Epopos): An active volcano on the island of Ischia. More ancient than Vesuvius, its activity led to the desertion of the original Greek colony there.Montefalcione (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 3,445 (2006e).Montefalcone di Val Fortore (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 1,733 (2006e).Montefalcone nel Sannio (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 1,775 (2006e).Monteferrante (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 166 (2006e).Montefino (TE): A commune in the province of Teramo.Monteforte Cilento (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Monteforte Irpino (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 10,180 (2006e).Montefredane (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 2,308 (2006e).Montefusco (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 1,453 (2006e).Montegiordano (): A commune in the province of Cosenza.Monteiasi (): A commune in the province of Taranto.Montelapiano (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 94 (2006e).Monteleone di Puglia (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 1,242 (2006e).Montelepre (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.Montella (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 7,857 (2006e).Montelongo (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 446 (2006e).Montemaggiore Belsito (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.Montemarano (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 3,026 (2006e).Montemesola (TA): A commune in the province of Taranto.Montemiletto (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 5,322 (2006e).Montemilone (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Montemitro (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 470 (2006e).Montemurro (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Montenero di Bisaccia (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 6,667 (2006e).Montenero Val Cocchiara (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 572 (2006e).Montenerodomo (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 896 (2006e).Monteodorisio (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 2,505 (2006e).Montepaone (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 4,461 (2006e).Monteparano (TA): A commune in the province of Taranto.Montereale (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 2,803 (2006e).Monteroduni (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 2,411 (2006e).Monteroni di Lecce (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 13,757 (2006e).Monterosso Almo (RG): A commune in the province of Ragusa.Monterosso Calabro (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.Montesano Salentino (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 2,754 (2006e).Montesano sulla Marcellana (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Montesarchio (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 13,515 (2006e).Montescaglioso (MT): A commune in the province of Matera. Population: 10,079 (2006e).Montesilvano (PE): A commune in the province of Pescara.Montevago (AG): A commune in the province of Agrigento. Population: 3,043 (2006e).Monteverde (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 903 (2006e).Monte Vergine (or Montevergine): an important pilgrimage site located near Avellino in northern Campania. The shine was founded in 1119 on ruins of an ancient temple of Cybele. The church contains a famous image of the Virgin Mary. Here can be seen the tombs of Catherine of Valois and her son Louis of Taranto. Their carved images lay on an ancient Roman sarcophagus.Montevergine, Territorial Abbey of:Suffragans:Metropolitan: BeneventoConference Region: CampaniaArea: 1 km²/ mi²Total Population: 0Catholic Population:Total Priests: 7(Diocesan: 0; Religious: 7)Permanent Deacons: 0Male Religious:Female Religious:Parishes: 0History:Monti, Vittorio: (b. 6 January 1868, Naples. d. 20 June 1922, Naples). Composer of the Czardas for Violin and Orchestra.Montorio al Vomano (TE): A commune in the province of Teramo.Montorio nei Frentani (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 520 (2006e).Montoro Inferiore (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 10,087 (2006e).Montoro Superiore (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 8,358 (2006e).Morano Calabro (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 4,859 (2006e).Morciano di Leuca (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 3,489 (2006e).Morcone (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 5,234 (2006e).Morigerati (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Morino (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 1,531 (2006e).Mormanno (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 3,590 (2006e).Morra de Sanctis (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 1,351(2006e).Morro d’Oro (TE): A commune in the province of Teramo.Morrone del Sannio (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 702 (2006e).Moschiano (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 1,713 (2006e).Mosciano Sant’Angelo (TE): A commune in the province of Teramo.Moscufo (PE): A commune in the province of Pescara.mostaccioli: small, almond-shaped chocolate iced cakes popular in southern Italy. Made of chocolate and spices, they are often filled with dried and candied fruits and nuts.Motta Camastra (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Motta d’Affermo (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Motta Montecorvino (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 901 (2006e).Motta San Giovanni (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.Motta Santa Lucia (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 853 (2006e).Motta Sant’Anastasia (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 10,705 (2006e).Mottafollone (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,434 (2006e).Mottola (TA): A commune in the province of Taranto.Motya: An ancient Phoenician/Carthaginain colony in western Sicily. The town was situated on a small coastal island now called Mozia (formerly S. Pantaleo). Situated about a kilometer from the shore, the island was later joined to the mainlend by a causeway. The colony was founded in the 8th century BC as a trading station, or emporium.Mozzagrogna (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 2,169 (2006e).moz(z)etta: a type of hooded cape worn by certain high officials in the Roman Catholic Church. The mozetta worn by the pope is red colored and trimmed with ermine; those of cardinals are scarlet colored, and those of bishops are purple. The mozetta is also part of the costume worn by canons in certain cathedrals in Sicily.Mugnano del Cardinale (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 5,166 (2006e).Mugnano di Napoli (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.Murat, Joachim (Joachim I): King of Naples (r1808-1815).Muro Leccese (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 5,158 (2006e).Muro Lucano (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Mussomeli (CL): A commune in the province of Caltanissetta. Population: 11,265 (2006e).Mylae: ancient port, NE Sicily, now Milazzo. It was settled by colonists from Messina. Here in 260 B.C. the Romans in a newly built fleet were led to victory over the Carthaginians by the consul Caius Duilius in the First Punic War; it was Rome’s first naval triumph. Mylae was (36 B.C.) the scene of a naval victory of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa over Sextus Pompeius.Myron: An athlete of ancient Syracuse. He was victor in the Tethrippon at the Olympian Games in 648 BC.Mys: an athlete of ancient Taras. He was victor in Boxing at the Olympian Games in 336 BC.Mystia and Hyporon: Ancient cities of ancient Bruttium.Myttistratum: See Amestratus. 
Naevius Cneius
: (b. Campania; d. 204 BC, in Ustica). An ancient Roman poet, he was a contemporary of Livius Andronicus, and predated Ennius. After serving in the Roman army during the First Punic War, he wrote De Bello Punico, an epic poem on that conflict. He also authored several dramas imitating Greek works, as well as a number of comedies during with Roman or national subjects. His flair for satire ran him afoul of several Roman notables who arranged his arrest and deportation from Rome as an alien. He settled at Ustica, in North Africa, where he died.
Naiades Himeriai (Naiads of Himera): a group of nymphs who watched over the thermal springs of the ancient Greek town of Himera, on the north coast of eastern Sicily.
Naples (city): See Napoli.Naples (Golfo di Napoli), Gulf (Bay) of: An inlet of the southern Tyrrhenian Sea, bounded on the NW by Capo Miseno and by the Sorrentine Peninsula on the SE. Its boundaries are further marked on the north by the islands of Ischia and Procida, and on the south by Capri.
Naples (Napoli), Kingdom of: The continental portion of the former kingdom of the Two Sicilies. It comprised the entire southern portion of the Italian peninsula. It’s northern border, running from lat. 42 degrees 53 minutes to 41 degree 10 minutes, was separated on its eastern (Adriatic) end from the Papal States by the River Tronto, while at its western (Mediterranean) end by the Pontine marshes. At its greatest N-S length, it measured 350 miles, while at its greatest E-W breadth it was 120 miles. In area it was roughly 30,000 square miles, somewhat larger than Scotland.
                The kingdom of Naples was divided into the provinces of:
                Terra di Lavoro
                Principato Citra
                Principato Ultra
                Abruzzo Ultra Primo
                Abruzzo Ultra Secondo
                Abruzzo Citra
                Samnio (Molise)
                Terra di Bari
                Terra d’Otranto
                Calabria Citra
                Calabria Ultra Primo
                Calabria Ultra Secondo
                The Neapolitan provinces had an estimated population of about 5,700,000 in the 1830s.
Napoletano-Calabrese Dialects: An Indo-European language group centered in Calabria and Campania. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Italo-Dalmatian. Dialects: Napoletano (Sub-dialects: Neapolitan, Tirrenic), Northern Calabrese-Lucano (Sub-dialects: Lucanian, Basilicatan).It has a vigorous existence and is not endangered. A large literature. Some scholars believe it ought to be classified as Southern Romance instead of Italo-Western. In 1976, it had 7,047,399 speakers. It has a limited inherent intelligibility with Standard Italian. Although Neapolitan and Calabrese, the two principal branches, are very different from each other, both have intelligibility with Sicilian. Southern Calabrian is actually so close to Sicilian dialects that several linguists would prefer that it be reclassified into that family. Neapolitan Sub-dialects: Neapolitan proper (spoken in the center city of Naples), Irpino, Cilentano, Laziale Meridionale, Marchigiano Meridionale, Teramano, Abruzzese Orientale Adriatico, Abruzzese Occidentale, Molisano, Dauno-Appenninico, Garganico, Apulo-Barese, Lucano Nord-Occidentale, Lucano Nord-Orientale, Lucano Centrale, Area Arcaica Lucano-Calabrese, and Calabrese Settentrionale.Napoli, Province of: A province in Campania. Population: 3,082,756 (2007e). Communes of Napoli ProvinceCommuneArea(km²)Population(2007e)Population(2006e)Population(2001 census)Population(1991 census)Acerra54.09524035080845,68841,311Afragola17.99637876348662,31960,065Agerola19.62739273707,3487,508Anacapri6.39645063975,8555,324Arzano4.68372993763238,51040,098Bacoli13.29273882735726,50726,475Barano d’Ischia11.07970695918,5917,738Boscoreale11.20271022732627,61827,310Boscotrecase7.49107651087510,63811,295Brusciano5.64156571555915,30914,019Caivano27.11369453690136,96635,855Calvizzano3.91123951244612,13310,122Camposano3.34542354035,3035,429Capri3.97725872477,0647,075Carbonara di Nola3.53216721232,0251,837Cardito3.16208682083020,68320,105Casalnuovo di Napoli7.75505375028747,94032,134Casamarciano6.26330933153,2833,589Casamicciola Terme5.60819680887,3746,505Casandrino3.25134491353213,24511,617Casavatore1.62190251920820,08720,869Casola di Napoli2.57380337833,6603,542Casoria12.03812598184781,88879,707Castellammare di Stabia17.71654206570766,92968,733Castello di Cisterna3.97697269906,7166,416Cercola3.74192151916518,87616,901Cicciano7.07123211236012,57312,793Cimitile2.70684768856,8406,537Comiziano2.44180218201,7692,009Crispano2.25126691261212,07210,467Ercolano19.64559521602456,73861,233Forio12.85161903156614,55411,526Frattamaggiore5.32312581597132,73136,089Frattaminore1.991592010877215,07213,873Giugliano in Campania94.191100652978597,99960,096Gragnano14.56298181863429,55328,616Grumo Nevano2.92184421837318,64419,524Ischia8.0518440463618,25316,013Lacco Ameno2.07462259744,2733,936Lettere12.03600716815,6055,415Liveri2.631682589961,8151,870Marano di Napoli15.4558838683357,44847,961Mariglianella3.227039304436,1995,393Marigliano22.6030366212330,08328,517Massa di Somma3.47593659215,9085,492Massa Lubrense19.71136371342912,88012,029Melito di Napoli3.72364013604234,20820,095Meta2.19797179387,6967,392Monte di Procida3.65132901326812,83812,490Mugnano di Napoli5.27341173389730,06925,246Napoli117.279751399842421,004,5001,067,365Nola39.00327513274532,73032,613Ottaviano19.85235622351922,67021,973Palma Campania20.78147751480414,61313,405Piano di Sorrento7.33129461299812,83312,473Pimonte12.43600759705,8845,601Poggiomarino13.28208562061119,65317,409Pollena Trocchia8.11136911375613,32612,216Pomigliano d’Arco11.44398064006040,51943,089Pompei12.41257452572825,75125,177Portici4.52560095705960,21868,980Pozzuoli43.21831288253578,75475,142Procida4.14106381065210,57510,559Qualiano7.26254212541424,54220,054Quarto14.17391543879936,54330,587Roccarainola28.107275552617,1827,062San Gennaro Vesuviano6.9710842724310,0358,287San Giorgio a Cremano4.11480791072850,76362,258San Giuseppe Vesuviano14.09279614877724,53126,336San Paolo Bel Sito2.973436278713,3563,013San Sebastiano al Vesuvio2.63973734599,8499,486Sant’Agnello4.09601898008,4218,183Santa Maria la Carità3.931138511,30210,86010,135Sant’Anastasia18.7689192804028,02327,300Sant’Antimo5.83282603111431,67230,985Sant’Antonio Abate7.87312071893218,12416,936San Vitaliano5.301902660305,5625,013Saviano13.78151741512614,75513,101Scisciano5.46542853174,8814,390Serrara Fontana6.69315631193,0602,904Somma Vesuviana30.74343693419633,26129,079Sorrento9.93165811656516,53616,459Striano7.58794577887,5076,984Terzigno23.51172721698515,87013,653Torre Annunziata7.33475734795948,01152,875Torre del Greco30.66889188837290,607101,361Trecase6.14922191549,1799,595Tufino5.25361835673,2473,042Vico Equense29.30205972052320,04818,967Villaricca6.85294922870526,17522,114Visciano10.89460546134,6214,424Volla6.16232142319821,57419,250Total    1,171.93,082,75630866223,059,1963,016,026 
Napoli (Eng: Naples; anc. Palaeopolis, Neapolis): The principal city of Campania and the largest city in southern Italy. Capital of the region of Campania and the province of Napoli.
Napoli, Archdiocese of: Metropolitan Archdiocese in the Ecclesiastical Region of Campania.
Suffragans: Acerra, Alife-Caiazzo, Aversa, Capua, Caserta, Ischia, Nola, Pompei, Pozzuoli, Sessa Aurunca, Sorrento-Castellammare di Stabia, Teano-Calvi.
Conference Region: Campania
Area: 274 km²/ mi²
Total Population:1,647,645
Catholic Population:
Total Priests: 1,012 (Diocesan: 448; Religious: 564)
Permanent Deacons: 210
Male Religious:
Female Religious:
Parishes: 287.
Napoli, Kingdom of: See Kingdom of Naples.
Nardo’ (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 30,723 (2006e).Nardodipace (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.
Naro (AG): A commune in the province of Agrigento. Population: 8,670 (2006e).Naso (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.
nave (Ital. navara): the central space in a church. It is usually flanked by aisles.
Navelli (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 616 (2006e).
Navy, Royal Italian:     Ship’s Name    Year Completed    Displacement (tons)    Naxos: The earliest ancient Greek colony on Sicily. It was founded in c 734 BC on Capo Schisò, on the eastern shore of Sicily, by Greeks from Cumae and Euboea. Never a major city itself, it founded the more important Catana and Leontinoi as its own daughter-colonies. Its location made it the first city usually visited by any ships arriving from the Italian mainland, giving it a certain strategic and commercial value. Thucles, the original leader of Naxos’ colonists, founded the important Altar of Apollo the Leader, a shrine venerated by all Sicilian Greeks. Travelers about to set out on voyagers would visit the shrine to offer prayers to the god in hopes of a safe journey. Arriving sailors similarly gave thanks there for their good fortune.‘Ndrangheta: A criminal organization which arose in 19th century Calabria and still infests the region today. Best noted for their numerous kidnappings, the organization also is involved in drug trafficking, political bribery, fraud, and murder. The name derives from the Greek andragathía, a word meaning “heroism” and “virtue”, traits totally lacking among the organization’s members. Although the ‘Ndrangheta is often associated with other criminal groups like the Sicilian Mafia and the Camorra of Naples, it operates independently. Unlike the mafia, the 50 to 200 “families” of the ‘Ndrangheta are linked by actual blood relationships.
Neapolis: (=”new city”). Ancient name for the city of Naples/Napoli.
Neapolis: A city of ancient Apulia.Neapolitan Fever: One of the many names given to Bucellosis. A form of typhus once common in Campania, by the early 20th century, it had practically disappeared. It is also known under the names Bang’s disease, Cyprus fever, Gibraltar fever, Malta fever, Bruce’s septicaemia, and Mediterranean fever.
Neglia, Francesco Paolo: b. May 22, 1874, Enna. d. July 31, 1932, Germany. Composer.Nemoli (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.
Nenna, Pomponio: b. c1550, Bari. d. bef. Oct. 22, 1613, Rome. Renaissance Composer. He was especially noted for his madrigals, originally collected into eight books (books 2 and 3 are now lost), as well as some sacred music. He was a teacher of the nobleman composer Gesualdo, the Prince of Venosa, from 1594 to 1599.Nereto (TE): A commune in the province of Teramo.
Neri, Nicola: (b. Oct. 28, 1761, Acquaviva Collecroce [CB]. d. 1799). Statesman, doctor, writer, philosopher. During the period of short-lived Parthenopean Republic, he served as Commissioner of Molise. When the Bourbons returned to power, he was executed. A descendant of the Croatian refugees who settled at Acquaviva Collecroce in the mid-16th century, he helped to preserve the local language and culture there.
Nethuns: Etruscan god of water. He was the counterpart of the god Poseidon and was adopted by the Romans as Neptune. Like the latter, his symbols were the trident, the anchor, the dolphin and the sea horse.
Neviano (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 5,673 (2006e).
Nicholas I “the Great”, St.: Pope. (r Apr. 24, 858-Nov 13, 867).
Nicholas II: Pope. (rDec 6, 1058-July 27, 1061).
Nicholas III: Pope. (rNov 25, 1277-Aug 22, 1280).
Nicholas IV: Pope. (rFeb 22, 1288-Apr 4, 1292).
Nicholas V: Pope. (rMar 6, 1447-Mar 24, 1455).
Nicolosi (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 6,745 (2006e).Nicoluccio Calabrese: (b. Calabria; fl. early 16th century). A pupil of the painter Lorenzo Costa, he attempted to kill his master with a knife after the latter reputedly included a caricature of him in a painting.
Nicosia (EN): A commune in the province of Enna. Population: 14,756 (2006e).Nicotera (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.Nicotera, Marcoantonio: (fl. c1590-1600). Painter. A member of the School of Naples, he was a pupil of P. Crisnolo. One of his notable works is a painting in church of S. Nicola alla Dogana in Naples depicting The Virgin and Child, St. Jerome, and St. Blaise.
Niscemi (CL): A commune in the province of Caltanissetta. Population: 26,737 (2006e).Nisida: a small (diameter: 0.5km) islet (alt. 105 m) of the Flegrean archipelago.
Nissoria (EN): A commune in the province of Enna. Population: 2,941 (2006e).Nizza di Sicilia (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.
Nobile (pl. nobili): A member of the Italian social class corresponding to the English gentry. The designation could be carried by both men and women. Although a nobile might not carry any other higher title, it was likely that he or she possesses a coat of arms and substantial property.
Nocara (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 523 (2006e).Nocciano (PE): A commune in the province of Pescara.Nocera Inferiore (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Nocera Superiore (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno .
Nocera Tirinese (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 4,705 (2006e).
Noci (BA): A commune in the province of Bari: Population: 19,468 (2006e).
Nociglia (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 2,593 (2006e).
Nodus: a military order of 300 knights initiated by Louis of Taranto, king of Sicily, in c1352. The group was so-named because each knight worn on his breast a golden knot studded with gems, meant as a symbol of common friendship.Noepoli (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.
Noicattaro (BA): A commune in the province of Bari: Population: (2006e).
Nola (or Campana): A bell. According to sound traditions Paulinus, Bishop of Nola, first introduced bells into churches.Nola (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.
Norman period: Royal dynasty from Normandy in France, ruling Sicily 1061-1194.
Nortia: Etruscan goddess of fate and fortune.Notaresco (TE): A commune in the province of Teramo.Noto (SR): A commune in the province of Siracusa.
Nova Siri (MT): A commune in the province of Matera. Population: 6,587 (2006e).Novara di Sicilia (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Historical Population FiguresCensus
Year 18614,99618715,41918815,61319016,79219116,67319216,78519315,86619365,72019514,93219614,32419713,05919813,03919912,19720011,731
Novelli, Pietro: (b. 1603, Sicily; d. 1647). Painter.Novi Velia (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.
Novoli (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 8,352 (2006e).
Nuceria Alfaterna (modern Nocera): A city of ancient Campania. Situated on the river Sarnus (mod. Sarno) and on the Via Appia, it was to the SE of Nola. Captured by the Romans during the Samnite Wars, it was destroyed by Hannibal after the battle of Cannae. Later rebuilt, Roman veterans were settled there by Augustus and Nero.
Nusco (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 4,437 (2006e).
 (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 1,059 (2006e).
Odoacer (Odovacar; Audawakrs)
: (b. AD 435; d. AD 493). First barbarian king of Italy. The son of a Germanic Scirian chieftain named Edeko, he fought as a foederati (federate) for the Western Roman Empire. He arrived in Italy in 466 and, in 470, was appointed as the commander of the foederati forces there. In 475, he agreed to support the revolt of the Magister militum Orestes against Emperor Julius Nepos. In exchange for helping to raise Orestes son, Romulus Augustus (often called Romulus Augustulus), to the imperial throne, Odoacer was promised that his 30,000 followers would receive a third of Italy. Once Romulus had been crowned, however, Orestes withdrew his promise and Odoacer led a new revolt. He defeated and killed Orestes and, on September 4, AD 476, forced Romulus to abdicate, an act which is often cited as the end of the Western Roman Empire. Although proclaimed as “King of Italy” by his troops, Odoacer wisely chose not to declare himself as Emperor. In hope of avoiding retaliation from the still-powerful eastern Roman Empire, he sent the imperial trappings confiscated from Romulus to Emperor Zeno. In return for this, Zeno confirmed Odoacer as King of Italy (rex Italiae) late in AD 476.
                Odoacer’s relations with the Eastern Empire were troubled largely by his support of Arian Christianity against Orthodoxy. He also continued build a strong autonomous state, combining the old Roman administration with an effective German army. In 477 he took Sicily from the Vandals, incorporating it into his kingdom, and, in AD 480, seized control of Dalmatia. He concluded treaties with other barbarian groups like the Visigoths and Franks. In AD 487, Odoacer destroyed the Rugian kingdom in Noricum but, instead of seizing this territory for himself, left it desolate, thus allowing the Lombards to settle there in AD 493. The action would later prove to have profound consequences for Italian history as it gave the Lombards a base from which to launch their own invasion of Italy.
                In AD 488, the eastern Roman Emperor Zeno finally decided that Odoacer was too much of a threat to his own security. Contending that Odoacer had supported the rebel Illus against him in 484, he cut his ties with him. Zeno approached Theodoric, king of the Ostrogoths, promising that if he invaded Italy as the emperor’s agent, he could take take possession of Odoacer’s realm.
                Odoacer attempted to defend his kingdom from the Ostrogoths but suffered defeats at Aquileia (489), Verona (489), and at the River Adda (490). Falling back to his capital at Ravenna, he was besieged there. After holding out for three years, Odoacer agreed to come to terms with Theodoric. On February 2, AD 493, the two leaders concluded a treaty in which it was agreed that they would share the rule of Italy. After the ceremony, a great banquet was thrown to celebrate the new peace. It was during this feast that Theodoric suddenly turned on Odoacer and assassinated him. Thus, Theodoric took possession of Italy and founded a new Ostrogothic kingdom.
Oebalia: An alternate name for Tarentum.
Oebalus: A mythical ruler in ancient Campania. He was the son of Telon and the river nymph Sebethus.Oenotrians (Oenotri): An ancient people who occupied much of Apulia, Lucania, and northern Calabria. Possessing an Iron age culture, they appear to have emigrated across the Adriatic Sea from Illyria during the 11th century BC. The arrival of the Greeks in the 8th Century began to force the Oenotrians inland from the coastal regions. The Oenotrians began to finally disappear with the advance of the Sabellian peoples during the 5th Century BC.It is believed that the Oenotrians derive their name from the Greek word oinos (=wine), so-called because the first contact was made in a vine-growing area.
Oenotrides: Two ancient islands in the Tyrrhenian Sea, off the coast of Lucania. They sat opposite to the city of Velia (Elea) and the mouth of the river Helos.
Ofena (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 608 (2006e).Ogliastro Cilento (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.
oikistes: a title for the founder of an ancient Greek colony.
oikos: an ancient Greek household.
Oldest Surviving Cities in Southern Italy:Catania8th Century BCMessina8th Century BCPalermo8th Century BCReggio di Calabria8th Century BCSiracusa734 BCTarantoc708 BCNapolic600 BCCosenzabef. 331 BCOlevano sul Tusciano (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.oli oledda, a: A variety of Calabrian multi-part song.
Olivadi (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 635 (2006e).Oliveri (MA): A commune in the province of Messina.Oliveto Citra (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.
Oliveto Lucano (MT): A commune in the province of Matera. Population: 558 (2006e).
omertà: the mafia “code of silence.” The term is believed to derive from the Sicilian word umirtà (= humility).Omignano (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.
Opi (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 470 (2006e).Oppido Mamertina (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.
Oppido Mamertina – Palmi, Diocese of:
Metropolitan: Reggio Calabria – Bova
Conference Region: Calabria
Area: 930 km²/ mi²
Total Population: 177,386.
Catholic Population:
Total Priests: 96(Diocesan: 79; Religious: 17)
Permanent Deacons: 10.
Male Religious:
Female Religious:
Parishes: 66.
Ops: Ancient Roman earth and fertility goddess.
Orange (Ital. Arancia): A citrus fruit grown in many varieties throughout Sicily and southern Italy. Among the most famous is the Sicilian orange, known as a “blood orange” because of its bright, ruby-red flesh.
Oratino (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 1,350 (2006e).
orazioni: A variety of Sicilian narrative folk song.
orbi: A variety of Sicilian narrative folk song.
Ordinary: An ecclesiastical leader of a specific jurisdiction. An Ordinary may or may not be a bishop.
Ordona (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 2,617 (2006e).
orecchiette: a pasta made in Puglia made in the shape on small ears, for which it is named. Each piece is created from a small thin round of pasta pressed in the center by a thumb to fashion out a hollow.
Oria (BR): A commune in the province of Brindisi. Population: 15,419 (2006e).
Oricola (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 1,037 (2006e).
Oriolo (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 2,797 (2006e).
Orlando, Vittorio Emanuele: (b. 1860, Palermo; d. 1952). Politician and Jurist. He served as Prime Minister of Italy from 1917 to 1919. He was one of the four leaders of the victorious western allies who shaped reshaped Europe after the end of World War I.Orria (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.
Orsara di Puglia (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 3,131 (2006e).
Orsogna (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 4,084 (2006e).
Orsomarso (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,426 (2006e).
Orta di Atella (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population: 16,930 (2006e).
Orta Nova (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 17,830 (2006e).
Ortelle (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 2,476 (2006e).
Orthon: an athlete of ancient Syracuse. He was victor in the Stadion at the Olympian Games in 148 BC.
Ortona (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 23,635 (2006e).
Ortona dei Marsi (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 737 (2006e).
Ortucchio (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 1,971 (2006e).
Oscan (1): an Oscan-speaking member of an ancient people of Campania. The name derives from the Latin Osci, (pl. Opsci), or the Greek Opici. The ancient name translates literally to “worshippers of Ops.” Ops was an ancient Italic harvest goddess, whose name is related to the Latin ops (gen. opis) (= “abundance, plenty, wealth, riches”).
                It is believed that the Oscans were the earliest inhabitants of Campania, and held control over much of central and southern Italy.
Oscan (2): an extinct Italic language of ancient southern Italy.EnglishOscanLatin EnglishOscanLatinacrossperttrans ItalyVítelioItaliaafterpostpost judgmentmedikatifiudiciumagainstkontrudcontra JupiterLucetiusJupiteralivebiusvivus kingsrhēges
reges (Samnite)rex
regisaltaraasoara largestmaimsmaximusassemblykombenniscomitium lastoltiums
postremusbadmalmalus lawlíslex
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princepsbestvalaímsoptimus magistracymedikismagistratusblamekulupoculpa
culpo maliciousmalassmalevolusboundaryslass,
teremennisterminus manniirvirboypuklumpuer
puerulus MarsMamersMarsbreadcariapanis MayMaesiusMaiusbridgeponttropons
ponte middlemessmediusbrotherfratirfrater moneyaragetum
argentum (silver)bulltaurtaurus monumentmemnimmonumentumcitizenkeuscivis mothermaatirmatercitytovtourbs outsideehtradexternuscommanderembraturimperator pathliímízsemitadaydiíkoldies peopletovtohominesdefendantpreivazreus place (holy)fíínosacrariumdestroypertumoperdo
perimo prayuroorodinnerkersnucena publicmoíníss
tractus punishmoltopuniodivinedeíus,
deivinsdivinus ringungulusanulusdoorverumostium roadvíoviaearthteroterra rulerregaturgubernatoreatedo
peredo sacredsaahz
santusevilmalmalus senatesenazsenatusfaultkulupoculpa sheíokhaecflowerfluusflos shrinepestlomfanum
delubrumfourpetoraquattuor silveraragetumargentumfreelovfirliber slavefamelservus
famulusfugitivesbrettioi (Lucanian).fugativi sonpuklumfiliusgardenhorzhortus spokesmansverruforator
locutorgiftdunomdonum sportluisarlususgoddeíusdeus statetovtocivitasgoddessdeívodiva statuestatifstatuagreatestmaimsmaximus streetvíoviagrove (sacred)horz,
lovsslucus surrenderdadodedohandmanusmanus templekaílo,
fanumhaterusuraspernator territoryteeromregio
terrahatredkazodium towertiurristurrisheízíkis
hic treasurythesavromaerariumhersuvosuus VenusHerentazVenusherselfessufipsa wagon,
cartveiavehushimselfessufipse wallfeíssmurushissuuseius witnesssverruf,
sacer wolfhirpus (Samnite)lupushometríbomdomus worshipkebnoadoleohuman beinghumufhumanus yearakufannusindependentlovfirliber youthvereioinvenisOspedaletto D’Alpinolo (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 1,738 (2006e).
Ossuna, Pedro Tellez y Giron, Duke of: (b. Jan. 8, 1579; d. Sept 25, 1624). Spanish statesman. In 1611, he became viceroy of Sicily and, in 1616, transferred to Naples. Incredibly ambitious, he unsuccessfully intrigued to seize the throne of Naples for himself in 1618. Recalled to Spain in 1620, he was imprisoned and died in 1624.
Ostuni (BR): A commune in the province of Brindisi. Population: 32,682 (2006e).
Otranto (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 5,492 (2006e).
Otranto, Terra di: A former province of the Two Sicilies, corresponding to the present province of Lecce. Encompassing the extreme end of the SE portion of the Italian boot, its capital was located at Lecce. With an area of 3,293 sq. miles and a population of 447,982 (1862), it measured 102 miles in length and had a breadth ranging between 25 and 35 miles. It encompassed the territory of ancient Iapygia or Messapia. Among the most fertile parts of the southern Italian mainland, it produced excellent wine, as well as corn, olive-oil, cotton, figs, almonds and oranges. The local tobacco was described as being the best grown in Italy. Although the interior of the province was blessed with fertility and a pleasant environment, the coastal regions were afflicted with malarial marshes.Ottati (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.
ottava rima: An 8-line song commonly found in the central Italian regions of Lazio. Tuscany and Abruzzo.Ottaviano (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.
ounce: (Lat.: uncia; Ital. onza). the basic unit of currency in medieval Sicily, although no coin of that denomination was minted.Ovindoli (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 1,270  (2006e). 
PPaccius (or Pactius): An ancient family name found throughout the Oscan-speaking peoples of southern Italy. Although often written as Pactius, it appears only as Paccius on inscriptions. Paccianus is a derivative of the name.Paccius and Vibius: (fl. 209 BC). Two brothers who belonged to the high nobility of the ancient Bruttii. Livy (xxvii.15) states that during the 2nd Punic War, they appeared before the Roman consul Q. Fabius to ask for pardon.Paccius, Ovidius: (fl. 293 BC). A priest in the Samnite army mentioned by Livy (x.38).Paccius Staius, Lucius:(date uncertain). An ancient Samnite meddix tuticus mentioned in an Oscan inscription on a cylindrical cistern at Pietrabbondante (IS). The inscription states that Paccius oversaw and financed the building of a water canal.Pace del Mela (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Paceco (TP): A commune in the province of Trapani.Pacentro (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 1,282 (2006e).Pachino (SR): A commune in the province of Siracusa.Pachynum: ancient name for the SE promontory of Sicily. According to mythology it was a favorite spot of the gods, who visited it each year.Pacini, Giovanni: (b. 17 February 1796, Catania. d. 6 December 1867, Pescia). Composer. Having received his earliest musical instruction from his father, a tenor singer, he later received further education at Bologna and Venice. At the age of 17, he produced his first opera in Venice. He later served as ‘maestro di cappella’ to Napoleon’s widow. In 1834, he opened a music school at Viareggio. He wrote some theoretical treatises.Pactius: See Paccius.Padrino (pl. Padrini): Godfather.Padula (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Paduli (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 4,171 (2006e).Paestum: ancient city of Lucania, S Italy. It was a colony of the Greek city of Sybaris (c.600 B.C.) and was first named Poseidonia. It flourished with the rest of Magna Graecia through the 6th Century B.C. The Romans took the city in 273 B.C. renaming it Paestum. The ruins, near the present Pesto, include some of the finest and best-preserved Doric temples in existence.Pagani (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Paganica (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila.Pagliara (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Paglieta (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 4,526 (2006e).Pago del Vallo di Lauro (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 1,851 (2006e).Pago Veiano (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 2,620 (2006e).Paisiello, Giovanni: (b. May 9, 1740, Taranto. d. June 5, 1816, Naples). Composer. After receiving a Jesuit education he entered the Conservatorio di S. Onofrio at Naples in 1754, to study voice under Francesco Durante. After filling the post of assistant master at the Conservatorio, he decided to pursue a career as a composer in 1763. Within a few years he had established himself as a successful operatic composer in Naples. In 1772, he expanded his range by composing sacred music. In that same year he married Cecilia Pallini. In 1776 he was invited to St. Petersburg by the Russian Empress Catherine II. In Russia he produced a number of operas including Il barbiere di Siviglia (The Barber of Seville). In 1784 he left Russia and spent a short time in Vienna before returning to Naples, where he entered the service of the Bourbon dynasty. In 1802, he accepted an invitation from Napoleon to come to Paris. He remained there only a short time before returning again to Naples where he was employed by the French kings, Joseph Bonaparte and Joachim Murat. The collapse of the French dynasty in Naples in 1815 brought an unfortunate end to Paisiello’s career, and in same year, he endured the death of his beloved wife. His health and will to live broken, he died at age 76 in Naples.Palagianello (TA): A commune in the province of Taranto.Palagiano (TA): A commune in the province of Taranto.Palagonia (anc. Palice or Paliké; Sic. Palahunìa)(CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 16,384 (2006e).Palata (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 1,899 (2006e).Palazzo Adriano (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.Palazzo San Gervasio (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Palazzolo Acreide (SR): A commune in the province of Siracusa.Palena (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti.Palermiti (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro.Palermo, Province of: A province in Palermo. Population: 1,241,241 (2007e). Communes of Palermo ProvinceCommuneArea(km²)Population(2007e)Population(2006e)Population(2001 census)Population(1991 census)Alia45.67399740424,1844,402Alimena59.39228323212,4943,057Aliminusa13.71133913371,3631,405Altavilla Milicia23.79N/A*60125,2524,789Altofonte35.27991097089,1938,276Bagheria29.68552725450850,85447,085Balestrate3.87602759335,6935,651Baucina24.34198619922,0312,105Belmonte Mezzagno29.20106151045010,3229,601Bisacquino64.74503850805,2055,484Blufi20.56115811691,2081,391Bolognetta27.58381237083,4723,112Bompietro42.40156615961,7542,055Borgetto25.95670366416,2425,873Caccamo187.80844085068,5248,636Caltavuturo97.22435543564,5704,943Campofelice di Fitalia35.29589599609638Campofelice di Roccella14.75619160175,7485,328Campofiorito21.35138713791,4011,564Camporeale38.61359636333,7164,371Capaci6.12103421024310,16410,610Carini76.86315982982525,73021,076Castelbuono60.51929693249,64810,058Casteldaccia33.9810418100839,0228,098Castellana Sicula72.54369337103,8334,164Castronovo di Sicilia199.91328332783,4193,604Cefalà Diana9.02101210039921,031Cefalù65.80137641371613,78913,882Cerda43.82531353505,3775,431Chiusa Sclafani57,40316032053,3023,677Ciminna56.34396239933,9864,251Cinisi33.16111811093310,2538,994Collesano108.40414441584,2534,589Contessa Entellina136.37195519751,9852,052Corleone229.12113091132911,39311,261Ficarazzi3.5610642101249,4188,005Gangi127.16731873777,6148,176Geraci Siculo112.97200020352,1052,282Giardinello12.49212020631,9001,681Giuliana24.19219122042,3052,478Godrano38.87114811591,1471,142Gratteri38.46102510531,0791,226Isnello50.18176617841,9232,136Isola delle Femmine3.54690668556,2084,697Lascari         10.39335133353,1323,030Lercara Friddi37.27715172037,3927,602Marineo33.32686668756,9566,654Mezzojuso49.43298930143,0583,213Misilmeri69.21262112557223,10920,072Monreale529.20357653521931,96426,256Montelepre9.89625262196,1685,733Montemaggiore Belsito31.83370737663,8664,312Palazzo Adriano129.25238324292,5302,767Palermo158.88666552670820686,722698,556Partinico110.32314723151831,00327,182Petralia Soprana56.86356236023,6883,903Petralia Sottana178.04314331793,3113,770Piana degli Albanesi64.89595860116,2276,129Polizzi Generosa134.33382838984,1694,748Pollina49.90309130783,1203,157Prizzi95.03537254595,7116,254Roccamena33.32162016321,7932,132Roccapalumba31.41270227192,8423,092San Cipirello20.94529252415,0165,048San Giuseppe Jato29.46869786978,3499,460San Mauro Castelverde114.19199420342,1662,565Santa Cristina Gela38.55926902865800Santa Flavia14.4610318101649,5358,545Sciara31.19280428152,7182,730Scillato30.89676672706806Sclafani Bagni135.06482496506609Termini Imerese77.58274582745226,95826,571Terrasini19.44110921096810,68610,544Torretta25.41395738663,4683,147Trabia20.46910290238,2528,067Trappeto4.13301829432,7703,059Ustica8.09131513041,3351,188Valledolmo25.80391939684,1474,689Ventimiglia di Sicilia26.69214221542,1922,340Vicari85.74297229883,0773,400Villabate3.83196881942518,37114,877Villafrati25.61338433823,3653,404Total4994.751,241,241*1,239,8081,235,9231,224,778
Palermo (anc. Ziz; Panormos): The principal city and capital of the island and region of Sicily. A commune and provincial capital of the province of Palermo.History: The city was founded as a trading colony by the ancient Phoenicians who named it Ziz = flowering. The modern name, however, comed from Panormos /Panormus (pan= wide; ormos= gulf/bay), the name by which it was known to the Greeks and Romans.Palermo, University of: Founded in 1806.Palermo Anno Uno (Palermo Year One): An anti-mafia organization founded in 1992. Based in Palermo, it serves as a private umbrella organization for various anti-crime groups.Palici (Grk. Palikoi) (sing. Palicus): Gods who presided over the thermal springs and geysers of Palice (Palakia) in Sicily. This pair of brothers also were said to have the power to avenge any broken oaths which were sworn upon their sacred waters. Their shrine was considered a sanctuary for escaped slaves. The Palici are identified variously as sons of Adranus, a local Sicilian fire-god, Zeus and Thaleia, or Hephaestus and Aetna.                It is likely that the Palici were already being worshipped by the native Sikels before the arrival of the Greeks on Sicily. Their shrine was already well-established before their worship was Hellenized. There is evidence to suggest that during its early stages, the shrine at Palice was the scene of human sacrifices.                The Palice shrine centered on a pair of sulfurous thermal springs known as the Deilloi, said to be the “brothers of the Palici.” It was here that men would toss in tablets upon which they had written solemn oaths. If the tablets floated, the oath was considered honest. If they sank, however, it was a sign of dishonesty and perjury. The culprit was said to be instantly struck down with blindness or death.Palizzi (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.Pallagorio (KR): A commune in the province of Crotone. Population: 1,489 (2006e).palma (palm):  a unit of length measure formerly used in the kingdom of Naples. It was the equivalent of 0.861 English foot.Palma Campania (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.Palma di Montechiaro (AG): A commune in the province of Agrigento. Population: 23,927 (2006e).Palmariggi (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 1,586 (2006e).Palmermiti (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 1,311 (2006e).Palmi (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.Palmoli (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 1,085 (2006e).Palo del Colle (BA): A commune in the province of Bari: Population: 21,465 (2006e).Palomba, Antonio: (b. Dec. 20, 1705, Naples; d. 1764, Naples). Librettist, poet.Palomba, Giuseppe: (fl. 1769-1792). Librettist, poet. He was active in Puglia.Palombaro (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti.Palmoli (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 1,085 (2006e).Palomonte (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Paludi (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,852 (2006e).Panarea: an island of the Isole Eolie (Lipari Islands).Pandenulf: Prince of Capua (r862-863; 879-882). Deposed by his uncle, Landulf II, in 863, he was reinstated in 879.Pando: Prince of Capua (r861-862).Pandosia: A city of ancient Bruttium.Pandateria: Ancient name for the island of Ventotene.Pandulf I “Ironhead”: Prince of Capua (943-981).Pandulf II: Prince of Capua (1007-1022).Panettieri (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 355 (2006e).Panfilo: Bishop of Capua (r?). It is known that he occupied the see sometime between Vincenzo (r337-365) and S. Rufino (r410-420).Pannarano (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 2,050 (2006e).Panni (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 901 (2006e).Panormita, Antonio: See Beccadelli, Antonio.Panormus: ancient Greek name for Palermo. The name derives from the Greek words meaning “All Harbor” and refers to the superior nature of the city’s port.Pantaros: an athlete of ancient Gela. He was victor in the Tethrippon at the Olympian Games in 508 BC.Pantelleria: A small Mediterranean island located 55 miles from Capo Granitola (Sicily) and 46 miles from Cape Bon (Tunisia). Despite its small size, the island has several settlements many of which survive from Arabic times: Bugheber, Bukkuram, Gelkhamer, Khamma, Rekhale, and Seba. Under the Saracens, the island was called Bent al-rion, “Daughter of the Winds.”                The island was first settled by the ancient Phoenicians who terraced hillslopes and dug cisterns in order to make the place productive.                Pantelleria is known for its capers and sweet wine, grown on the island’s only flat area called the Piana di Ghirlandaia.Pantelleria (TP): A commune in the province of Trapani.Pantocrator (All Powerful): an image of Christ, either painted or mosaic, portrayed with outstretched arms. One of the best examples of a mosaic Christ Pantocrator can be seen in the Cathedral of Monreale, Sicily.Paola (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 17,087 (2006e).Paolino, S.: Bishop of Capua (r835-843).Paolisi (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 1,864 (2006e).Papasidero (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 938 (2006e).Parabita (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 9,345 (2006e).Parco Nazionale del Cilento e Vallo di Diano: A national park situated in the southern part of the province of Salerno (Campania). The second largest park in Italy, it stretches from the Tyrrhenian coast to the foot of the Apennines in Campania and Basilicata, and it includes the peaks of the Alburni Mountains, of the Cervati and of the Gelbison and the coastal buttresses of Mount Bulgheria and Mount Stella.Area: 181,048 ha. It encompasses the communes of: Agropoli, Aquara, Ascea, Auletta, Bellosguardo, Buonabitacolo, Camerota, Campora, Cannalonga, Capaccio, Casalbuono, Casaletto Spartano, Casal Velino, Caselle in Pittari, Castelcivita, Castellabate, Castelnuovo Cilento, Castel San Lorenzo, Celle di Bulgheria, Centola, Ceraso, Cicerale, Controne, Corleto Monforte, Cuccaro Vetere, Feletto.Parenti (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 2,324 (2006e).Parete (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population: 10,585 (2006e).Parghelia (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.Parmenides (1): An athlete of ancient Kamarina, in Sicily. He was victor in the stadion at the Olympian Games in 528 BC.Parmenides (2): An athlete of ancient Poseidonia. He was victor in the diaulos and the stadion at the Olympic Games in 468 BC.Parodi, Renato: b. 14 Dec. 1900, Naples. d. 16 Mar. 1974, Rome. Composer.Parolise (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 694 (2006e).Partanna (TP): A commune in the province of Trapani.Parthenope: In classical mythology, one of the Sirens. She had cult centers located in the cities of Neapolis (Naples) and Velia, in Magna Graecia.Parthenopean Republic: [from Parthenope, an ancient name of Naples], state set up in Naples in Jan., 1799, by the French Revolutionary army under General Championnet and by liberal Neapolitans after the flight of King Ferdinand IV (later Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies). In 1798, Ferdinand had joined the Second Coalition against the French Revolution. His army was unable to halt the French, and Naples was conquered. In February, Cardinal Ruffo, at the head of royalist troops, landed in Calabria and attempted to oust the French. Military reverses in N Italy prompted the evacuation by the French of Naples in May, and in June the republic fell. Admiral Horatio Nelson, whose role in the victory was crucial, ignored Cardinal Ruffo’s generous convention with the surrendering revolutionists and started the brutal reprisals that were continued by the restored king. The executions and imprisonments brought to an end the 18th-century Enlightenment in Naples.Partinico (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.Paschal I: Pope. (rJan 25, 817-Feb 11, 824).Paschal II: Pope. (rAug 13, 1099-Jan 21, 1118).Passaro, Andrea: (fl. 1826-1850). Librettist. He was active in Naples.pastiera napolitana: a pastry of Naples made at Easter time. It consists as a cheesecake with cooked, whole wheat berries (known as grano), diced candied fruit, and orange water in a pastry crust. The pastiera napolitana made in the United States often substitutes barley or rice instead of wheat berries.Pastorano (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population: 2,563 (2006e).Paterno (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 49,064 (2006e).Paterno (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Paterno Calabro (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,383 (2006e).Paternopoli (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 2,648 (2006e).Patriarch: Bishop of a patriarchal see.Patrizio (Patrician): A title often used by influential families in many Italian cities.Patti (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Patu’ (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 1,732 (2006e).Paul I: Pope. (rMay 29, 757-June 28, 767).Paul II: Pope. (rAug 30, 1464-July 26, 1471). He was the nephew of Pope Eugene IV (r1431-1447).Paul III: Pope. (rOct 13, 1534-Nov 10, 1549).Paul IV: Pope. (original name Gian Pietro Carafa). (b. June 28, 1476, in Capriglia; d. Aug. 18, 1559). (rMay 23, 1555-Aug. 18, 1559). In 1505, He became bishop of Chieti and, in 1518 he was raised to the position of archbishop of Brindisi (to 1524). In 1536, he was chosen a Cardinal, and, in 1549 became archbishop of Naples to 1555.Paul V: Pope. (rMay 16, 1605-Jan. 28, 1621).Paul VI: Pope. (rJune 21, 1963-Aug 6, 1878).Paupisi (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 1,473 (2006e).Pausilypum (mod. Posilippo): (=grief-assuaging). Originally the name for a grand villa near ancient Neapolis (Naples), it was willed to Augustus by Vedius Pollio. The name was later attached to the famed grotto/tunnel which was cut between Neapolis and Puteoli. It was created by the architect Cocceius, on the order of Marcus Agrippa. The tomb of Virgil was located near its western mouth.Pazzano (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.Pedace (CS): A commune (area: 51 km²) in the province of Cosenza. Population: 2,078 (2006e).Pedara (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 11,658 (2006e).Pedivigliano (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 929 (2006e).Pelagian Islands (Isole Pelagie) (AG): A small group of volcanic islands (Lampedusa, Linosa, and Lampione) situated in the Mediterranean Sea between Malta and Tunisia. Totalling about 25.5 km² in area, they are attached to the province of Agrigento.Pelagius I: Pope. (rApr. 16, 556-Mar 4, 561).Pelagius II: Pope. (rNov 26, 579-Feb 7, 590).Peligni: An ancient people who once inhabited parts of Abruzzo. Related to the Sabines, their principal towns included Corfinium and Sulmo (mod. Sulmona). Among the principal groups who rebelled against Rome during the Social War, they suffered severely from the depredations of Sulla.Pellegrini, Camillo: (b. 1598, at Capua; d. 1663). Historian and antiquarian. Educated at the Jesuit College at Naples, he entered that order and was sent to Rome. There he began researching documents and other resources related to the history of the kingdom of Naples. He eventually published important works on the antiquities of ancient Capua and the medieval Lombard states.Pellezzano (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Pelorus: ancient name for the NE promontory of Sicily, opposite from the toe of Bruttium (mod. Calabria).Penna Sant’Andrea (TE): A commune in the province of Teramo.Pennadomo (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 342 (2006e).Pennapiedimonte (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 531 (2006e).Penne (PE): A commune in the province of Pescara.Pentone (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 2,239 (2006e).Pepe, Guglielmo: (b. Feb. 14, 1783 at Squillace; d. Aug. 9, 1855 at Turin). General and revolutionary leader. In 1799, at the age of 16, he joined the army of the Parthenopean Republic and was taken prisoner by the Bourbon Army. Condemned to death as a traitor his sentence was commuted to exile. Later, in 1802, he attempted to organize a conspiracy against King Ferdinand IV but was arrested and imprisoned. The arrival of the French soon afterwards led to his release and he entered the service of King Joseph Bonaparte. He fought in the French army in Spain and later returned to Italy to serve in the army of Joachim Murat. By 1815, he had risen to the rank of Lieutenant-General. After the return of the Bourbons to power he remained in the army remained devoted to his Liberal principles. Becoming a member of the Carbonari, he came to command the pro-Constitutional forces in the revolt of 1820. On July 6, 1820 he led his forces into Naples and forced King Ferdinand I to agree to accept a new constitution. Within months, however, Pepe found himself facing an Austrian invading army sent to crush the Liberal movement. His attempt to block the Austrians at Rieti resulted in defeat and he was forced to flee into exile at London. In 1848, he returned home to command the Neapolitan troops against Austria. He attempted a gallant, but hopeless, defense of Venice in 1849. After this failure he retired from the army and took up residence in Paris for a short time. In 1851 he returned to Italy, where he spent his last four years, dying in Turin in 1855.Perano (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 1,630 (2006e).Perdifumo (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.pereko (Lat. pertica): a unit of length used by ancient Oscan people in Italy. It is believed to have been the equivalent of about 5 feet.Pereto (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 721 (2006e).Pergolesi, Giovanni Battista: (b. 3 or 4 January 1710 (or 1704), in Jesi, Casoria Naples. d. 16 March 1736 or 1737, Pozzuoli). Composer. He is best known for creating church music. Educated at the De’ Poveri in Giesu Cristo conservatorio at Naples, he later was influenced by the styles of Vinci and Hasse. From 1730 to 1734, he worked at the Teatro Nuovo in Naples, mainly creating comic operas in Neapolitan dialect. After a short stay in Rome, he returned to Naples where he turned his talents towards composing church music. Poor health eventually forced him to take up residence in the cleaner environment of Torre del Greco. There he continued to compose religious music until his death.Perito (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Perrotta, Giuseppe: (b. March 19, 1843, Catania. d. Feb. 16, 1910, Catania). Operatic Composer. The son of a lawyer, he originally intended to follow a legal career, but upon graduating from law school at the age of 18, he chose to become a composer.During his career he composed 23 operas.Persico, Mario: (b. 1892, Naples; d. 1977, Naples). Composer. He wrote several works including three operas, piano music, and vocals.Pertosa (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Pescara, Province of: A province in the region of Abruzzo.Communes of Pescara ProvinceCommuneArea(km²)Population(2007e)Population(2006e)Population(2001 census)Population(1991 census)Abbateggio15.71419439420403Alanno32.513667368337423746Bolognano16.751190121712691339Brittoli15.81365382415470Bussi sul Tirino26.292853287729773236Cappelle sul Tavo5.463834376837142985Caramanico Terme84.552089208721192213Carpineto della Nora23.28710710733758Castiglione a Casauria16.65887895892902Catignano17.041468149615401595Cepagatti30.349903976390977870Città Sant’Angelo61.9513566133141195210164Civitaquana21.781347134513951377Civitella Casanova31.771992202120572156Collecorvino32.075631559253994823Corvara13.71294290289333Cugnoli15.951631163316691752Elice14.161748173917311751Farindola45.311694172718072083Lettomanoppello15.063098311130903046Loreto Aprutino59.557675768976157228Manoppello39.486314613256375566Montebello di Bertona21.301067109011201183Montesilvano23.3945845446874070035153Moscufo20.243229324131632845Nocciano13.661826179016761565Penne90.4212545125451249512214Pescara33.62122402122457116286122236Pescosansonesco18.46549549556574Pianella46.847939787275117117Picciano7.431348137613671403Pietranico14.50582598605691Popoli34.345557555855665755Roccamorice24.651012101310021046Rosciano27.833243319030953030Salle21.61304310312414Sant’Eufemia a Maiella40.05312323365406San Valentino in Abruzzo Citeriore16.351916192219591911Scafa10.093969396739873863Serramonacesca23.89588586619717Spoltore36.7417240169041541712930Tocco da Casauria29.902814283027673044Torre de’ Passeri5.933161313631613299Turrivalignani6.30845846858902Vicoli9.38426431445453Villa Celiera12.57802816890987Total1,224.67311,896309,947295481289534 Pescara (PE): A commune and provincial capital of the province of Pescara. The city’s name derives from that of the nearby river which, in turn, comes from the Latin piscis (= “fish”).Pescara-Penne, Archdiocese of: A Metropolitan archdiocese in the ecclesiastical region of Abruzzo-Molise.Basic Information on the Archdiocese of Pescara-Penne (2006)(Source: Catholic-hierarchy.org)Ecclesiastical ConferenceRegionAbruzzo-MoliseMetropolitan Suffragans Areakm² (mi²)Total Population Catholic Population Total Priests Diocesan Priests Religious Priests Permanent Deacons Male Religious Female Religious Parishes History: Suffragans: Teramo-AtriMetropolitan:Conference Region: Abruzzo-Molise.Area: 1,600 km²/ mi²):Total Population: 288,207.Catholic Population:Total Priests: 194 (Diocesan: 133; Religious: 61)Permanent Deacons: 16Male Religious:Female Religious:Parishes: 126.History:Pescasseroli (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 2,225 (2006e).Pesce, Nicola (or Cola): (fl. late 14th Century). A famous Sicilian swimmer and diver. His real surname is unknown “Pesce” (= fish) being a nickname given to him because of his athletic aquatic abilities. Part of his accomplishments was the result of his ability to hold his breath for an unusually long length of time. According to one story, Emperor Frederick II tested Pesce by throwing a golden cup into the sea and commanding the athlete to dive off the heights of the Punte di Faro (the NE corner of Sicily) to retreive it. Pesce plunged into the water and, after a long underwater search, successfully retrieved the cup. The impressed Frederick rewarded him not only with the cup but also a purse full of gold. Pesce’s ego now got the better of him at, without being commanded, repeated his great dive. This time, however, his abilities failed him and Pesce never resurfaced. According to legend, Charbydis, the mythical monster whirlpool who was said to live in the waters below Punte di Faro, became angry at Pesce’s arrogance and pulled him down to his death.Pesche (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 1,498 (2006e).Peschici (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 4,310 (2006e).Pescina (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 4,484 (2006e).Pesco Sannita (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 2,144 (2006e).Pescocostanzo (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 1,202 (2006e).Pescolanciano (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 946 (2006e).Pescopagano (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Pescopennataro (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 343 (2006e).Pescosansonesco (PE): A commune in the province of Pescara.Petacciato (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso.Petelia: A city of ancient Bruttium.Peter, St. (Santo Pietro): (d. AD 64 or 67). The first pope, he was designated as the head of the Church by Jesus in AD 32, shortly before the latter’s crucifixion. He moved to Rome in cAD 40, where he presided as bishop for about 25 years before suffering martyrdom. His tomb is said to be located beneath the great altar of the Basilica named for him in the Vatican. All subsequent bishops of Rome (i.e. Popes) derive their supreme authority over the Roman Catholic Church by their successorship from St. Peter.Peter: Bishop of Capua (r925-?).Peter I: King of Sicily (Trinacria) (r1282-1285).Peter (Pietro) II: (b. 1304, in Catania, Sicily; d. Aug. 15, 1342, Calascibetta, Sicily). King of Sicily (Trinacria) (r1337-1342). He was the son of King Frederick I of Sicily (d. June 25 1337). He married (23 Apr 1322) Elisabeth Princess of Carinthia.Petilia Policastro (KR): A commune in the province of Crotone. Population: 9,406 (2006e)Petraea (Petraia): In ancient Greek mythology, she was one of the Oceanid sea nymphs, a daughter of Oceanus. The name is also connected with the monstrous Scylla who plagued mariners in the Strait of Messina. The latter was said to live in or upon a great rock (Grk. = petra; Latin = petro-), thus giving her the name.Petina (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Petralia Soprana (PA): A commune in the province of PalermoPetralia Sottana (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.Petrella Tifernina (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 1,254 (2006e).Petrizzi (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 1,242 (2006e).Petrona’ (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 2,776 (2006e).Petrosino (TP): A commune in the province of Trapani.Petruro Irpino (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 376 (2006e).Pettineo (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Pettoranello del Molise (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 490 (2006e).Pettorano sul Gizio (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 1,314 (2006e).Phalaris “the Cruel”: Ruler of Akragas (r573-554 BC).Philip of Agirone, St.: (date: unknown). Probably a fictional figure, Philip is traditionally said to have been the first Christian missionary to preach in Sicily. He is the patron saint of the Sicilian town of Agirone and has a feast day on May 12.Philistides: (b. Syracuse; fl. late 4th century BC). Juggler. A member of Alexander the Great’s court, he was one of the performers at the mass-marriage ceremony at Susa in 324 BC.Philistis: (fl. 3rd century BC). Queen of Syracuse. Wife of Hieron II. The daughter of an influential Syracusan citizen named Liptines, she married Hieron shortly after he seized power in Syracuse (275 BC). She became the mother of a son, Gelon (d. 216 BC) and 2 daughters, Damarata and Heraclia. She and her daughters were killed by a mob in 214 BC.Philoctetes: A famous, though mythical, Greek archer from the Trojan War. After the fall of Troy, he immigrated to Campania where he battled against the Lucanians. He was eventually able to found the city of Crimissa, near Croton and Thurii. There he founded a sanctuary to Apollo, to whom he dedicated his famous bow, once welded by Heracles (Hercules).Phintias: Ruler of Akragas (r286-280 BC).Phoenician: The ethnic name for a people and their objects coming from the area of the modern Lebanon. Used as a period designation, it normally means c. 800-500 BC.Phoenicusa: One of the seven principal islands of the Aeoliae Insulae (Aeolian Islands), off the N coast of Sicily.Piaggine (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Piana degli Albanesi (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.Piana di Monte Verna (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population: 2,485 (2006e).Piane Crati (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,459 (2006e).Pianella (PE): A commune in the province of Pescara.Piano di Sorrento (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.Piano nobile: the main (usually the first) floor of a palazzo.Pianopoli (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro.Piastra:Neapolitan: The principal currency used in the mainland portion of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. It was equal in value to the Sicilian piastra but was subdivided differently. The Neapolitan piastra was divided into 120 grana, each of 2 tornese, or 12 cavalli.Sicilian: The principal currency for the insular portion of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. While equal in value to the Neapolitan piastra, it was divided in a different matter. The Sicilian piastra was divided into 12 tari, each of 20 grana, or 120 cavalli.Two Sicilies: After the Bourbon restoration in 1815, both the Neapolitan and Sicilian versions of the piastra were replaced by the Two Sicilies Piastra as the principal currency for the entire Regno. It remained in use until the kingdom’s fall in 1860. It was subdivided into 120 grana, each of 2 tornese. In 1860, the piastra was replaced by the Sardinian/Italian lira at the rate of 1 piastra = 5.1 lire.Piazza Armerina (EN): A commune in the province of Enna. Population: 20,768 (2006e).Piazzi, Giuseppe: (b. Ponte, July 7, 1746; d. Naples, July 22, 1826). Astronomer. Well-educated at Milan, Turin, and Rome, he had already earned an excellent reputation as a mathematician when, in 1780, he was appointed as professor of higher mathematics at the Academy of Palermo. Once established there, he founded a royal observatory. It was there, on Jan. 1, 1801, that he discovered the first asteroid, which he named Ceres Ferdinandea, in honor of his patron, King Ferdinand of Naples. In 1817, he transferred to Naples where he developed the observatory founded there upon Capo di Monte by Murat.Picciano (PE): A commune in the province of Pescara.Piccinni, Nicolo: (b. January 16, 1728, Bari. d. May 7,1800, Passy ,France). Composer.Picciotto (pl. Picciotti): literally a Sicilian term meaning “boy.” In 1860, during Garibaldi’s invasion of Sicily, the contingent of his army comprised of Sicilian recruits were known as i picciotti che combatterono con Garibaldi (the boys who fight beside Garibaldi). These troops, drawn from the rural districts of the island, small gangs of brigands, recruited by Mazzini’s cohorts who organized the 1860 anti-Bourbon revolt on Sicily. After the fall of the kingdom of the Two Sicilies, these picciotti continued their assocation with the Palermo-based elements of the rebels, to form the organization that became the modern Mafia. The term picciotti is still used today for the young thugs who comprise the lowest level in the Mafia hierarchy.Picenum: an ancient region of central Italy. Its territory was bounded on the W by the Apennines, on the E by the Adriatic Sea, on the N by the river Aesis (mod. Esino), and on the S by the river Suinus, although often the southern boundary is extended to the river Aternus (Pescara). Its southern part is partly encompassed within modern Abruzzo. The northern part of region was inhabited by the Piceni, a branch of the Sabines. The southern area, however, was occupied by the Praetutii, more likely of Liburnian origins. Northern Picenum was devoted largely to the growing of apples, while the southern part was famous for its fine wine.Picerno (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Piedimonte Etneo (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 3,849 (2006e).Piedimonte Matese (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population: 11,673 (2006e).Pietrabbondante (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 909 (2006e).Pietracamela (TE): A commune in the province of Teramo.Pietracatella (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 1,543 (2006e).Pietracupa (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 249 (2006e).Pietradefusi (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 2,507 (2006e).Pietraferrazzana (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 137 (2006e).Pietrafitta (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,438 (2006e).Pietragalla (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Pietramelara (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population: 4,614 (2006e).Pietramontecorvino (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 2,862 (2006e).Pietranico (PE): A commune in the province of Pescara.Pietrapaola (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,207 (2006e).Pietrapertosa (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Pietraperzia (EN): A commune in the province of Enna. Population: 7,334 (2006e).Pietraroja (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 641 (2006e).Pietrastornina (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 1,602 (2006e).Pietravairano (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population: 3,044 (2006e).Pietrelcina (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 3,056 (2006e).pifara: A Sicilian double-reed musical instrument similar to an oboe, constructed in a single piece. It is comparable to the ancient shawn and to the smaller, Apennine piffaro. It was usually played in connection with drum during ceremonial processions.piffaro (piffero):  an Italian shawn, a double reed instrument similar to an oboe, commonly found in the Apennines. It is smaller than a Sicilian pifara (bifora), and is often played in duet with the zambogna.piffero: See piffaro.Pignataro Maggiore (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  6,547 (2006e).Pignola (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Pikler, John: (b. 1734, in Naples; d. 1791 in Rome). Gem-engraver. The son of the Tyrolian gem-cutter, John Anthony Pikler (1700-1779), he was trained in sculpting by Domenico Corvi. He became one of the most notable gem-engravers of his time. In 1769, Emperor Joseph II invited him to Vienna where he was knighted. After a stay in England, he returned to Rome in 1775, remaining there for the remainder of his life.Pilatus, Leontius (or Leo Pilatus): (fl. mid-14th Century). Monk and scholar. A native of Calabria, he was one of the most important movers in the revival of classical learning in the West. He was the first teacher of Greek in Italy, and numbered Petrarch and Boccaccio among his pupils. He traveled through Greece collecting ancient Greek manuscripts to bring back to Italy for translation into Latin. While returning from one such journey, he was killed by a bolt of lightning.Pimonte (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.Pinelli, Gianvincenzo: (b. 1535, in Naples; d. 1601). Patron of literature. Born into a noble family of Genoese ancestry, he moved to Padua in 1535 where he moved in scholarly circles. A poor constitution prevented him from persuing an active life. He became an avid collector of books, scientifical instruments, exotic plants, etc. His library was so famous that, upon his death, the senate of Venice had all of his manuscripts that were related to Venetian topics, some 200 in number, confiscated to become part of that state’s archives. The remainder of the library, packed into 14 chests of manuscripts and 116 chests of books, were loaded into 3 ships which were to bring them to Pinelli’s relative in Naples. One of these ships, unfortunately, was captured by pirates who threw many of the books overboard, tossing the rest onto a nearby beach at Fermo. By a fortunate accident, the local bishop recognized the value of the scattered books and was able to salvage many of them which he sent on to Naples. All of the rest of the library arrived safely and were purchased by Cardinal Frederic Borromeo for 3,400 gold crowns.Pineto (TE): A commune in the province of Teramo.Pinne: Ancient name for Penne.pinoli: pine nuts, particularly those of the Italian stone pine tree. They are often used in Sicily with currants in cuisine on Arab origins or influences.Piraino (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Pisanelli, Giuseppe Ceva Grimaldi (Marchese di Pietracatella): (b. 1776). Statesman. He served as Minister Secretary of State/President of the Council of Ministers (Ministro Segretari di Stato –  Presidente del Consiglio di Ministri) in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies from 1839 to 1848.Pisano, Nicola: (fl. AD 1258-1278). Sculptor. Mistakenly thought to have been from Pisa because of his name and that much of his work is found there, reliable evidence shows that he was a native of Apulia. A major figure of his time, he was the founder of his own school of sculpture. His techniques and style in the magnificent pulpits and fountains he created reveal that his initial train occurred in southern Italy. His son, Giovanni Pisano (c1250- after 1314), an accomplished sculptor and architect in his own right, collaborated on many of his projects. Principal Works: Marble Pulpit for the Baptistery in Pisa: 1259.Pulpit for the Cathedral at Siena: 1265-1268.Fonte Maggiore (bronze & marble) at Perugia: 1278.Pisciotta (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Pisticci (MT): A commune in the province of Matera. Population: 17,867 (2006e).Pithecusa: Ancient name for Ischia.pizzica tarantata: An old form of tarantella.Pizzo (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.Pizzone (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 343 (2006e).Pius I, St.: Pope. (rAD 140/142-155).Pius II: Pope. (rAug 19, 1458-Aug 6, 1464).Pius III: Pope. (rSept 22-Oct 18, 1503).Pius IV: Pope. (rDec 25, 1559-Dec 9, 1565).Pius V: Pope. (rJan 7, 1566-May 1, 1572).Pius VI: Pope. (rFeb 15, 1775-Aug 29, 1799).Pius VII: Pope. (r Mar 14, 1800-Aug 20, 1823).Pius VIII: Pope. (rMar 31, 1829-Dec 1, 1830).Pius IX: Pope. (rJune 16, 1846-Feb 7, 1878).Pius X, St: Pope. (rAug 4, 1903-Aug 20, 1914).Pius XI: Pope. (rFeb 6, 1922-Feb 10, 1939).Pius XII (Eugene Pacelli): Pope. (rMar. 2, 1939-Oct. 9, 1958).Pizza chiena: Neapolitan dialect name for a pizza ripiena (=stuffed pie) traditionally made in Campania and Abruzzo during Easter. It utilizes ricotta, mozzarella, and prosciutto, as well as pork products and seasonings.Pizzoferrato (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 1,168 (2006e).Pizzoli (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 3,335 (2006e).Pizzone (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia.Pizzoni (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.Placanica (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.Planctai: A possible ancient name for the Lipari Islands.Plataci (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 901 (2006e).Platania (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 2,362 (2006e).Platì (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.Plotinus: b. AD 204, Lycopolis, Egypt; d. AD 270 in Campania. Neo-Platonist philosopher. Having traveled extensively throughout Persia and India, he developed a philosophy which united elements of Plato’s teachings with elements of eastern beliefs. He became attached to the army of Emperor Gordian III during the latter’s expedition into Persia in AD 243. After Gordian’s assassination, Plotinus was forced to flee and safely reached Antioch. From there he continued on to Rome. There he became a noted lecturer and writer. He moved in the upper circles of Roman society and eventually won the friendship of Emperor Gallienus and Empress Salonina. He submitted a plan to Gallienus to have a ruined and deserted city in Campania rebuilt as a home for philosophers to be governed under the ideals laid down in Plato’s teachings. Gallienus showed great interest in building this city of Platonopolis, but was ultimately convinced by others that such a state could eventually threaten the empire’s political status quo. Plotinus eventually left Rome and traveled into Campania where he died at the age of 69.Poggiardo (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 6,165 (2006e).Poggio Imperiale (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 2,831 (2006e).Poggio Picenze (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 1,036(2006e).Poggio Sannita (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 866 (2006e).Poggiofiorito (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 954 (2006e).Poggiomarino (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.Poggioreale (TP): A commune in the province of Trapani.Poggiorsini (BA): A commune in the province of Bari: Population: 1,469 (2006e).Poli, Giuseppe Saverio: b. 1746, Molfetta; d. 1825. Physiologist. Educated at the University of Padua, he joined the army and, in 1776, was appointed professor of military geography at Naples by King Ferdinand I. Under that king’s direction, he was sent to various military academies in France, Germany, England and Holland, to study the different techniques. While visiting London, he became a member of the Royal Society. Upon his return to Naples, Poli took the post of professor of experimental philosophy at the university. He later became tutor to the crown prince and served as director of the military academy at Naples. He published an excellent illustrated work on anatomy, as well as others on geography and poetry.Polia (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.Policoro (MT): A commune in the province of Matera. Population: 15,567 (2006e).Polignano a Mare (BA): A commune in the province of Bari: Population: 17,592 (2006e).polis: an ancient Greek city-state.Polistena (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.Polizzi Generosa (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.Polla (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Pollena Trocchia (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.Pollica (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Pollina (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.Pollutri (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 2,344 (2006e).Polybius, Gaius:Polyphemus (Polphemos): one of the lawless race of cannibal Cyclopes said to have inhabited eastern Sicily in mythological times. He was the son of the sea-god Poseidon and the nymph Thoosa. According to one myth, he loved the beautiful sea nymph Galatia who was repulsed by his monstrous appearance and savage ways. When he learned that Galatea loved the youth Acis, he slew the boy in a jealous rage, crushing him beneath a great stone.                Polyphemus is best-known for the part he plays in Homer’s Odyssey. When Odysseus and his companions raid Polyphemus’s cave, discovers and traps them inside. After Polyphemus kills and devours some of the Greeks, Odysseus succeeds in getting him drunk on wine. As Polyphemus falls asleep, the surviving Greeks blind him with a burning stake. The enraged, and now blinded, Cyclops rolls away the stone blocking the entrance to his cave, allowing the Greeks to escaped. Polyphemus attempted to sink the ships of the departing Greeks by hurling great stones at them but, unable to see, he is unable to hit them. At last the wounded giant called out to his father Poseidon to avenge him.                Polyphemus’s name means “many-worded”, deriving from the Greek words poly (many) and phêmê (words).                Polyphemus is strongly associated which the the area around Mt. Etna. He and the other cyclopes are usually described as shepherds and may have been modeled on the early pastorial population who dwelt there prior to the time of Greek colonization.polyptych (Ital. polittico): a painting executed on several attached wooden panels.Polystephanos Theo: An ancient Sicilian goddess similar in her aspects to the Greek Artemis. She had an important sanctuary near Butera [CL] which was in use from the archaic era to Roman imperial times.Pomarico (MT): A commune in the province of Matera. Population: 4,422 (2006e).Pomigliano d’Arco (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.Pompei (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.Pompeii:Pomperio: Name of an ancient Oscan festival.Pontano (Pontanus), Giovanni-Gioviano: (b. 1426, Cerreto, Umbria; d. 1503). Writer and scholar. While a student in Perugia, his studies were interrupted by political unrest and he turned to a military career. In 1447, he served in the army of King Alfonso I of Naples in the latter’s war against Florence. He returned with the army to Naples where he became the pupil, and later successor to Antonio Panormita, secretary to Ferdinand I. Pontano went on to serve in the same office under Alfonso the II and Ferdinand II. In 1486, he served as Ferdinand I’s ambassador to Pope Innocent VIII in arranging a treaty of peace. He impressed the pope who awarded him honors. Pontano was thwarted in his hopes of receiving high office under Alfonso II, for which he developed a great resentment towards the king. The most significant contributions of Pontano were in his connection to the Academy founded at Naples by Panormita. He helped promote it into one of Italy’s great Renaissance institutions. He produced some of that era’s finest Latin works of poetry, science, philosophy and several other topics. As an historian, he composed works on the wars between Ferdinand I of Naples and John, Duke of Anjou.Ponte (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 2,620 (2006e).Pontecagnano Faiano (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Pontelandolfo (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 2,457 (2006e).Pontelatone (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  1,829 (2006e).Ponti delle Valle: an aqueduct built by the 18th century architect Vanvitelli to carry water to the gardens of the Palazzo Reale at Caserta. Rising 200 feet in height, this 3-tiered structure measures a length of 24 miles.Pontine Marshes: A large tract of marshy ground in the southern portion of Latium (Campagna di Roma). Extending inland from the coast of the Sea of Tuscany for about 25 miles, from Cisterna on the N to Terracina on the S, it marked part of the former frontier between the Papal States and kingdom of the Two Sicilies.Pontian, St.: Pope. (rJuly 21, 230-Sept 28, 235).population of southern Italy, ancient: Throughout ancient times most the southern Italian mainland was thinly population. At the end of the Second Punic War, much of what had existed in many areas was wiped out during Hannibal’s depredations and the Roman efforts to stop him. Campania was the only area which enjoyed a free population of any size. Prior to the Samnite Wars, the Italic Samnites did experience significant spurts in their population. These were usually dealt through emigration to new areas. The Samnite Wars, however, caused profound change. The loss of fertile agricultural lands to the Romans meant the need for a smaller population.Porcellio, Pietro: b. c1400, at Naples. Historian and poet. His surname is said to derive from the fact that he worked as a swineherd in his youth. Whatever his background, he was sufficiently educated and cultured to earn the position of secretary to Alfonso, king of Naples. He also won the admiration of the noted general Frederic, duke of Urbino. Leaving Naples, he was with the Venetian army in 1452, wrote a history of the Venetian Count Piccinino against Francesco Sforza.Porphyry (orig. Melech): b. AD 233 in Tyre, Phoenicia; d. cAD 304 in Rome. Neo-Platonist philosopher. He was a follower of Plotinus and was a bitter enemy of Christianity. Having received a fine education from Origen at Caesarea and from Longinus at Athens, he came to Rome in AD 253 and became a follower of Plotinus. Much of what is known about the life and teachings of Plotinus is thanks to the writings of Porphyry. In AD 268, Porphyry moved to Lilybaeum in Sicily, remaining on the island for many years. His attachment to Sicily was so great that he was often referred to Siculus. During these years, he composed 15 books in which he condemned Christianity. These writings were considered so dangerous that the Christian Emperor Theodosius I later ordered them to be burned. Porphyry later returned to Rome where he died.Porpora, Nicola: (b. August 17, 1685 or 1686, Naples. d. March 3, 1767 or 1768, Naples). Composer. He was sometimes called the “Patriarch of Harmony.” Having studied under Alessandro Scarlatti, he traveled through Germany and Austria. In 1717, he produced his first opera, Arianna e Tesio, in Vienna. From there he began a successful career throughout Europe. Porpora eventually served as the master of the Incurabili Conservatorio at Venice. He retired to his native Naples remaining there until his death.Portici (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.portico: a covered entrance to a building, or a porch.Portico di Caserta (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  7,324 (2006e).Portigliola (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.Porto Cesareo (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 5,120 (2006e).Porto Empedocle (AG): A commune in the province of Agrigento. Population: 17,123 (2006e).Portocannone (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 2,558 (2006e).Portopalo di Capo Passero (SR): A commune in the province of Siracusa.Positano (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Postiglione (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Postumius Albinus Paullulus, Sp.: (fl. 1st part of the 2nd century BC). Roman statesman. He was given the name Paullulus (little Paullus) because of his short stature. In 183 BC he served as praetor in Sicily, and was elected consul in 174 BC.Potenza (PZ): A commune and provincial capital of the province of Potenza. Regional Capital of Basilicata.Potenza, Province of: A province in the region of Basilicata.Communes of Potenza ProvinceCommuneArea(km²)Population(2007e)Population(2006e)Population(2001 census)Population(1991 census)Abriola96.641691169918082061Acerenza77.132705280330103043Albano di Lucania55.171550156016121682Anzi76.741866188719492158Armento58.50721726800946Atella88.283869387637263519Avigliano84.9312055120691202511761Balvano41.741938194420072296Banzi82.351484149115141903Baragiano29.452737274527512716Barile24.643077315032293262Bella99.365338535254405789Brienza82.694193419140674144Brindisi Montagna59.76922924905949Calvello105.032060208822122362Calvera15.79498542584662Campomaggiore12.249149219801109Cancellara42.121534153715981715Carbone47.757627778531171Castelgrande34.4535836512311358Castelluccio Inferiore28.811141121123442617Castelluccio Superiore32.28221622629871142Castelmezzano33.619069169701063Castelsaraceno74.1891893817302020Castronuovo di Sant’Andrea46.931602164914391691Cersosimo24.6512881306847882Chiaromonte70.5878681321482410Corleto Perticara88.982083210830183345Episcopia28.732749281216251735Fardella27.2815341550765857Filiano70.7868970332983318Forenza115.603146317725462807Francavilla in Sinni48.952375242443674044Gallicchio23.484301432910181130Genzano di Lucania207.0495897161156330Ginestra13.2117936117726783Grumento Nova66.17665181418391956Guardia Perticara52.955926669758817Lagonegro112.414994596261466260Latronico75.982104502452795507Laurenzana95.2713561213222502640Lauria175.6613672136421380113752Lavello132.925224136471324713215Maratea67.324726525052615261Marsico Nuovo101.035138496051345610Marsicovetere37.821832508047034098Maschito45.4917191183418641951Melfi205.15580171821611015757Missanello22.304437591604713Moliterno97.651827451945925033Montemilone113.401460185120002122Montemurro56.545906147915551648Muro Lucano125.761557593961106380Nemoli19.751072156615611598Noepoli51.523967109411891348Oppido Lucano54.655079397939684004Palazzo San Gervasio62.262081512051846138Paterno39.256157211239944170Pescopagano69.124407619221472392Picerno78.291183443361865976Pietragalla65.676071120645344633Pietrapertosa67.2468252590713121447Pignola55.5145686857754834681Potenza173.97118245906906065714Rapolla29.0513413119246484447Rapone29.1416721342412031336Rionero in Vulture53.19291816691344113201Ripacandida33.221702293617672072Rivello68.943737172130103153Roccanova61.633614375717592023Rotonda42.331172364038884011Ruoti55.061560118836873777Ruvo del Monte32.191242158312621453San Chirico Nuovo23.19858125216321801San Chirico Raparo83.00362487813041695San Costantino Albanese37.4289736618841077San Fele96.55179592238324186San Martino d’Agri50.25650418209691243San Paolo Albanese29.8914271471416529San Severino Lucano61.14890654119232224Sant’Angelo Le Fratte22.992372142014721656Sant’Arcangelo89.47118689566377270Sarconi30.467389236913511307Sasso di Castalda45.2170811918711115Satriano di Lucania33.021468733423532424Savoia di Lucania32.256803172612361351Senise96.61351971971827316Spinoso37.823242151617781852Teana19.6123966732750874Terranova di Pollino112.30750356515341815Tito70.592201324563875722Tolve127.7512093240736203766Tramutola36.48333376632513244Trecchina37.713133219624042508Trivigno25.9475212102794868Vaglio Basilicata42.983588303822172320Venosa169.34169133591214811905Vietri di Potenza52.012705314230963255Viggianello119.83155075635003985Viggiano89.031866365132083161Total6,548.49387,818390,068393,529401,543 Potenza-Muro Lucano-Marsico Nuovo, Archdiocese of: A Metropolitan archdiocese in the Ecclesiastical Region of Basilicata.Suffragans:Metropolitan:Conference Region: BasilicataArea: 1,634 km²/ mi²Total Population: 159,194.Catholic Population:Total Priests: 119 (Diocesan: 83; Religious: 36)Permanent Deacons: 19.Male Religious:Female Religious:Parishes: 59.History:Pozzallo (RG): A commune in the province of Ragusa.Pozzilli (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 2,262 (2006e).Pozzuoli (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.Praetutii: An ancient people who inhabited the area of Picenum south of the river Salinello (anc. Helvinus), near the Adriatic coast. It is believed that the name of Abruzzo is derived from their name.Praia a Mare (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 6,669 (2006e).Praiano (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Prata d’Ansidonia (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 545 (2006e).Prata di Principato Ultra (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 2,852 (2006e).Prata Sannita (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  1,663 (2006e).Pratella (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  1,675 (2006e).Pratola Peligna (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 7,892 (2006e).Pratola Serra (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 3,421 (2006e).Presenzano (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  1,726 (2006e).Presepio: a manger scene, also known as a crib or crèche. These presepe have been a favorite Christmas tradition since medieval times. Among the most famous are those created by the craftsmen of Naples. These tend to be the most detailed and elaborate manger scenes and often include characters having nothing to do with the original nativity story. Presepe might also vary according to the particular region where the craftsmen live. For example, in the coastal towns of Sicily, many materials drawn from the sea (e.g. coral, alabaster, mother-of-pearl) are added to the scenes.Presicce (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 5,492 (2006e).Preti, Cavalier Mattia (called Il Calabrese): b. 1613, at Taverna, Calabria; d. 1699, Malta. Painter. Having traveled through several cities in north and central Italy (Parma, Modena, Rome, Venice, and Bologna), he produced several religious works. The quality of his work earned him an invitation from the Grand Master to come to Malta to decorate the Cathedral. Preti created several frescoes on the life of St. John the Baptist. As part of his reward he was inducted as a knight into the order. Preti returned to Italy, residing for a time at Naples, producing a number of works. He developed a deep resentment towards Luca Giordano, whose success at Naples disgusted him so much that he returned to Malta, remaining there for the rest of his life.Pretoro (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 1,088 (2006e).Prezza (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 1,070 (2006e).Prignano Cilento (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Primaldi, St. Anthony: See St. Anthony Primaldi.Primate: Bishop of a primatial see. He holds the honorific of “First among equals” among the bishops of a country. Not every country has a primate.Principato (= Principality): Name for a territory of the former Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Naples). It was subdivided into Principato Citeriore and Principato Ulteriore. Its territory comprised parts of ancient Campania and LucaniaPrincipato Citeriore (sometimes Principato Citra): A former province of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. It is roughly equivalent to the Campanian province of Salerno. The name means “the Near Principality”, so-called “near” for being the closer of the two “Principato” provinces to Naples. The capital was located at Salerno.Principato Citra: See Principato Citeriore.Principato Ulteriore (sometimes Principato Ultra): A former province of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. It is roughly equivalent to the Campanian provinces of Avellino and Benevento. The name means “the Far Principality”, so-called “far” for being the farther of the two “Principato” provinces from Naples. Its territory encompassed parts of ancient Samnium and Apulia. The capital was located at Avellino.Principato Ultra: See Principato Ulteriore.Priolo Gargallo (SR): A commune in the province of Siracusa.Prisco I, St.: Bishop of Capua (rAD 42-66).Prisco II, St.: Bishop of Capua (r440-460).Prizzi (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.Probino, St.: Bishop of Capua (r570-572).Procida (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.Procida (John of Procida), Giovanni di: (b. Salerno. d. 1295.) Nobleman. “Lord of Procida.” Having been an important counselor to both Frederick II and Manfred, he was distrusted by the succeeding king Charles I of Anjou. Charles accused Giovanni of treason, stripping him of his properties but allowing him to remain free. Giovanni’s animosity towards the new French regime in Naples remained latent until his wife was assaulted by one of the king’s companions. This crime prompted Giovanni to leave Naples and seek sanctuary at the court of Queen Constance of Aragon, the daughter of the late Manfred. There he was well-received for his loyalty and was made a baron by Constance’s husband King Peter III. Giovanni’s contacts in Apulia and Sicily proved useful in stirring up hostility towards the Angevins and gathering useful intelligence. Giovanni secretly visited Sicily disguised as a Franciscan, visiting several local leaders and making plans for a revolt. He then moved on eastward to Constantinople where he met with the Byzantine Emperor Michael VIII Palaeologus. Michael, fearing an impending invasion of his empire from Charles I of Anjou, willingly agreed to finance a revolt. Giovanni then traveled to Rome where he won the support of Pope Nicholas III against Charles. Giovanni, having now succeeded in effectively surrounding Charles with enemies, returned to Aragon. There he convinced Peter to act on his claim to the Sicilian throne which he held through his marriage to Constance. Before the plans could be put into action, however, there was a serious setback when Pope Nicholas III died. His successor, Martin IV, was a Frenchman like Charles and could not be trusted to join the conspiracy. The plans had to be altered which required Giovanni to return in his Franciscan disguise to Sicily. Finally, everything fell into place and, on March 30, 1282, Giovanni went to Palermo. On the same day, the famous Sicilian Vespers broke out. There is some debate as to whether the uprising was spontaneous with Giovanni and the other conspirators simply taking advantage of it, or whether the outbreak had been preplanned. There is much circumstantial evidence to suggest that the uprising was the work of Giovanni and his cohorts. Giovanni’s presence in Palermo at the time of the outbreak is probably more than a coincidence. The violence only began when the Vespers bells in the city’s churches began to sound as though they were chosen as a prearranged signal. There is also the fact that the revolt was able to spread so quickly throughout the other cities of Sicily, another indication that the Vespers revolt was the result of preplanning.                After the successful conquest of Sicily by Peter of Aragon, Giovanni served him as loyally as he had the earlier Swabian kings. In 1289, he served as an ambassador to James, Peter’s successor, on an unsuccessful embassy to the pope. Later, in 1295, he accompanied the Dowager Queen Constance in a new attempt to win recognition from Pope Boniface VIII for the new Aragonese dynasty in Sicily. It was during this trip that Giovanni died in Rome.Procida, Canale di: An arm of the Tyrrhenian Sea connecting it with the Bay of Naples on the latter’s NW point. It runs in an E-W direction for a length of about 7km. At its narrowest point it is about 3.3 km in width.Protasius: Bishop of Capua (r313 – ?). The first bishop of Capua whose name has survived, he attended the council at Rome called by Pope Melchiades in AD 313. Protus Vincentius: Bishop of Capua (fl. Mid-4th Century). He attended 1st Council of Nicaea (AD 325), the Council of Sardica (AD 343), and the conciliabulum of Arles (AD 353).Provvidenti (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 145 (2006e).Psaumios: an athlete of ancient Kamerina in Sicily. He was victor in the apene (456 BC) and in the Tethrippon (452 BC) at the Olympian Games.Puglia (Apulia):Location: A region in southern Italy.Name: .Capital: Bari.Area: 19,363 km² (mi²) ().Number of Provinces: 5 (Bari; Brindisi; Foggia; Lecce; Taranto).Number of Communes (Municipalities): 258.Population: 4,069,869Population Density:  210.2/km² (2007). Demographics of Puglia (figures per 1000 inhabitants) 200020012002Births10.410.410.1Deaths8.07.97.9Marriages5.65.35.3 History:Historical Population: 1,949,423 (1901); 3,871,617 (1981); 4,031,885 (1991); 4,020,707 (2001); 4,071,518 (2006e).Landscape:Terrain:Puglia, Communes of:Province of Bari:Acquaviva delle Fonti, Adelfia, Alberobello, Altamura, Andria, Bari, Barletta, Binetto, Bisceglie, Bitetto, Bitonto, Bitritto, Canosa di Puglia, Capurso, Casamassima, Cassano delle Murge, Castellana Grotte, Cellamare, Conversano, Corato, Gioia del Colle, Giovinazzo, Gravina in Puglia, Grumo Appula, Locorotondo, Minervino Murge, Modugno, Mola di Bari, Molfetta, Monopoli, Noci, Noicattaro, Palo del Colle, Poggiorsini, Polignano A Mare, Putignano, Rutigliano, Ruvo di Puglia, Sammichele di Bari, Sannicandro di Bari, Santeramo in Colle, Spinazzola, Terlizzi, Toritto, Trani, Triggiano, Turi, Valenzano.Province of Brindisi:Brindisi, Carovigno, Ceglie Messapica, Cellino San Marco, Cisternino, Erchie, Fasano, Francavilla Fontana, Latiano, Mesagne, Oria, Ostuni, San Donaci, San Michele Salentino, San Pancrazio Salentino, San Pietro Vernotico, San Vito dei Normanni, Torchiarolo, Torre Santa Susanna, Villa Castelli.Province of Foggia:Accadia, Alberona, Anzano di Puglia, Apricena, Ascoli Satriano, Biccari, Bovino, Cagnano Varano, Candela, Carapelle, Carlantino, Carpino, Casalnuovo Monterotaro, Casalvecchio di Puglia, Castelluccio dei Sauri, Castelluccio Valmaggiore, Castelnuovo della Daunia, Celenza Valfortore, Celle di San Vito, Cerignola, Chieuti, Deliceto, Faeto, Foggia, Ischitella, Isole Tremiti, Lesina, Lucera, Manfredonia, Margherita di Savoia, Mattinata, Monte Sant`Angelo, Monteleone di Puglia, Motta Montecorvino, Ordona, Orsara di Puglia, Orta Nova, Panni, Peschici, Pietramontecorvino, Poggio Imperiale, Rignano Garganico, Rocchetta Sant`Antonio, Rodi Garganico, Roseto Valfortore, San Ferdinando di Puglia, San Giovanni Rotondo, San Marco in Lamis, San Marco la Catola, San Paolo di Civitate, San Severo, Sannicandro Garganico, Sant`Agata di Puglia, Serracapriola, Stornara, Stornarella, Torremaggiore, Trinitapoli, Troia, Vico del Gargano, Vieste, Volturara Appula, Volturino, Zapponeta.Province of Lecce:Acquarica del Capo, Alessano, Alezio, Alliste, Andrano, Aradeo, Arnesano, Bagnolo del Salento, Botrugno, Calimera, Campi Salentina, Cannole, Caprarica di Lecce, Carmiano, Carpignano Salentino, Casarano, Castrignano dei Greci, Castrignano del Capo, Castri` di Lecce, Castro, Cavallino, Collepasso, Copertino, Corigliano d`Otranto, Corsano, Cursi, Cutrofiano, Diso, Gagliano del Capo, Galatina, Galatone, Gallipoli, Giuggianello, Giurdignano, Guagnano, Lecce, Lequile, Leverano, Lizzanello, Maglie, Martano, Martignano, Matino, Melendugno, Melissano, Melpignano, Miggiano, Minervino di Lecce, Monteroni di Lecce, Montesano Salentino, Morciano di Leuca, Muro Leccese, Nardo`, Neviano, Nociglia, Novoli, Ortelle, Otranto, Palmariggi, Parabita, Patu`, Poggiardo, Porto Cesareo, Presicce, Racale, Ruffano, Salice Salentino, Salve, San Cassiano, San Cesario di Lecce, San Donato di Lecce, San Pietro in Lama, Sanarica, Sannicola, Santa Cesarea Terme, Scorrano, Secli`, Sogliano Cavour, Soleto, Specchia, Spongano, Squinzano, Sternatia, Supersano, Surano, Surbo, Taurisano, Taviano, Tiggiano, Trepuzzi, Tricase, Tuglie, Ugento, Uggiano La Chiesa, Veglie, Vernole, Zollino.Province of Taranto:Avetrana, Carosino, Castellaneta, Crispiano, Faggiano, Fragagnano, Ginosa, Grottaglie, Laterza, Leporano, Lizzano, Manduria, Martina Franca, Maruggio, Massafra, Monteiasi, Montemesola, Monteparano, Mottola, Palagianello, Palagiano, Pulsano, Roccaforzata, San Giorgio Ionico, San Marzano di San Giuseppe, Sava, Statte, Taranto, Torricella.Puglianello (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 1,402 (2006e).Pulsano (TA): A commune in the province of Taranto.Punic: an ethnic term derived from the Latin word Poenus for Phoenician; refers to Phoenician or Carthaginian material in the west Mediterranean. When used as a period designation, it normally refers to the years c. 500-146 BC.Puteolanum: A country villa in Campania that belonged to Cicero. It received its name from the nearby town of Puteoli (mod. Pozzuoli). It was here that Cicero wrote his Questiones Academicae and was the site for Emperor Hadrian’s burial.Puteolanus sinus: An ancient Roman name for the Bay of Naples along the coast of Campania. It derived its name from the important sea-port of Puteoli.Puteoli (mod. Pozzuoli): ancient city of Campania, S Italy, 8 mi (13 km) W of Naples. Founded as Dicaearchia in c.520 B.C. by Samian Greeks from nearby Cumae, it came under Roman control by the end of the 4th cent. B.C. and was made a citizen colony in 194 BC. Further colonists were added during the reigns of Augustus, Nero, and Vespasian. It became famous as Rome’s principal port of entry for Eastern trade, handling notably mosaics, pottery, and perfumes. The shops were rich, and the city was surrounded by handsome villas. Puteoli owed its prosperity and importance to its excellent harbor, protected by a mole. It lost a certain amount of significance after the development of the port facilities at Ostia, but continued to thrive until the early 5th century. In AD 410, it was attacked and destroyed by the Visigoths under Alaric. It suffered similar attacks in 455 from the Vandals and in 545 from the Ostrogoths under Totila. After each destruction the city was rebuilt.                In Christian history, Puteoli is remembered as the port where St. Paul disembarked and remained for seven days during his journey to Rome.Putignano (BA): A commune in the province of Bari: Population: 27,770 (2006e).putto (pl. putti): a cherub. Putti are a common feature found in religious paintings and sculpture since the time of the Renaissance. Depictions of these little, winged, boys actually predate Christianity, appeared in Roman sculpted motifs as early as the 2nd Century BC. They are particularly common in the Baroque decorations of churchs in Naples, Palermo, and elsewhere.Pythagoras: Ruler of Akragas (r?-510 BC).Pythagoras of Rhegium: (b. Rhegium; fl. 480-430 BC). Sculptor. A contemporary of Myron and Polyclitus, he also specialized in depicting athletic champions. Among his subjects was Euthymus of Locri, whose statue he created after the latter’s third boxing victory at the Olympics in 472 BC.Pythagoras of Samos: (b. c569 BC-475 BC). Mathematician and mystical philosopher. Born on the Aegean island of Samos in c569 BC, Pythagoras was the son of Mnesarchus, a Phoenician merchant from the city of Tyre, and Pythais, a Greek woman of Samos. According to Porphyry, Mnesarchus had brought much needed grain to Samos during a time of famine and was rewarded with a grant of citizenship. As soon as Pythagoras was old enough, he began to accompany his father on voyages and visited many of the land of the eastern Mediterranean. Some accounts say that Mnesarchus brought him back to Tyre where Pythagoras received instruction from the Chaldaeans, the foremost astrologers of their time, and other teachers. For three years he studied at Tyre, Sidon, and Byblos, receiving initiation into secret mystery rites (c548 BC), which included the revelation of higher mathematics. He also continued his voyages with his father and in believed to have made his first visit to Greek Italy during this time.                Most of the details of Pythagoras’s early life are uncertain, dating to writers of much later date. Some things, however, seem to have a certain degree of reliability. There is no genuine description of his appearance although he is though to have had an unusual birthmark on his thigh. He probably had siblings, but the sources differ whether he had two or three brothers. It seems certain that his education was extensive. Besides the “mystical” Chaldaeans, he also was educated in Greek philosophy. Sources name Pherekydes, Thales, and Anaximander as his tutors. These last two lived at Miletus would have furthered Pythagoras’ education in mathematics (especially geometry) and astronomy.                Pythagoras returned home to Samos where he became friends with Polycrates, who had seized power at tyrant on the island. Carrying letters of introduction from Polycrates, Pythagoras visited Egypt in c535 BC, where he was allowed to visit a number of temples and be familiarized with many of the Egyptian mysteries. These seem to have brought him even greater enlightenment into the mysteries of mathematics.                In 525 BC, Pythagoras was still in Egypt when he was caught up in the Persian invasion under Cambysis II. Taken prisoner by the Persians, he was taken as a captive to Babylon. While there he made the best of his situation by learning all that he could about the religion, mysticism, arts and sciences of the Babylonians. It was here that he discovered much about the relationships of mathematics and music.                Having regained his freedom, Pythagoras returned to Samos in c520 BC. There is some conflict in the sources as to whether the island was still under the rule of Polycrates at this time or under Persian control. Soon after this Pythagoras visited Crete, where spent time studying law. Upon returning to Samos, he founded his first school, known as the Semicircle, in which he began to reveal some of the knowledge that he gained over the years.                The date and the reason for Pythagoras’s final departure from Samos are much debated. According to Iamblichus, his teachings were not well received by the Samians and he found himself constantly being imposed upon for civic duties. Whatever the causes, Pythagoras abandoned his school at Samos and relocated himself at Croton (modern Crotone) in Magna Graecia. There are a wide range of dates as to when Pythagoras moved to Italy. Sources put it as early as c530 BC to as late as c518 BC.                Pythagoras found Croton a most welcoming place and he was given unrestricted license in establishing his school there. Thanks to his influence, Croton was to enter a period of great economical prosperity and political dominance, and military strength. The Pythagorean School will spread throughout much of the Greek world and have a long-lasting effect on western thought for centuries thereafter. The school centered on an inner circle of male and female initiates known as mathematikoi. This group lived permanently within the Society under the direct control of Pythagoras, renouncing all personal possessions and subsisting on a strict vegetarian diet. The majority of the Society consisted of an outer circle known as the akousmatics. Members of the outer group lived in their own homes and had access to the Society only at in the daytime. Unlike the mathematikoi, the akousmatics had no restrictions on their diet or behavior and could own personal possessions.Pythagoreanism was based particular principles:1.             True reality is based on mathematics.2.             Spiritual purification was attainable through the study of philosophy.3.             The soul can rise to union with the divine.4.             Certain symbols have hidden mystical meanings.5.             The mathematikoi must observe strict loyalty and obedience to the Society.The Society was devoted to the religious, political, moral and social reform of all society.                Pythagoras appears to have made only one extended voyage after settling at Croton. In 513 BC, he went to Delos to visit his old tutor Pherekydes, who was close to death.                The success which Pythagoras brought to Croton proved to ultimately be his downfall. In 510 BC, Croton went to war with its neighbor, Sybaris. Victorious on the battlefield, the Crotoniates finalized their triumph with the complete destruction of Sybaris and the near-total massacre of its people. Much of the credit for Croton’s success was given to Pythagoras and the members of his school. Croton now controlled a large portion of southern Italy, and Pythagoras was the spiritual leader of Croton.                For the next few years, the Pythagoreans enjoyed great success and power. Membership in the school was a mark of highest status and sought by many. One such hopeful was Cylon, a man of Croton, of great wealth and high birth, but low character. Pythagoras refused to admit Cylon, who promised revenge on the philosopher and his followers.                Cylon was able to rouse resentment in Croton up against the Pythagoreans.  Forced to flee from Croton, Pythagoras went to Metapontum. As with so much about his life, the details of Pythagoras death are much debated. His passing is dated between 490 BC and 475 BC. His school, however, survived him, though its exact fate it also uncertain. Pythagoreanism certainly played a strong role in influencing later Greek philosophy and science.