Encyclopedia of Southern Italy Q-Z

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QQuadrelle (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 1,824 (2006e).Quadri (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 920 (2006e).Qualiano (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.Quarto (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.Quartus, St.: Bishop of Capua (rAD 83-117). He may be the martyr who, with St. Quintus, was killed in Rome during one of the persecutions. There is no reliable date for this martyrdom but the relics of the two saints were interred in the Cathedral at Capua. Feast Day: May 10. Also see St. Quintus.Quindici (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 2,532 (2006e).Quintus, St.: Bishop of Capua (r260-271). He may be the same as the St. Quintus who was martyred along with St. Quartus in Rome. The great difficulty in the identification of the two bishops with the two martyrs is in their dates. The martyrs were contemporaries with one another according to their “official” myth. The two bishops, however, appear to have lived about 2 centuries apart. RRabatana and Saracena: Place-names found in some southern Italian centers, applied to boroughs or quarters originally founded or occupied by the Saracens in medieval times. By plotting out where these place names are found, we can get an idea of the extent of Saracen inroads in the area. Rabatana derives from the Arabis rabad (= village, city).Saracena (CS)commune in CalabriaTricarico (MT)districts of  Rabatana (Arabatana) and SaracenaTursi (MT)district of La Rabatana Racale (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 10,657 (2006e).Racalmuto (AG): A commune in the province of Agrigento. Population: 9,443 (2006e).Raciti: A surname of Greek origin found in Sicily. It derives from the Greek rakhites = “mountain dweller.”Raccuja (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Raddusa (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 3,391 (2006e).Radelperto: Bishop of Capua (r?-835).Radoald: Duke of Benevento (AD 646-651). A Lombard.Raffadali (AG): A commune in the province of Agrigento. Population: 13,398 (2006e).Ragalna (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 3,316 (2006e).Ragusa, Province of: A province in Sicily.Communes of Ragusa ProvinceCommuneArea(km˛)Population(2007e)Population(2006e)Population(2001 census)Population(1991 census)Acate101.42842584028,0007,640Chiaramonte Gulfi126.63802180708,0998,424Comiso64.93296472957129,07628,906Giarratana43.45324232433,3433,411Ispica113.52150241489014,45714,629Modica290.76538695358752,63950,529Monterosso Almo56.27334333363,3463,503Pozzallo14.94186531849017,93617,176Ragusa442.46721687196968,95667,535Santa Croce Camerina40.76969695528,4817,445Scicli137.54259712590525,61425,255Vittoria181.34612216108855,31755,280Total1,614.02309,280308,103295,264289,733 Ragusa (RG): A commune iand provincial capital of the province of Ragusa.Ragusa, Giovan Battista: (fl. AD 1713 to 1727). A sculptor from Palermo.Ragusa, Vincenzo: (b. 1841; d.1927). A painter and sculptor from Palermo.Raino (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 2,977 (2006e).Ramacca (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 10,616 (2006e).Randazzo (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 11,250 (2006e).Randazzo, Filippo (called il Monocolo di Nicosia): (fl. 1744). Painter from Nicosia [EN].Ranulf: Rival candidate (1137-1148) of Pope Innocent II and Emperor Lothair II against Roger III (r1134-1139) for the Duchy of Apulia & Calabria.Rapino (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 1,459 (2006e).Rapisarda, Giuseppe: (b. 1799, at Catania; d. 1853). Painter.Rapisardi, Michele: (b. 1822, at Catania; d. 1866). Painter.Rapolla (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Rapone (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Rasena: The name by which the Etruscans called themselves.Ravanusa (AG): A commune in the province of Agrigento. Population: 13,428 (2006e).Ravello (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Raviscanina (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  1,372 (2006e).Realmonte (AG): A commune in the province of Agrigento. Population: 4,480 (2006e).Recale (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  7,268 (2006e).Redemptorists: A congregation founded in 18th Century Naples by St. Alfonse Liguori. It was so-named to honor the Most Holy Redeemer.Regalbuto (EN): A commune in the province of Enna. Population: 7,700 (2006e).Reggio di Calabria, Province of: A province in Calabria. Population: 563,912 (2007e). Communes of Reggio di Calabria ProvinceCommuneArea(km˛)Population(2007e)Population(2006e)Population(2001 census)Population(1991 census)Africo51.02333833633,4653,223Agnana Calabra8.35694697673752Anoia10.09231023102,3783,020Antonimina22.46141614221,4421,532Ardore32.69480748204,8205,037Bagaladi30.81119712111,2861,437Bagnara Calabra24.68108921095611,23011,048Benestare18.57245024462,4262,462Bianco31.67431342924,0473,873Bivongi25.30150915211,5961,776Bova46.74479482474602Bovalino17.95380784048,3588,307Bova Marina29.52842338513,9674,371Brancaleone35.91381538253,8824,014Bruzzano Zeffirio20.88128513161,4011,842Calanna10.49106910681,1831,446Camini17.15762774736859Campo Calabro7.46422341804,0743,801Candidoni26.62367388410497Canolo28.228738899571,104Caraffa del Bianco12.29589599622808Cardeto36.30208921322,3252,825Careri38.21240424022,4432,536Casignana24.48796806775836Caulonia100.73743474737,7568,259Ciminŕ48.77639642683838Cinquefrondi29.83652065326,4616,450Cittanova61.82104681057410,67510,540Condofuri58.53501550465,0555,461Cosoleto33.839549879761,154Delianuova21.04350635243,5843,718Feroleto della Chiesa7.62180818371,8722,018Ferruzzano19.09829839852916Fiumara6.92110811251,2011,402Galatro50.51197520212,3073,032Gerace28.57289129322,9733,065Giffone14.47208621132,1822,420Gioia Tauro38.99180381800617,76218,484Gioiosa Ionica35.99697070157,0447,071Grotteria37.90336734233,6114,096Laganadi8.26438458498617Laureana di Borrello35.42538754495,7096,442Locri25.62128431295812,99712,650Mammola80.56322032733,3894,039Marina di Gioiosa Ionica15.93652164706,4406,307Maropati10.30161516451,7361,836Martone8.26588599597737Melicuccŕ17.15103110341,0791,214Melicucco6.37499749964,9965,063Melito di Porto Salvo35.33113271124510,50610,727Molochio37.32264726882,8033,078Monasterace15.65349335203,4263,520Montebello Ionico55.67656266276,9227,521Motta San Giovanni46.73634063866,4496,592Oppido Mamertina58.55543054575,5596,252Palizzi52.26249424942,7093,085Palmi31.84194381946119,43519,116Pazzano15.49719758799954Placanica29.26134213611,5071,824Platě50.01376537753,8233,840Polistena11.70114051143611,59111,960Portigliola5.98129312941,3431,356Reggio di Calabria236.02184179184369180,353177,580Riace16.05174917211,6051,694Rizziconi39.72794279277,6507,479Roccaforte del Greco54.036827048021,213Roccella Ionica37.48670967066,7627,121Roghudi36.49132113101,3651,530Rosarno39.46148851494815,05113,191Samo 99810191,0971,198San Ferdinando 441144854,3394,335San Giorgio Morgeto 339033543,3843,764San Giovanni di Gerace 566567609748San Lorenzo 298430743,3573,934San Luca 418541674,1064,413San Pietro di Caridŕ 148415281,7151,980San Procopio 582590617708San Roberto 196020071,9852,668Santa Cristina d’Aspromonte 103010541,0951,168Sant’Agata del Bianco 703706715724Sant’Alessio in Aspromonte 366387436552Sant’Eufemia d’Aspromonte 401340314,0744,184Sant’Ilario dello Ionio 135013411,3891,565Santo Stefano in Aspromonte 133013701,4701,472Scido 100910171,0471,152Scilla 514051085,1765,555Seminara 320832593,3523,965Serrata 9159249641,183Siderno 177181750116,73416,274Sinopoli 226022982,3292,535Staiti 321325395516Stignano 139013681,3731,645Stilo 279427882,8163,139Taurianova 157161577915,79916,056Terranova Sappo Minulio 528543537545Varapodio 224422522,3292,460Villa San Giovanni 134401338713,11912,785Total3,183563,912565,541564,223576,693 Reggio di Calabria (RC): A commune and provincial capital of the province of Reggio Calabria.Reggio Calabria – Bova, Archdiocese of: A Metropolitan archdiocese in the Ecclesiastical Region of Calabria.Suffragans:Metropolitan:Conference Region: CalabriaArea: 1,004 km˛/ mi˛Total Population: 280,580.Catholic Population:Total Priests: 163(Diocesan: 109; Religious: 57)Permanent Deacons: 30Male Religious:Female Religious:Parishes: 121.History: Regione, la (the Region): the mafia’s governing body for the entire island of Sicily. It was established in 1975.Reina, Calcedonio: (b. 1843, at Catania; d. 1911). Painter.Reino (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 1,344 (2006e).Reitano (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Reliquary (Ital. reliquiario): A receptacle for the relics (usually bones) of one or more saints. They can range very simple in form and materials to highly elaborate and made of precious material.Rende (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 35,143 (2006e).Rene I “the Good” of Anjou: (b. 1409; d. Aix, 1480). Duke of Anjou, Count of Provence. King of Naples (r.1435-1442).He was the son of Louis II. In 1434 he succeeded his brother Louis III as Duke of Anjou and Count of Provence. After the death of Queen Joanna II (1435), Rene claimed the Neapolitan throne in opposition to Alfonso V of Aragon. In 1438, Rene was able to take possession of Naples and appeared on his way to ultimate victory. Upon the death of his general, Caldora, however, Rene’s fortunes turned and, in 1442, he lost Naples to Alfonso. Rene escaped capture and sailed back to Provence on a Genoese ship. Although he continued to claim the thrones of Sicily and Jerusalem for the remainder of his life, he was never able to actively attempt to possess them again. He died in 1480 at Aix, in Provence, the last Angevin to possess Naples. Upon his death, Provence was annexed by France.Resuttano (CL): A commune in the province of Caltanissetta. Population: 2,335 (2006e).rhapsode: an ancient Greek bard or minstrel.Rhegium (Grk. Rhegion) (mod. Reggio di Calabria): ancient city, S Italy, on the Strait of Messina. It is the modern Reggio di Calabria. Founded (c.720 B.C.) as a colony of Chalcis, many Messenians later settled there. It maintained a certain level of power and wealth thanks to its location on the Straits of Messina, until its defeat and destruction (386 B.C.) by Dionysius the Elder of Syracuse. The Romans, who favored it, called the city Rhegium Julium. It is mentioned in Acts 28.13. The name is sometimes spelled Regium.Riace (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.Riardo (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  2,499 (2006e).Ribera (AG): A commune in the province of Agrigento. Population: 19,669 (2006e).Ricadi (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.Ricca, Michele: fl. 17th Century. Metal smith from Palermo.Riccardo da Lentini: (fl. 1239-1911). Sicilian architect.Riccia (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 5,613 (2006e).Riccio, Angelo: fl. 15th century. A sculptor from Messina.Riccio, Antonello: fl. 16th century. Painter from Messina.Riccio, Mariano: fl. 16th century. Painter from Messina.Ricigliano (SA): A commune in the province of SalernoRiesi (CL): A commune in the province of Caltanissetta. Population: 11,602 (2006e).Rignano Garganico (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 2,202 (2006e).Richard of Mandra: fl. 2nd half of the 12th century. Norman nobleman. Count of Molise and chancellor to Margaret of Navarre, Queen regent of Sicily. In 1157, while serving as constable of the rebellious Count Robert III of Loreto, he was capyured by King William I. Later, in 1161, he joined a conspiracy against the king but changed his mind and saved William’s life as the risk of his own. In 1166, he was appointed Count of Molise by the Queen Regent Margaret of Navarre, who also chose him as chancellor. The relationship between the Queen and Richard are much debated, but in 1167, Margaret was forced to replace him as chancellor with Stephen du Perche. A year later, Richard was accused by Bohemond of Tarsia and Count Robert of Caserta of conspiring againg the new chancellor. Soon afterward he was tried and found guilty of having illegally obtained certain lands. After being stripped by these properties he appealed to King William II. Unfortunately, rather than receiving justice, Richard was thrown into prison. It is believed that that Richard’s unfortunate fate was the result of a plot designed by his great enemy, Gilbert, Count of Gravina.Rionero in Vulture (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Rionero Sannitico (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 1,170 (2006e).Ripa Teatina (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 4,079 (2006e).Ripabottoni (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 636 (2006e).Ripalimosani (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 2,707 (2006e).Riposto (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 14,729 (2006e).Rivello (): A commune in the province of Potenza.Rivelo, Francesco: fl. 17th century. Metal smith from Palermo.Rivisondoli (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 726 (2006e).Rizziconi (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.Rizzo, Pietro: fl. 16th-17th centuries. Metal smith from Palermo.Robert Guiscard: Count (r1057-1059) and later Duke (r 1059-1085) of Apulia & Calabria (r 1057-1059).Robert of Syracuse, St.: (fl. AD 1000). Benedictine abbot. He headed the monastery at Syracuse, Sicily. (Feast Day: Apr. 25).Robert “the Wise”: King of Naples (r1309-1343).Roberto di Oderisio: fl. 14th century. Painter from Palermo.Rocca d”Evandro (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  3,573 (2006e).Rocca di Botte (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 690 (2006e).Rocca di Cambio (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 498 (2006e).Rocca di Mezzo (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 1,547 (2006e).Rocca di Neto (KR): A commune in the province of Crotone. Population: 5,592 (2006e)Rocca Imperiale (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 3,286 (2006e).Rocca Monfina: an extinct volcano (3,200 ft) located in northern Campania, near Teano (CE). There are several trails along the edge of the volcano which preserve prehistoric human footprints. Known locally as “Devil’s Trails” because in earlier times they were thought to have supernatural origins, it is now concluded that they were the footpaths left in newly formed volcanic ash by early human ancestors about 385,000 years ago. Measuring the stride of the walkers revealed that they probably stood about 1.5 meters in height. The existence of a handprint also suggests that they still needed to steady themselves with their hands while walking distances.Rocca Pia (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 189 (2006e).Rocca San Felice (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 871 (2006e).Rocca San Giovanni (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 2,332 (2006e).Rocca Santa Maria (TE): A commune in the province of Teramo.Roccabascerana (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 2,351 (2006e).Roccabernarda (KR): A commune in the province of Crotone. Population: 3,368 (2006e).Roccacasale (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 714 (2006e).Roccadaspide (SA): A commune in the province of SalernoRoccafiorita (ME): A commune in the province of MessinaRoccaforte del Greco (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio CalabriaRoccaforzata (TA): A commune in the province of TarantoRoccagloriosa (SA): A commune in the province of SalernoRoccalumera (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Roccamandolfi (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 1,044 (2006e).Roccamena (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.Roccamonfina (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  3,698 (2006e).Roccamontepiano (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 1,893 (2006e).Roccamorice (PE): A commune in the province of Pescara.Roccanova (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Roccapalumba (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.Roccapiemonte (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Roccarainola (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.Roccaraso (AQ): A commune (Area: 50,00 km˛. Alt. 1,236 m) in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 1,690 (2006e).Historical Population:186118711881190119111921193119361951196119711981199120012,1572,3302,4592,5202,1231,8701,6481,6501,4211,5161,5041,6161,6681,604 Roccaromana (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  1,016 (2006e).Roccascalegna (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 1,396 (2006e).Roccasicura (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 605 (2006e).Roccaspinalveti (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 1,570 (2006e).Roccavaldina (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Roccavivara (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 942 (2006e).Roccella Ionica (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.Roccella Valdemone (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Rocchetta a Volturno (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 1,071 (2006e).Rocchetta e Croce (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  512 (2006e).Rocchetta Sant’Antonio (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 2,032 (2006e).Rodi Garganico (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 3,695 (2006e).Rodi Milici (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Rodriguez, Alonzo: (b. 1578, at Messina; d. 1648). Painter.Rofrano (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Roger I: Great Count of Sicily (r1071-1101). He was succeeded by his son Simon.Roger I Borsa: Duke of Apulia & Calabria (r 1085-1111).Roger II: Duke of Apulia & Calabria (r1127-1134); Count of Sicily (r1105-1130); King of Sicily (r1130-1154).Roger III: Duke of Apulia & Calabria (r1134-1148) (opposed by Ranulf – r1137-1148). He was the son of Roger II, King of Sicily.Roger III: King of Sicily (r1193-1194).Roger IV: Duke of Apulia & Calabria (r1154-1161). On his death, the title of Duke of Apulia & Calabria was left vacant until 1189.Roger V: Duke of Apulia & Calabria (r1189-1193).Roggiano Gravina (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 7,555 (2006e).Roghudi (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.Rogliano (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 5,958 (2006e).Roio del Sangro (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 135 (2006e).Romagnano al Monte (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Roman Catholicism in Southern Italy (excluding Sardinia):Largest Dioceses in Southern Italy by Population in 2004 (Source: www.Catholic-Hierarchy.org)DioceseCatholicPopulationTotalPopulationPercent CatholicNapoli  (Archdiocese)1,600,0001,608,00099.50%Palermo (Archdiocese)930,000960,00096.88%Catania (Archdiocese)724,332733,65698.73%Bari-Bitonto (Archdiocese)712,000720,00098.89%Salerno-Campagna-Acerno (Archdiocese)534,000550,00097.09%Aversa523,794552,51294.80%Pozzuoli502,700510,72098.43%Nola502,000523,90095.82%Messina-Lipari-Santa Lucia del Mela (Archdiocese)486,329487,42999.77%Agrigento (Archdiocese)463,200473,20097.89%Taranto (Archdiocese)405,870409,35099.15%Cosenza-Bisignano (Archdiocese)377,000379,00099.47%Siracusa (Archdiocese)320,000330,00096.97%Chieti-Vasto (Archdiocese)308,600313,50098.44%Pescara-Penne (Archdiocese)292,000298,00097.99%Brindisi-Ostuni (Archdiocese)291,000294,22098.91%Reggio Calabria-Bova (Archdiocese)277,219279,41899.21%Trani-Barletta-Bisceglie (-Nazareth) (Archdiocese)274,060286,56095.64%Benevento (Archdiocese)265,000266,30099.51%Lecce (Archdiocese)258,225260,98898.94%Conversano-Monopoli246,761249,26199.00%Catanzaro-Squillace (Archdiocese)245,326249,42698.36%Teramo-Atri240,000248,00096.77%Sorrento-Castellammare di Stabia (Archdiocese)237,996240,14699.10%Nocera Inferiore-Sarno227,000236,57495.95%Acireale223,623225,72599.07%Mazara del Vallo220,659233,70694.42%Piazza Armerina218,000224,00097.32%Foggia-Bovino (Archdiocese)217,000219,20099.00%Caserta215,000220,00097.73%Noto211,000212,54699.27%Ravenna-Cervia (Archdiocese)211,000230,32091.61%Nardň-Gallipoli204,093206,07199.04%Crotone-Santa Severina (Archdiocese)201,185202,27099.46%Trapani197,982202,01898.00%Otranto (Archdiocese)197,042198,04299.50%Ragusa188,953196,06996.37%Capua (Archdiocese)186,000190,00097.89%Monreale (Archdiocese)185,000193,41395.65%Oppido Mamertina-Palmi173,990177,40098.08%Altamura-Gravina-Acquaviva delle Fonti161,864165,09098.05%Mileto-Nicotera-Tropea160,000166,00096.39%Patti160,000164,00097.56%Gaeta (Archdiocese) *159,175159,31599.91%Vallo della Lucania156,520158,86698.52%Caltagirone154,323157,08298.24%Caltanissetta153,000154,05099.32%Manfredonia-Vieste-San Giovanni Rotondo (Archdiocese)152,800154,90698.64%Potenza-Muro Lucano-Marsico Nuovo (Archdiocese)151,200152,00099.47%Sora-Aquino-Pontecorvo151,100152,89398.83%Avellino143,500146,00098.29%Matera-Irsina (Archdiocese)140,000140,89999.36%Lamezia Terme139,400140,00099.57%Molfetta-Ruvo-Giovinazzo-Terlizzi134,734135,90599.14%Rossano-Cariati (Archdiocese)133,500134,00099.63%Locri-Gerace (-Santa Maria di Polsi)132,511134,04398.86%Andria132,000138,74095.14%San Severo128,500130,50098.47%Campobasso-Boiano (Archdiocese)124,000126,00098.41%Ugento-Santa Maria di Leuca123,800125,00099.04%Castellaneta120,398126,03195.53%Teggiano-Policastro118,600119,40099.33%Avezzano115,000118,00097.46%Cefalů110,000113,25497.13%San Marco Argentano-Scalea108,512110,77797.96%L’Aquila (Archdiocese)106,000108,30097.88%Termoli-Larino105,835106,50099.38%Cassano all’Jonio104,200106,80097.57%Acerra103,860108,29195.91%Amalfi-Cava de’ Tirreni (Archdiocese)102,700103,35199.37%Cerignola-Ascoli Satriano101,042104,72896.48%Lanciano-Ortona (Archdiocese)90,20590,85599.28%Cerreto Sannita-Telese-Sant’Agata de’ Goti89,57090,71698.74%Melfi-Rapolla-Venosa89,00090,00098.89%Sessa Aurunca85,50087,72097.47%Sant’Angelo dei Lombardi-Conza-Nusco-Bisaccia (Archdiocese)84,50085,00099.41%Nicosia81,25081,50099.69%Teano-Calvi80,00080,000100.00%Sulmona-Valva79,50880,71698.50%Montecassino (Territorial Abbey) *79,00079,000100.00%Lucera-Troia74,00076,54396.68%Ariano Irpino-Lacedonia72,90274,05598.44%Alife-Caiazzo67,60069,00097.97%Acerenza (Archdiocese)60,00060,20099.67%Isernia-Venafro58,00060,10096.51%Trivento57,15057,21099.90%Ischia53,00055,70095.15%Tricarico44,00045,00097.78%Lungro degli Italo-Albanesi (Eparchy)32,80033,18298.85%Piana degli Albanesi (Eparchy)28,50030,00095.00%Pompei o Beatissima Vergine Maria del SS.mo Rosario (Territorial Prelature)24,55025,91694.73%Montevergine (Territorial Abbey)15,80016,00098.75%Santissima Trinitŕ di Cava de’ Tirreni (Territorial Abbey)7,2007,200100.00% Roman Empire: At its height, during the reign of Trajan (d. AD 117), the Roman Empire encompassed an area of 2,200,000 sq. miles (5,698,000 sq. km.). If compared with the nations of the modern world, it would rank 7th in size, between Australia and India.Roman Period: Roman Republic: In Sicily, the period from 241 to 31 BC. Roman Empire: 31 BC-AD 476.Roman Roads of Southern Italy:Via Appia1st phase: 312 BC; Rome to Capua, built by Censor Appius Caecus2nd phase: 250 BC; Capua to Beneventum, by Appius Claudius Pulcher3rd phase: 214 BC; Beneventum to Brundisium (by 2 routes, one through Venusium and the other through Tarentum)Via AquiliaFrom Capua, through Campania, Lucania, and Bruttium, to Rhegium. Constucted by M. Aquilius Gallus, proconsul, and praetor in SicilyVia CampanaSee Via Consularis.Via ConsularisSometimes called Via Campana. Between Capua and Cumae, with a branch to Puteoli.Via DomitianaCoast road from Sinuessa to Surrentum, constructed by Emperor Domitian in the late 1st Century AD.Via EgnatiaA branch of the Via Appia, from Beneventum, through Canusium and Egnatia, to Brundisium.Via NumiciaFrom Corfinium, through northern Samnium, to Venusia.Via TrajanaA branch of the Via Appia, between Tarentum and Rhegium, on the coast. Repaired by Trajan. Romanus: Pope. (rAug-Nov 897).Rombiolo (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.Rometta (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Rosa, Salvatore: (b. 1615, Naples; d. 1673). Painter and engraver.rosabella, a: A variety of multi-part song.Rosarno (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.Rosciano (PE): A commune in the province of Pescara.Roscigno (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Rose (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 4,354 (2006e).Rosello (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 313 (2006e).Roseto Capo Spulico (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,822 (2006e).Roseto Degli Abruzzi (TE): A commune in the province of Teramo.Roseto Valfortore (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 1,267 (2006e).Rosolini (): A commune in the province of Siracusa.Rossano (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 36,438 (2006e).Rossano – Cariati, Archdiocese of:Suffragans:Metropolitan: Cosenza – Bisignano.Conference Region: CalabriaArea: 1,415 km˛/ mi˛Total Population: 120,446Catholic Population:Total Priests: 88(Diocesan: 66; Religious: 22)Permanent Deacons: 3.Male Religious:Female Religious:Parishes: 52.History:Rossi, Mariano: (b. 1731, at Sciacca [AG]; d. 1807). Painter.Rota Greca (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,242 (2006e).rotella rosa: a badge worn by Jews in the medieval kingdom of Sicily.Rotello (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 1,294 (2006e).Rotonda (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Rotondella (MT): A commune in the province of Matera. Population: 3,061 (2006e).Rotondi (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 3,483 (2006e).Rovito (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 3,070 (2006e).Rubi: A city of ancient Apulia.Ruffano (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 9,597 (2006e).Rufino, S.: Bishop of Capua (rAD 410-420).Rufo, S.: Bishop of Capua (rAD 80-83).Ruoti (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Russo, Pietro: (fl. 1604-1607). Sicilian sculptor.Rutelli, Mario: (b. 1859, in Palermo; d. 1941). Sculptor.Rutigliano (BA): A commune in the province of Bari: Population: 17,895 (2006e).Rutino (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Ruviano (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  1,872 (2006e).Ruvo del Monte (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Ruvo di Puglia (BA): A commune in the province of Bari: Population: 25,900 (2006e).Ruzzolone, Pietro: (fl. 1484-1526). Painter from Palermo. 
   SSabatini, Andrea: See Andrea da Salerno.Sabatus fl.: An ancient river in Bruttium identified with the modern river Savuto, in the province of Cosenza. Scholars believe that its name derives from the Indo-European root *sap-/sab- (‘to taste, perceive’).Sabelli: an Oscan-speaking people of ancient Italy. They were a loose group and seemed to have had little or no political unity. These Oscan-speaking tribes expanded over central Italy, and by the 5th cent. B.C. seem to have occupied ancient Campania and Lucania. The Samnites and Sabines were probably Sabelli.Sabines (Sabini): an ancient Sabellian people of central Italy, related to the Samnites and Lucanians. The Sabine territory encompassed the southern part of Umbria and western Abruzzo. According to tradition, they were named for their mythical progenitor, the god Sabus (or Sabinus). The Sabines were notable for their military prowess and their social and moral severity.  They were among the earliest peoples to pose a serious threat to the fledgling Rome. The famous myth of the “Rape of the Sabine Women” was probably based on a ritual marriage of Roman men with Sabine women to seal a treaty between the two peoples. Over time, the Sabines were eventually absorbed into the Roman state, the last of them being defeated in 292 BC by the consul Curius Dentatus.Sabinian, St.: Pope. (rSept 13, 604-Feb 22, 606).Sacchini, Antonio Maria Gaspare: (b. 14 June 1730, Pozzuoli. d. 6 October 1786, Paris). Composer.Sacco (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Sala Consilina (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Salandra (MT): A commune in the province of Matera. Population: 3,054 (2006e).Salaparuta (TP): A commune in the province of Trapani.Salapia: A city of ancient Apulia.Salcito (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 694 (2006e).Salemi (TP): A commune in the province of Trapani.Salento (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Salerno, Province of: A province in Campania. Population: 1,089,737 (2007e).  Communes of Salerno ProvinceCommuneArea(km˛)Population(2007e)Population(2006e)Population(2001 census)Population(1991 census)Acerno72.36290629393,0133,185Agropoli32.51203072024419,94917,926Albanella39.84634363966,3176,225Alfano4.70114611511,3081,541Altavilla Silentina52.23677167466,7516,796Amalfi6.11543454575,4285,589Angri13.71309783084929,76129,753Aquara32.39170517261,7991,958Ascea37.61564656135,3925,186Atena Lucana25.73230023022,2312,330Atrani0.209639529651,029Auletta35.62241524532,4762,605Baronissi17.85162941613015,22613,070Battipaglia56.46507695086850,35947,139Bellizzi7.90129111292512,55512,350Bellosguardo16.788979301,0091,165Bracigliano14.03545053985,2305,105Buccino65.45550855665,6595,926Buonabitacolo15.36267126552,5812,825Caggiano35.27290129263,0113,173Calvanico14.86149514781,3651,241Camerota70.80718771986,8467,322Campagna135.39156261562715,31113,466Campora28.97527538563721Cannalonga17.74113411251,1461,127Capaccio112.02212652120620,23818,503Casalbuono34.41488212341,3031,553Casaletto Spartano70.12123115441,6801,905Casal Velino31.47151848554,5984,464Caselle in Pittari44.64200920132,0262,402Castelcivita57.281332120242,1522,426Castellabate36.54279279047,7757,414Castelnuovo Cilento18.13197324032,2532,158Castelnuovo di Conza13.9878627149661,159Castel San Giorgio13.5924331316912,87911,347Castel San Lorenzo14.0868228283,0343,229Castiglione del Genovesi10.72128312551,2701,174Cava de’ Tirreni36.34533145326252,61652,502Celle di Bulgheria31.53199919952,0612,240Centola47.21484548754,8284,805Ceraso45.95255825562,5103,055Cetara4.92239223632,3572,509Cicerale41.07129913031,3511,567Colliano54.04381338093,8303,997Conca dei Marini1.02733730697670Controne7.659239339431,047Contursi Terme28.90326632493,1823,110Corbara6.63258425722,4552,420Corleto Monforte58.75695710764965Cuccaro Vetere17.59591586622695Eboli137.47371733710335,84233,964Felitto41.14130913081,3931,578Fisciano31.48130981300912,27511,421Furore1.70827822810779Futani14.85129913161,2801,484Giffoni Sei Casali34.39491347854,1723,608Giffoni Valle Piana87.87116681153910,99210,460Gioi28.01141614321,4651,697Giungano11.53113511221,1161,063Ispani8.19100910351,0151,052Laureana Cilento13.66110811101,0931,105Laurino69.93183718531,9502,252Laurito19.929109119431,066Laviano56.63152315351,5911,878Lustra15.04108611061,1151,189Magliano Vetere22.538308418891,024Maiori16.42567757235,7405,735Mercato San Severino30.17209532086020,36219,078Minori2.56292629733,0233,091Moio della Civitella16.90194019261,8231,802Montano Antilia33.38207421022,1912,664Montecorice21.88167625152,4742,440Montecorvino Pugliano28.68252891527,8114,404Montecorvino Rovella42.1493681211511,55810,262Monteforte Cilento22.0512234613625694Monte San Giacomo51.4560116881,6822,050Montesano sulla Marcellana109.26684168967,2207,720Morigerati21.64731738780877Nocera Inferiore20.78460954630546,54049,053Nocera Superiore14.68239532385423,83722,325Novi Velia34.62212221132,0522,015Ogliastro Cilento13.20227422582,2022,183Olevano sul Tusciano26.45674067366,3996,216Oliveto Citra31.41393939594,0053,948Omignano10.14153715511,5361,542Orria26.35125512651,2931,443Ottati53.24747769809998Padula66.44551455775,4035,623Pagani12.74355433519932,34933,138Palomonte28.28406540824,1154,204Pellezzano13.86106451057910,2029,171Perdifumo23.65180218051,8661,873Perito23.77103710521,1011,189Pertosa6.21709710727897Petina35.09121212171,2381,352Piaggine62.29157516051,7752,056Pisciotta30.34290629463,0383,324Polla47.06533853845,3475,635Pollica27.72254725452,5162,912Pontecagnano Faiano36.78242102420622,73021,781Positano8.42393839383,8823,638Postiglione47.98230722942,3342,605Praiano2.66201220031,9151,883Prignano Cilento11.92916908870921Ravello7.99251724892,5082,422Ricigliano27.70128012971,3391,497Roccadaspide64.29743874657,4617,519Roccagloriosa42.32169617101,7342,167Roccapiemonte5.19916492429,1138,751Rofrano58.82180018342,1932,304Romagnano al Monte9.67391399415458Roscigno14.848859019931,147Rutino9.68887898920986Sacco23.71635660701905Sala Consilina59.19126721267012,71612,772Salento23.75200520202,0222,136Salerno58.96132790134820138,188148,932Salvitelle9.50644656702927San Cipriano Picentino17.41666465925,9784,883San Giovanni a Piro37.69385238203,7534,414San Gregorio Magno49.80455145924,6164,650San Mango Piemonte5.93252724272,1661,763San Marzano sul Sarno5.15983998219,4729,556San Mauro Cilento15.069669761,0111,079San Mauro la Bruca18.94719731768939San Pietro al Tanagro15.27168617161,6401,686San Rufo31.59175817721,8531,919Santa Marina28.11984132313,3033,285Sant’Angelo a Fasanella32.423153746818989Sant’Arsenio20.1876127152,7523,099Sant’Egidio del Monte Albino6.24274286328,3948,188Santomenna8.808716552580969San Valentino Torio9.0154297899,2858,203Sanza127.05282128393,0063,071Sapri13.84704970227,0226,961Sarno39.95315643168731,05931,509Sassano47.28513951665,1905,337Scafati19.69507355074547,08240,710Scala13.06152214931,4881,455Serramezzana7.21368371403441Serre66.47382738083,8183,833Sessa Cilento18.01141514071,4661,628Siano8.47103291031210,1049,265Sicignano degli Alburni80.57333933593,4664,018Stella Cilento14.36824828850908Stio24.45103310141,0881,169Teggiano61.59810880118,2418,582Torchiara8.29170816591,5251,360Torraca15.75124512511,2321,193Torre Orsaia23.72231923382,3922,718Tortorella49.65562572603717Tramonti24.73410340773,9353,918Trentinara23.36169516941,7691,781Valle dell’Angelo37.00371384406545Vallo della Lucania25.06887889468,8188,142Valva26.21182718281,7721,923Vibonati20.13313530993,0193,040Vietri sul Mare9.00852585798,5439,401Total4,9231,089,7371,090,9341,073,6431,066,601 Salerno (SA): A commune and provincial capital of the province of Salerno.Salerno, School of Medicine at: (Lat: Schola Medica Salernitana; It. Scuola Medica Salernitana). One of the earliest (if not the first) true medical schools to be founded in medieval times. It played a very important role in the gathering and dissemination of medical knowledge to Europe from the 10th to the 13th Centuries, producing some of the finest physicians of that era. The schools drew medical students and scholars from throughout the Mediterranean world and beyond. In its capacity as a teaching hospital, it treated patients using medical techniques drawn from the Classical Greco-Roman world, as well as Saracen and Jewish teachings. Beyond medicine, the school also taught its students philosophy, theology, and law; all considered important to the molding of true physicians.Salerno, Giuseppe (lo Zoppo di Gangi): fl. 1588-1630. A painter from Gangi (PA).Salice Salentino (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 8,861 (2006e).Salina: an island of the Isole Eolie (Lipari Islands).Saline di Barletta: Earlier name, until 1879, for the town of Margherita di Savoia [FG].Salle (PE): A commune in the province of Pescara.Salve (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 4,599 (2006e).Salvitelle (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Salvo di Antonio, Giovanni: fl. 1493-1525. Painter from Messina.Salza Irpina (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 835 (2006e).Sambuca de Sicilia (AG): A commune in the province of Agrigento. Population: 6,328 (2006e).Sammichele di Bari (BA): A commune in the province of Bari: Population: 6,845 (2006e).Samnio (Molise): A province in the former kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Naples). Its territory comprised part of ancient Samnium. The smallest of the Neapolitan provinces, it had an area of about 1,200 square miles and an estimated population of about 200,000 (est 1830). It was bounded by Abruzzo Citra, the Capitanata, Principato Ultra and the Terra di Lavoro.Samnites: an ancient Italic people of south-central Italy. Their country, Samnium, was roughly equivalent to the modern regions of Abruzzo and Molise. Speaking a dialect of Oscan, they were a Sabellian people, probably an offshoot of the Sabines. The most important example of the Samnite tongue is the famous Tabula Agnonensis, a bronze tablet that carries an inscription engraved in the full Oscan alphabet. The Samnites were a loose confederation of agricultural tribes, lacking a centralized government. They were, nevertheless, capable of coordinated action and were able to effectively expanding their territory westward in the 4th century B.C. The Campani appealed for help to Rome, thus setting off an inevitable conflict between the two most powerful peoples in ancient Italy. The outcome of this conflict would decide not only the fate of Campania but the whole of Italy as well. The Samnites decision to expand had the long-term result in the Roman conquest of Italy and their subsequent conflict with the Carthaginians for Sicily. The conflict was divided into three principal episodes, the First, Second, and Third Samnite Wars (343-341 BC, 326-304 BC, and 298-290 BC). Although the Samnites continued to fight against Rome with Pyrrhus, Hannibal and later Marius in the Social War, they were crushed (82 B.C.) by Sulla before the gates of Rome; most of them were killed. Some survivors were sold into slavery, while most the rest were Romanized. Some Samnites, both free and slave, probably formed part of Spartacus’s army during the Third Servile War (73-71 BC).Samnium (1): ancient country of central and S Italy, mostly in the S Apennines. It was E of Campania and Latium and NE of Apulia. It measured about 2,700 sq. miles in area.Samnium (2) (Regio III): one of the eight provinces of Italy created by the Roman Emperor Augustus in the late 1st Century AD. It encompassed the area of the modern regions of Abruzzo and Molise. The province was governed by a praesides or corrector. The province encompassed all or parts of the territories belonging to the Sabini, Aequi, Marsi, Peligni, Vestini, and Marrucini.Samo (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.Sanarica (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 1,471 (2006e).San Bartolomeo in Galdo (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 5,456 (2006e).San Basile (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,208 (2006e).San Benedetto dei Marsi (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 4,091 (2006e).San Benedetto in Perillis (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 133 (2006e).San Benedetto Ullano (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,650 (2006e).San Biagio Platani (AG): A commune in the province of Agrigento. Population: 3,678 (2006e).San Biase (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 244 (2006e).San Buono (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 1,150 (2006e).San Calogero (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.San Cassiano (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 2,192 (2006e).San Cataldo (CL): A commune in the province of Caltanissetta. Population: 23,149 (2006e).San Cesario di Lecce (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 7,992 (2006e).San Chirico Nuovo (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.San Chirico Raparo (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.San Cipirello (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.San Cipriano d’Aversa (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  12,852 (2006e).San Cipriano Picentino (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.San Cono (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 2,930 (2006e).San Cosmo Albanese (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 659 (2006e).San Costantino Albanese (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.San Costantino Calabro (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo ValentiaSancto Officio (Holy Office): a term used in Sicilian and Spanish documents to refer to the Spanish Inquisition.Sancus: an ancient Italian god of oaths, marriage, treaties, and hospitality. The Romans identified him with Apollo or Jupiter. He had also called Semo Sancus or Semo Sancus Dius Fidius.San Demetrio Corone (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 4,592 (2006e).San Demetrio ne’ Vestini (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 1,695 (2006e).San Donaci (BR): A commune in the province of Brindisi. Population: 7,021 (2006e).San Donato di Lecce (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 5,769 (2006e).San Donato di Ninea (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,679 (2006e).San Fele (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.San Felice a Cancello (CS): A commune in the province of Caserta.San Felice del Molise (CB): A commune in the province of CampobassoSan Ferdinando (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.San Ferdinando di Puglia (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 14,452 (2006e). It is one of the three communes of the province of Foggia which will be transferred to the newly created province of Barletta-Andria-Trani in 2009.San Felice a Cancello (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  17,246 (2006e).San Felice del Molise (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 741 (2006e).San Fili (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 2,742 (2006e).San Filippo del Mela (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.San Floro (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 575 (2006e).San Fratello (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.San Gennaro Vesuviano (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.San Giacomo degli Schiavoni (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso.San Giacomo degli Schiavoni (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 1,219 (2006e).Sangineto (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,407 (2006e).San Giorgio a Cremano (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.San Giorgio Albanese (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,673 (2006e).San Giorgio del Sannio (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 9,809 (2006e).San Giorgio Jonico (TA): A commune in the province of Taranto.San Giorgio la Molara (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 3,178 (2006e).San Giorgio Lucano (MT): A commune in the province of Matera. Population: 1,429 (2006e).San Giorgio Morgeto (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.San Giovanni a Piro (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.San Giovanni di Gerace (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.San Giovanni Gemini (AG): A commune in the province of Agrigento. Population: 8,080 (2006e).San Giovanni in Fiore (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 18,379 (2006e).San Giovanni in Galdo (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 684 (2006e).San Giovanni La Punta (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 20,756 (2006e).San Giovanni Lipioni (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 261 (2006e).San Giovanni Rotondo (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 26,501 (2006e).The first part of the name derives from that of St. John. The second part, however, comes from the Latin word rotundus (= “round”, “circular”) inspired by the ancient, circular-walled baptistery located there.San Giovanni Teatino (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 10,771 (2006e).San Giuliano del Sannio (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso.San Giuliano di Puglia (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 1,147 (2006e).San Giuseppe Jato (PA): A commune in the province of PalermoSan Giuseppe Vesuviano (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.San Gregorio di Catania (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 10,930 (2006e).San Gregorio d’Ippona (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.San Gregorio Magno (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.San Gregorio Matese (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population: 1,017 (2006e).San Leucio del Sannio (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 3,276 (2006e).San Lorenzello (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 2,321 (2006e).San Lorenzo (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.San Lorenzo Bellizzi (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 867 (2006e).San Lorenzo del Vallo (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 3,450 (2006e).San Lorenzo Maggiore (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 2,244 (2006e).San Lucido (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 5,905 (2006e).San Lupo (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 870 (2006e).San Mango d’Aquino (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 1,808 (2006e).San Mango Piemonte (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.San Mango sul Calore (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 1,220 (2006e).San Marcellino (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  12,423 (2006e).San Marco Argentano (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 7,535 (2006e).San Marco Argentano – Scalea, Diocese of:Suffragans:Metropolitan: Cosenza – BisignanoConference Region: Calabria.Area: 1,142 km˛/ mi˛Total Population: 111,481Catholic Population:Total Priests: 90 (Diocesan: 84; Religious: 6)Permanent Deacons: 3.Male Religious:Female Religious:Parishes: 64History: San Marco d’Alunzio (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.San Marco dei Cavoti (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 3,771 (2006e).San Marco Evangelista (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  6,061 (2006e).San Marco in Lamis (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 15,111 (2006e).San Marco la Catola (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 1,354 (2006e).San Martino d’Agri (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.San Martino di Finita (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,261 (2006e).San Martino in Pensilis (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 4,841 (2006e).San Martino Sannita (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 1,233 (2006e).San Martino sulla Marrucina (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 1,010 (2006e).San Martino Valle Caudina (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 4,693 (2006e).San Marzano di San Giuseppe (TA): A commune in the province of Taranto – region: PugliaSan Marzano sul Sarno (SA): A commune in the province of SalernoSan Massimo (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 770 (2006e).San Mauro Castelverde (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo – region: SiciliaSan Mauro Cilento (SA): A commune in the province of SalernoSan Mauro Forte (MT): A commune in the province of Matera. Population: 1,974 (2006e).San Mauro La Bruca (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.San Mauro Marchesato (KR): A commune in the province of Crotone. Population: 2,326 (2006e)San Michele di Ganzaria (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 4,201 (2006e).San Michele di Serino (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 2,461 (2006e).San Michele Salentino (BR): A commune in the province of Brindisi. Population: 6,260 (2006e).San Nazzaro (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 872 (2006e).San Nicola Arcella (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,482 (2006e).San Nicola Baronia (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 855 (2006e).San Nicola da Crissa (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.San Nicola dell’Alto (formerly San Nicola dell’ Viola)(KR): A commune in the province of Crotone. Population: 1,023 (2006e)San Nicola dell’ Viola)(KR): Former name for San Nicola dell’Alto (KR).San Nicola la Strada (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  20,176 (2006e).San Nicola Manfredi (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 3,394 (2006e).San Pancrazio Salentino (BR): A commune in the province of Brindisi. Population: 10,471 (2006e).San Paolo Albanese (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.San Paolo Bel Sito (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.San Paolo di Civitate (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 5,955 (2006e).San Pier Niceto (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.San Piero Patti (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.San Pietro a Maida (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 4,240 (2006e).San Pietro al Tanagro (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.San Pietro Apostolo (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 1,878 (2006e).San Pietro Avellana (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 613 (2006e).San Pietro Clarenza (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 6,454 (2006e).San Pietro di Caridŕ (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.San Pietro in Amantea (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 591 (2006e).San Pietro in Guarano (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 3,700 (2006e).San Pietro in Lama (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 3,715 (2006e).San Pietro Infine (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta.San Pietro Sannitico (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  1,946 (2006e).San Pietro Vernotico (BR): A commune in the province of Brindisi. Population: 14,735 (2006e).San Pio delle Camere (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 583 (2006e).San Polomatese (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 465 (2006e).San Potito Sannitico (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta.San Potito Ultra (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 1,497 (2006e).San Prisco (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  11,468 (2006e).San Procopio (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.San Roberto (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.San Rufo (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.San Salvatore di Fitalia (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.San Salvatore Telesino (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento.San Salvo (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti.San Sebastiano al Vesuvio (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.San Severino Lucano (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.San Salvatore Telesino (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 3,940 (2006e).San Salvo (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 18,047 (2006e).San Sebastiano al Vesuvio (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.San Severino Lucano (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.San Severo (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 55,720 (2006e).San Sossio Baronia (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 1,884 (2006e).San Sostene (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 1,187 (2006e).San Sosti (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 2,243 (2006e).San Tammaro (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta.San Teodoro (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.San Valentino in Abruzzo Citeriore (PE): A commune in the province of Pescara.San Valentino Torio (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.San Vincenzo la Costa (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 2,097 (2006e).San Vincenzo Valle Roveto (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 2,555 (2006e).San Vitaliano (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.San Vito Chietino (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 5,047 (2006e).San Vito dei Normanni (BR): A commune in the province of Brindisi. Population: 19,817 (2006e).San Vito lo Capo (TP): A commune in the province of Trapani.San Vito sullo Ionio (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 1,914 (2006e).Sanarica (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce.Sangineto (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza.Sangro, River (Anc. Sagrus): A river (length: 122 km) in southern Abruzzo. It rises on Monte Morrone del Diavolo, at an altitude of 1,441 m, and flows to the NE where it joins the river Aventino before emptying into the Adriatic Sea.Sannicandro di Bari (BA): A commune in the province of Bari: Population: 9,669 (2006e).Sannicandro Garganico (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 16,727 (2006e).Sannicola (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 6,025 (2006e).Sanseverino, Gaetano:(b. 1811, Naples; d. Nov. 16, 1865, Naples). Philosophy. Having received his education at the seminary at Nola, he served as a canon of the Cathedral of Naples. He became professor of logic and metaphysics in the seminary, substitute professor of ethics at the University of Naples, and scrittore in the National Library.Sant’Agapito (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 1,357 (2006e).Sant’Agata de Goti (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento.Sant’Agata del Bianco (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.Sant’Agata di Esaro (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 2,119 (2006e).Sant’Agata di Militello (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Sant’Agata di Puglia (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 2,227 (2006e).Sant’Agata li Battiati (CT): A commune in the province of Catania.Sant’Agnello (NA): A commune in the province of NapoliSant’Alessio in Aspromonte (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.Sant’Alessio Siculo (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Sant’Alfio (CT): A commune in the province of Catania.Sant’Anastasia (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli – region: CampaniaSant’Andrea Apostolo dello Ionio (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro – region: CalabriaSant’Andrea di Conza (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino – region: CampaniaSant’Angelo a Cupolo (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento.Sant’Angelo a Fasanella (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Sant’Angelo a Scala (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino.Sant’Angelo all’Esca (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino.Sant’Angelo d’Alife (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta.Sant’Angelo dei Lombardi (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino.Sant’Angelo del Pesco (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 402 (2006e).Sant’Angelo di Brolo (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Sant’Angelo Le Fratte (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Sant’Angelo Limosano (): A commune in the province of Campobasso.Sant’Angelo Muxaro (AG): A commune in the province of Agrigento.Sant’Antimo (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.Sant’Antonio Abate (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.Sant’Arcangelo (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Sant’Arcangelo Trimonte (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento.Sant’Arpino (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta.Sant’Arsenio (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Santa Caterina Albanese (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,333 (2006e).Santa Caterina dello Ionio (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 2,158 (2006e).Santa Caterina Villarmosa (CL): A commune in the province of Caltanissetta. Population: 5,864 (2006e).Santa Cesarea Terme (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 3,076 (2006e).Santa Cristina d’Aspromonte (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.Santa Cristina Gela (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.Santa Croce Camerina (RG): A commune in the province of Ragusa.Santa Croce del Sannio (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 1,026 (2006e).Santa Croce di Magliano (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 4,849 (2006e).Santa Domenica Talao (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,307 (2006e).Santa Domenica Vittoria (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Santa Elisabetta (AG): A commune in the province of Agrigento. Population: 2,840 (2006e).Santa Flavia (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.Santa Lucia del Mela (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Santa Lucia di Serino (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 1,545 (2006e).Santa Margherita di Belice (AG): A commune in the province of Agrigento. Population: 6,649 (2006e).Santa Maria a Vico (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population: 13,943 (2006e).Santa Maria Capua Vetere (CE): A commune in Caserta province. Population: 33,201 (2006e). It is situated on the site of ancient Capua.Santa Maria del Cedro (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 5,039 (2006e).Santa Maria del Molise (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 675 (2006e).Santa Maria di Licodia (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 6,758 (2006e).Santa Maria Imbaro (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 1,757 (2006e).Santa Maria la Fossa (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  2,703 (2006e).Santa Maria La Carita (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.Santa Marina (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Santa Marina Salina (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Santa Ninfa (TP): A commune in the province of Trapani.Santa Paolina (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 1,445 (2006e).Santa Severina (KR): A commune in the province of Crotone. Population: 2,282 (2006e).Santa Sofia d’Epiro (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 3,012 (2006e).Santa Tammaro (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population: 4,615 (2006e).Santa Teresa di Riva (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Santa Venerina (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 8,140 (2006e).Sant’Agapito (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 1,357 (2006e).Sant’Agata de Goti (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento.Sant’Agata del Bianco (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.Sant’Agata di Esaro (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 2,119 (2006e).Sant’Agata di Militello (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Sant’Agata di Puglia (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 2,227 (2006e).Sant’Agata li Battiati (CT): A commune in the province of Catania.Sant’Agnello (NA): A commune in the province of NapoliSant’Alessio in Aspromonte (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.Sant’Alessio Siculo (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Sant’Alfio (CT): A commune in the province of Catania.Sant’Anastasia (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli – region: CampaniaSant’Andrea Apostolo dello Ionio (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro – region: CalabriaSant’Andrea di Conza (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino – region: CampaniaSant’Angelo a Cupolo (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento.Sant’Angelo a Fasanella (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Sant’Angelo a Scala (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino.Sant’Angelo all’Esca (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino.Sant’Angelo d’Alife (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta.Sant’Angelo dei Lombardi (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino.Sant’Angelo del Pesco (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 402 (2006e).Sant’Angelo di Brolo (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Sant’Angelo Le Fratte (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Sant’Angelo Limosano (): A commune in the province of Campobasso.Sant’Angelo Muxaro (AG): A commune in the province of Agrigento.Sant’Antimo (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.Sant’Antonio Abate (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.Sant’Arcangelo (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Sant’Arcangelo Trimonte (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento.Sant’Arpino (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta.Sant’Arsenio (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Sante Marie (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 1,304 (2006e).Sant’Egidio alla Vibrata (TE): A commune in the province of Teramo.Sant’Egidio del Monte Albino (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Sant’Elena Sannita (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 283 (2006e).Sant’Elia a Pianisi (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 2,133 (2006e).Santeramo (BA): A commune in the province of Bari.Sant’Eufemia a Maiella (PE): A commune in the province of Pescara.Sant’Eufemia d’Aspromonte (): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.Sant’Eusanio del Sangro (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 2,392 (2006e).Sant’Eusanio Forconese (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 416 (2006e).Sant’Ilario dello Ionio (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.Santomenna (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Sant’Omero (TE): A commune in the province of Teramo.Sant’Onofrio (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.Santo Stefano del Sole (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 2,132 (2006e).Santo Stefano di Camastra (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Santo Stefano di Rogliano (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,515 (2006e).Santo Stefano di Sessanio (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 114 (2006e).Santo Stefano in Aspromonte (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio CalabriaSanto Stefano Quisquina (AG): A commune in the province of Agrigento. Population: 5,233 (2006e).Sanza (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Saponara (SA): A commune in the province of Messina.Sapri (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Saracen: the term derives either from the Greek sarakenoi or the Arabic sharqiyyin (easterners). In medieval times the term was broadly applied to all Muslim Arabs, but particularly to those of Sicily and southern Italy.Saracen Tower: (It. Torre Saracena). A type of watch tower built along the coasts during the Middle Ages. As their name implies, they were used to keep watch for approaching Saracens and other pirates.Saracena (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 4,225 (2006e).Sarausa: Sicilian dialect form for Siracusa (Syracuse).Sarconi (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Sarno (SA): A commune in the province of SalernoSassano (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Sassinoro (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 632 (2006e).Sasso di Castalda (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Satres: An Etruscan god, equivalent to the Roman Saturn.Satriano (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 3,191 (2006e).Satriano di Lucania (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Sava (TA): A commune in the province of Taranto.Savasta, Antonio: (b. 22 August 1873, Catania. d. 2 December 1959, Naples). Composer. His works include opera, orchestral pieces, and chamber music.Savelli (KR): A commune in the province of Crotone. Population: 1,497 (2006e).Saviano (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.Savignano Irpino (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 1,271 (2006e).Savoca (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Savoia, Leone: (b. 1814, at Messina; d. 1885). Architect.Savoia di Lucania (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Savone, River: (anc. Savo or Safo). A river in the province of Caserta in northern Campania.sbirro (pl. sbirri): a term of derision used for police by mafiosi in Sicily.scacciapensieri (= “care-chaser”): A mouth harp used in both the far northern Alpine regions of Italy and in Sicily.Scafa (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Scafati (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Scala (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Scala Coeli (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,290 (2006e).Scalea (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 10,143 (2006e).Scaletta Zanclea (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Scampitella (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 1,369 (2006e).Scandale (KR): A commune in the province of Crotone. Population: 3,168 (2006e).Scanno (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 2,073 (2006e).Scanzano Jonico (MT): A commune in the province of Matera. Population: 6,962 (2006e).Scapoli (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 908 (2006e).Scarlatti, Alessandro: (b. 2 May 1660, Palermo. d. 22 October 1725, Naples). Composer. During his career he created over 600 composed pieces; over 115 operas, oratorios, masses, cantatas (including solos), madrigals, concerti grossi, harpsichord and chamber pieces. He was the father of Domenico Scarlatti.Scarlatti, Domenico: (b. 26 October 1685, Naples. d. 23 July 1757, Madrid). Composer. Having received his earliest musical instruction from his father, Alessandro Scarlatti, he moved first to Rome and then to Portugal. There he became a teacher to one of the royal princesses. He accompanied her (c1729) to Madrid when she married the King of Spain. His works include over 500 sonatas for the harpsichord, church music, and operas.Scerni (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 3,604 (2006e).Schiavi di Abruzzo (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 1,199 (2006e).Sciacca (AG): A commune in the province of Agrigento. Population: 40,868 (2006e).Sciara (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.Sciarrino, Salvatore: (b. April 4, 1947, Palermo). Composer.Sciascia, Leonardo: (b. 1921, Racalmuto [AG]; d. 1989). Novelist.Scicli (RG): A commune in the province of Ragusa.Scido (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.Scigliano (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,462 (2006e).Scilla (anc. Scyllaeum, Scylla, Skulla): A promontory on the coast of Calabria at the N entrance to the Straits of Messina. Ancient tradition makes it the home of the mythical monster Scylla. It sits opposite to Charybdis on the Sicilian side of the Strait.Scilla (anc. Scyllaeum) (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria. It is named for the promontory on which it is located.Scilla, Agostino: (b. 1629, at Messina; d. 1700). Painter.Scilla, Luigi Ruffo: (b. Aug. 25, 1750, at S. Onofrio; d. Nov. 17, 1832, at Naples). Ecclesiastic. Ordained a priest in 1780, he served as Apostolic Nuncio to Austria in 1793. He was elevated to cardinal in 1801. He served as archbishop of Naples from 1802 to 1832.Scillato (PA): A commune in the province of PalermoScipione di Guido: fl. 1587-1904. A sculptor and engraver from Naples.Scisciano (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.Sciuti, Giuseppe: (b. 1834, at Zafferana Etnea (CT); d. 1911). Painter.Sclafani Bagni (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.Scontrone (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 601 (2006e).Scoppito (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 2,857 (2006e).Scordia (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 17,202 (2006e).Scorrano (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 6,887 (2006e).Scurcola Marsicana (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 2,669 (2006e).Scydrus: An ancient town of Bruttium. Its exact location is unknown but was located along the Tyrrhenian coast of the modern province of Cosenza. It was founded by Greeks from Sybaris.Scylla (Grk: Skylla): A mythological monster which lived in a cave on the mainland side of the Straits of Messina. According to some classical writers, Scylla was originally was a beautiful nymph, daughter of Crataeis. Beloved by the sea-god Glaukos, she incurred the jealousy of the witch Circe who turned her into a horrible monster which barked like a dog. Earlier writers, however, claim that she was born a monster. Most sources describe Scylla as having 12 feet and a fearsome head at the end of each of her 6 long necks. The mouth of each head had 3 rows of sharp teeth. Others say she had only 3 heads or the heads of six different animals. Although best known for her attack of Odysseus and his men in Homer’s Odyssey, she appears occasionally in other stories. When Hercules was passing nearby, herding the cattle of Geryon back to Greece, Scylla stole some of the oxen. For this she was slain by the hero, but later was restored to life by the sea-god Phorcys. Virgil (Aeneid vi.286) stated that there were several Scyllae, who resided in the underworld.                Scylla’s parentage varies in different sources. Her father is claimed to be Phorcys, Poseidon, Triton, or Typhoeus. Her mother is most commonly identified as Crataeis, but some sources claim she is it Trienos, Hecate, Lamia, or Echidna.                Scylla’s name is related to the Greek words skyllaros (= hermit crab), skylax (= dog, dog-shark) and skyllô (= “to rend”).Scymnus (Skymnos): (b. Tarentum; fl. late 4th century BC). Juggler. A member of Alexander the Great’s court, he was one of the performers at the mass-marriage ceremony at Susa in 324 BC.Sea, Sicilian: See Sea of Sicily.Sea Salt, Sicilian (Italian Sea Salt, Sale Marino or Trapani sea salt): a type of sea salt harvested along the coast of Sicily. Sea water is collected into ponds where it is allowed to evaporate in the sun, leaving behind the salt. This raw salt is then crushed, processed, and packaged for sale. This sea salt consists of several minerals including iodine, fluorine, magnesium, and potassium, and has lower sodium content than traditional table salts. These sea salts are utilized in a wide variety of different regional Italian cuisines.Secinaro (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 441 (2006e).Secli’ (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 1,945 (2006e).Secret Poisoners, Society of: A secret society of supposed ancient origins known to have existed in Italy during the 16th and 17th centuries. Its members were feared throughout Europe for their abilities to create and utilize unique poisons. One of its best-known members was Tofana, a woman from Palermo, who created the deadly liquid poison known as Aqua della Tofara. During the pontificate of Alexander VII, a faction of the society was known to be active in Rome. Its members consisted of a group of young women under the leadership of an old Sicilian woman named Hieronyma Spara, who had been a pupil of Tofana. They came under suspicion of murder when the husbands of the women all died suddenly under mysterious circumstances. The authorities arrested the women who, under tortured confessed to poisoning their husbands. Spara and four others were publicly executed.                It is possible that Locusta, the woman who supplied the Roman empress Agrippina with the poison to murder her husband Claudius, was also a member of this society of poisoners. She also provided the poison which the Emperor Nero used to kill Britannicus, Claudius’s son. Locusta’s poisons of choice seem to have been cyanide and belladonna. She was finally executed in January AD 55 by Nero’s successor Galba.Segesta (Acesta, Aegesta, Segeste): An ancient city of NW Sicily, situated to the SE of Eryx. Traditionally called a Trojan colony (its name deriving from its supposed founder, Aegestus), it was the longstanding and bitter rival of Selinus. Athens undertook (415-413 B.C.) the disastrous expedition against Syracuse as an ally of Segesta in troubles growing out of a quarrel with Selinus. After this failure, Segesta got the help of Carthage, and Selinus was sacked (409). Thereafter Segesta was a Carthaginian dependency with some interruptions until the First Punic War, when it surrendered to the Romans. Segesta was the setting for a story concerning Aemilius Censorinaus and a bronze horse, which was appears derive from the earlier tale of Perillus and his brazen bull. The city went into a decline in the 1st cent. B.C. from which it never recovered. Amid its ruins is a fine temple to Ceres.                The Romans called the city “Segeste” because Segesta was too similar to the Latin word aegesta or egesta (= discharge, excrement).According to mythology, the original city, Aegesta, was founded by Aegestus, a Trojan, who had been sent by the Greek hero Philoctetes from the area near Croton on the Italian mainland, where Philoctetes himself had settled after the fall of Troy. Soon after Aegesta had been founded, Aeneas arrived with his fleet of Trojan refugees and named two nearby rivers Scamander and Simois in memory of a pair of streams in his Troad homeland. One version of the myth names Aeneas as the actual founder of the city. In this little-known tale, Aeneas founds both Aegesta and another city, Elyma, so-named for the Trojan Elymus, a companion of Aegestus. Aegestus and Elymus were able to reach Sicily before the arrival of Aeneas in three ships which they had previously captured from Achilles before the fall of Troy.Sele (anc. Silarus), River: A waterway which flows through Campania into the Gulf of Salerno. Its main tributaries are the Tanagro and the Calore Lucano.Selinus: ancient city of southwestern Sicily. It was founded (628? B.C.) by Dorian Greeks from Megara Hyblaea. The constant rival of neighboring Segesta, Selinus got Syracuse to interfere in a quarrel, which led to the unsuccessful Athenian expedition in Sicily (415-413 B.C.). Segesta invoked the aid of the Carthaginians, who sacked Selinus in 409 B.C. The city was rebuilt, but it did not prosper and was finally destroyed by Carthage in 250 B.C. The ruins of the five Doric temples on the Acropolis of Selinus have been excavated, revealing some of the finest examples of archaic Greek sculpture and architecture.Sella di Conza: A pass (alt. 730 m) in the southern Apennine Mountains which is generally used to mark the division between the Campanian and Lucanian Apennines. It forms part of the border between Campania (province of Avellino) and Basilicata (province of Potenza). Part of the route of the modern Strada Statale 7 Via Appia (SS 7), and the ancient Via Appia (Appian Way) runs through the pass.Sellia (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 551 (2006e).Sellia Marina (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 6,004 (2006e).Selvans: Etruscan nature god. He was adopted by the Romans as Silvanus.Sempronii: An important family of ancient Rome. It was originally of Etruscan origins.Senerchia (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 893 (2006e).Sepino (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 2,097 (2006e).Sergi: a noble Neapolitan family, descended from the Counts of Cumae (Cuma). They became a dynasty of autonomous dukes who ruled Naples from AD 840 to 1139.Sergius I, St.: Pope. (rDec 15, 687-Sept 8, 701).Sergius (Sergio) I: Count or Duke of Castrum di Cuma (Cumae) and Duke of Naples (rAD 840-865). The founder of the Sergi dynasty of Naples, he was the son of Marinus and Euprassia, and the father of Duke Gregory III of Naples. Originally the comes (Count) or dux (Duke) of Cumae, then under the control of Naples, he was elected by the Neapolitans to be their Duke in AD 840. Sergius was seen as the only hope of keeping the Lombards from seizing control of Naples since the Byzantine Empire seemed unable to do so. Sergius used diplomacy as much as military force to defy the Lombard threat. He even called on the Saracens in Sicily for help. In return for Saracen mercenary soldiers, Sergius was willing to provide Neapolitan ships to aid the Saracens at Bari in 841 and Messina in 842. Sergius recognized that the Saracens, however, could not be trusted from launching their own attacks on Naples and there remained the possibility that the Byzantine Empire might attempt to reimpose its authority. To guard against this, he created alliances with the Papacy and with the Franks. He joined Naples in a league of neighboring Christian states (Sorrento, Amalfi, and Gaeta) against the Saracens in 846. The allies drove the Saracens from the island of Ponza and rescued Rome. A few years later, in 849, he commanded the allied fleets of Naples, Gaeta, and the Papacy in the defeat of the Saracens at Ostia.                Sergius also acted as an intermediary for the western Emperors Lothair I and Louis II. In 847, he succeeded in arranging a peace between the Lombard princes Siconulf of Salerno and Radelchis I of Benevento.                In 859, Sergius sought to put an end to the threat posed by Lando I, the Lombard ruler of Capua and sent a force to attempt to sack New Capua. The Neapolitan army, led by Sergius’s sons Gregory and Caesar, was defeated.In 850, Sergius established his son, Gregory III, as co-duke, thus founding the Sergi dynasty, which would rule Naples until 1137. Another of his sons, Caesar, earned a reputation as a notable admiral, distinguishing himself in several battles against the Saracens. Sergius’s third son, Athanasius, became bishop of Naples, an imperial familiaris, and a papal legate and intimate of the Roman curia. The youngest son, Stephen, became the bishop of Sorrento.Sergius (Sergio) I: Ruler of Amalfi (r958-966).Sergius II: Pope. (rJan 844-Jan 7, 847).Sergius (Sergio) II: (d. AD 877). Duke of Naples (AD 870-877). In 877, he was overthrown and blinded, and died soon afterwards. He was the son of Gregory III and father of Gregory IV.Sergius (Sergio) II: Ruler of Amalfi (r1007-1028).Sergius III: Pope. (rJan 29, 904-Apr 14, 911).Sergius (Sergio) III: (d. AD 999). Duke of Naples (rAD 977-999). He was the son of Marino II and was the father of Giovanni (John) IV.Sergius (Sergio) III: Ruler of Amalfi (r1038-1039).Sergius IV: Pope. (rJuly 31, 1009-May 12, 1012).Serino (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 7,379 (2006e).Serlo (Serlon) I: a son of Tancred de Hauteville, and brother of William “Iron-Arm.” He is believed to have remained in Normandy, where he inherited the family’s estates. He is known to have had a son, also named Serlo or Serlon, who did leave Normandy for Italy.Serlo (Serlon) II: (d. 1072). Norman adventurer. Son of Serlo I, he left Normandy to join his relatives in southern Italy where he participated in their campaigns. In 1961, he assisted his uncle Roger I in the capture of Messina. He also fought with distinction at Cerami in 1063. He would probably played a role in the new Norman state in Sicily but was killed in battle against the Saracens near Nicosia.Serpotta, Gaspare: (d. 1669). A sculptor and stuccoist from Palermo.Serpotta, Giacomo: (b. 1656, in Palermo; d.1732). A sculptor and stuccoist.Serpotta, Giovanni Maria: (fl. 18th century; d. 1719). A sculptor from Palermo.Serpotta, Giuseppe: (b. 1653, at Palermo; d. 1719). A sculptor.Serpotta, Proscopio: (b. 1679, at Palermo; d. 1755). A sculptor.Serracapriola (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 4,079 (2006e).Serra d’Aiello (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 800 (2006e).Serra San Bruno (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.Serradifalco (CL): A commune in the province of Caltanissetta. Population: 6,374 (2006e).Serramezzana (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Serramonacesca (PE): A commune in the province of Pescara.Serra Pedace (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,041 (2006e).Serrara Fontana (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.Serrastretta (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 3,414 (2006e).Serrata (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Di Calabria.Serre (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Sersale (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 5,006 (2006e).Servile Wars: A term given in Roman history attached to three major slave uprisings which broke out in Sicily and southern Italy in the Second and First Centuries BC. The agricultural slaves were exploited by their owners, who had extreme powers and were never averse to using them. The first of the Servile Wars was fought in Sicily from 134 to 132 B.C. (or from 135 to 133 B.C.); the second, more serious, also occurred in Sicily from 104 to 101 B.C. (or from 105 to 102 B.C.). The third took place in Campania and was led by the gladiator Spartacus. He and his men gained control over most of S Italy in 73 B.C. and were finally put down with great cruelty by Crassus and Pompey in 71 B.C.Sessa Aurunca (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  22,900 (2006e).Sessa Cilento (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Sessano del Molise (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 851(2006e).Sesto Campano (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 2,505 (2006e).Sethlan (or Sethlans): Etruscan god of fire and blacksmiths. He was similar to thr Greek Hephaestus and the Roman Vulcan.Settingiano (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 2,578 (2006e).Seven Great Houses of the Kingdom: The seven most powerful and influential families of the Regno were the Acquaviva, Sanseverino, D’Aquino, Ruffo, Del Balzo, Piccolomini and Celano.Severinus: Pope. (rOct 638-Aug 2, 640).Sfogliatelle (=little sheets): a traditional Neapolitan breakfast. It consists of “little sheets” of flaky pastry shaped as clams and stuffed with ricotta, semolina, orange peel, vanilla and cinnamon.Sgraffito: a decorative technique in which a layer of plaster is scratched to form a pattern or design. It became very popular in Italy during the 16th Century.Shakka: Arabic name for the Sicilian city of Sciacca.Siano (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Sican (Sikan): Ancient ethnic group in central Sicily.Sicania: an ancient name for Sicily, derived from that of the Sicans.Sicels (Sikels, Siculi): Ancient ethnic group in eastern Sicily, after whom Sicily is named. They are believed to have crossed into Sicily several centures after the Sicans. Some researchers connect them with the Shakalsha or Sheklesh, a people who had emigrated from ancient Anatolia, perhaps Phrygia, and who numbered amomg the Sea-Peoples.Sicignano degli Alburni (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Sicilia Citeriore: “Sicily on this side.” A name used for the kingdom of Naples, i.e. the mainland portion of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.Sicilia Ulteriore: “Sicily on the other side.” A name used for the kingdom of Sicily, i.e. the insular portion of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.Sicilian: A dialect group centered on the island of Sicily. Also known as Calabro-Sicilian, it had 4,680,715 speakers in 1976.Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Italo-Dalmatian. Dialects: Western Sicilian (Palermo, Trapani, Central-Western Agrigentino), Central Metafonetica, Southeast Metafonetica, Eastern Nonmetafonetica, Messinese, Isole Eolie, Pantesco, Southern Calabro. It is distinct enough from Standard Italian to be considered a separate language. Pugliese and Southern Calabrese are reported to be dialects of Sicilian. Some linguists would prefer that it be classified as Southern Romance instead of Italo-Western.Sicilian foot of Archimedes: A unit of length measurement used in ancient Greek Sicily. It was the equivalent of 0.73 of an English foot.Sicilian Vespers: The name given the rebellion staged by the Sicilians against the Angevin French domination of Sicily; the rebellion broke out at Palermo at the start of Vespers on Easter Monday, Mar. 30, 1282. The revolt quickly spread over the island; nearly all the French in Sicily were massacred. Although basically a move for Sicilian independence, the insurrection was instigated as part of a widespread conspiracy against the Angevin ruler of Naples and Sicily, King Charles I, who dreamed of establishing an Angevin empire in the East. Byzantine Emperor Michael VIII financed the plot, hoping to preoccupy Charles and thus avert the Angevin’s imminent invasion of the Byzantine Empire. John of Procida, a loyal supporter of the Hohenstaufen, and King Peter III of Aragon, who claimed rule of the island as the husband of Constance, heiress of the Hohenstaufen claim there, also joined the intrigue. Peter accepted the throne offered by the Sicilians, and a 20-year war for possession of Sicily followed between the Angevin kings of Naples and the Aragonese kings of Sicily. The uprising secured Sicilian independence for more than a century, with the house of Aragon keeping Sicily and the Angevin dynasty holding the S Italian mainland kingdom of Naples. The two territories were finally reunited (1442) under Alfonso V of Aragon.Sicily: The island’s name derives from that of its ancient inhabitants, the Sicani and Siceli. The meaning of the sic– root of these names in unknown.Sicily/Sicilia:Location: A region in southern Italy. Sicily is that largest region in area of Italy.Name: The name derives from that of the Sikels, an ancient people who had settled on the island prior to the arrival of the Phoenicians and Greeks.Capital: Palermo.Area: 25,707 km˛ (mi˛) (the 6th largest island of Europe and the 44th largest island in the world). It has a length of 180 miles and a maximux breadth of 130.Number of Provinces: 9 (Agrigento; Caltanissetta; Catania; Enna; Messina; Palermo; Ragusa; Syracuse/Siracusa; Trapani.).Number of Communes (Municipalities): 390.Population: 5,016,861 (2007)Population Density:  195.2/km˛ (2007). Demographics (figures per 1000 inhabitants) 200020012002Births10.510.410.3Deaths9.29.09.3Marriages5.45.25.4 History:Historical Population: 2,960,000 (1850); 3,529,266 (1901); 4,906,878 (1981); 4,966,386 (1991); 4,968,991 (2001); 5,017,212 (2006e).Landscape:Terrain:Sicily, Communes of:Province of Agrigento:Agrigento, Alessandria della Rocca, Aragona, Bivona, Burgio, Calamonaci, Caltabellotta, Camastra, Cammarata, Campobello di Licata, Canicattě, Casteltermini, Castrofilippo, Cattolica Eraclea, Cianciana, Comitini, Favara, Grotte, Joppolo Giancaxio, Licata, Lucca Sicula, Menfi, Montallegro, Montevago, Naro, Palma di Montechiaro, Pelagie, Porto Empedocle, Racalmuto, Raffadali, Ravanusa, Realmonte, Ribera, Sambuca di Sicilia, San Biagio Platani, San Giovanni Gemini, Santa Elisabetta, Santa Margherita di Belice, Sant’Angelo Muxaro, Santo Stefano Quisquina, Sciacca, Siculiana, Villafranca Sicula.Province of Caltanissetta:Acquaviva Platani, Bompensiere, Butera, Caltanissetta, Campofranco, Delia, Gela, Marianopoli, Mazzarino, Milena, Montedoro, Mussomeli, Niscemi, Resuttano, Riesi, San Cataldo, Santa Caterina Villarmosa, Serradifalco, Sommatino, Sutera, Vallelunga Pratameno, Villalba.Province of Catania:Aci Bonaccorsi, Aci Castello, Aci Catena, Acireale, Aci Sant’Antonio, Adrano, Belpasso, Biancavilla, Bronte, Calatabiano, Caltagirone, Camporotondo Etneo, Castel di Judica, Castiglione di Sicilia, Catania, Fiumefreddo di Sicilia, Giarre, Grammichele, Gravina di Catania, Licodia Eubea, Linguaglossa, Maletto, Maniace, Mascali, Mascalucia, Mazzarrone, Militello In Val di Catania, Milo, Mineo, Mirabella Imbaccari, Misterbianco, Motta Sant’Anastasia, Nicolosi, Palagonia, Paternň, Pedara, Piedimonte Etneo, Raddusa, Ragalna, Ramacca, Randazzo, Riposto, San Cono, San Giovanni la Punta, San Gregorio di Catania, San Michele di Ganzaria, San Pietro Clarenza, Sant’Agata Li Battiati, Sant’Alfio, Santa Maria di Licodia, Santa Venerina, Scordia, Trecastagni, Tremestieri Etneo, Valverde, Viagrande, Vizzini, Zafferana Etnea.Province of Enna:Agira, Aidone, Assoro, Barrafranca, Calascibetta, Catenanuova, Centuripe, Cerami, Enna, Gagliano Castelferrato, Leonforte, Nicosia, Nissoria, Piazza Armerina, Pietraperzia, Regalbuto, Sperlinga, Troina, Valguarnera Caropepe, Villarosa.Province of Messina:Acquedolci, Alcara Li Fusi, Alě, Alě Terme, Antillo, Barcellona Pozzo di Gotto, Basicň, Brolo, Capizzi, Capo d’Orlando, Capri Leone, Caronia, Casalvecchio Siculo, Castel di Lucio, Castell’Umberto, Castelmola, Castroreale, Cesarň, Condrň, Falcone, Ficarra, Fiumedinisi, Floresta, Fondachelli Fantina, Forza d’Agrň, Francavilla di Sicilia, Frazzanň, Furci Siculo, Furnari, Gaggi, Galati Mamertino, Gallodoro, Giardini Naxos, Gioiosa Marea, Graniti, Gualtieri Sicaminň, Itala, Leni, Letojanni, Librizzi, Limina, Lipari, Longi, Malfa, Malvagna, Mandanici, Mazzarrŕ Sant’Andrea, Merě, Messina, Milazzo, Militello Rosmarino, Mirto, Mistretta, Mojo Alcantara, Monforte San Giorgio, Mongiuffi Melia, Montagnareale, Montalbano Elicona, Motta Camastra, Motta d’Affermo, Naso, Nizza di Sicilia, Novara di Sicilia, Oliveri, Pace del Mela, Pagliara, Patti, Pettineo, Piraino, Raccuja, Reitano, Roccafiorita, Roccalumera, Roccavaldina, Roccella Valdemone, Rodě Milici, Rometta, San Filippo del Mela, San Fratello, San Marco d’Alunzio, San Pier Niceto, San Piero Patti, San Salvatore di Fitalia, Santa Domenica Vittoria, Sant’Agata di Militello, Sant’Alessio Siculo, Santa Lucia del Mela, Santa Marina Salina, Sant’Angelo di Brolo, Santa Teresa di Riva, San Teodoro, Santo Stefano di Camastra, Saponara, Savoca, Scaletta Zanclea, Sinagra, Spadafora, Taormina, Terme Vigliatore, Torregrotta, Torrenova, Tortorici, Tripi, Tusa, Ucria, Valdina, Venetico, Villafranca Tirrena.Province of Palermo:Alia, Alimena, Aliminusa, Altavilla Milicia, Altofonte, Bagheria, Balestrate, Baucina, Belmonte Mezzagno, Bisacquino, Blufi, Bolognetta, Bompietro, Borgetto, Caccamo, Caltavuturo, Campofelice di Fitalia, Campofelice di Roccella, Campofiorito, Camporeale, Capaci, Carini, Castelbuono, Casteldaccia, Castellana Sicula, Castronuovo di Sicilia, Cefalŕ Diana, Cefalů, Cerda, Chiusa Sclafani, Ciminna, Cinisi, Collesano, Contessa Entellina, Corleone, Ficarazzi, Gangi, Geraci Siculo, Giardinello, Giuliana, Godrano, Gratteri, Isnello, Isola delle Femmine, Lascari, Lercara Friddi, Marineo, Mezzojuso, Misilmeri, Monreale, Montelepre, Montemaggiore Belsito, Palazzo Adriano, Palermo, Partinico, Petralia Soprana, Petralia Sottana, Piana degli Albanesi, Polizzi Generosa, Pollina, Prizzi, Roccamena, Roccapalumba, San Cipirello, San Giuseppe Jato, San Mauro Castelverde, Santa Cristina Gela, Santa Flavia, Sciara, Scillato, Sclafani Bagni, Termini Imerese, Terrasini, Torretta, Trabia, Trappeto, Ustica, Valledolmo, Ventimiglia di Sicilia, Vicari, Villabate, Villafrati.Province of Ragusa:Acate, Chiaramonte Gulfi, Comiso, Giarratana, Ispica, Modica, Monterosso Almo, Pozzallo, Ragusa, Santa Croce Camerina, Scicli, Vittoria.Province of Siracusa:Augusta, Avola, Buccheri, Buscemi, Canicattini Bagni, Carlentini, Cassaro, Ferla, Floridia, Francofonte, Lentini, Melilli, Noto, Pachino, Palazzolo Acreide, Portopalo di Capo Passero, Priolo Gargallo, Rosolini, Siracusa, Solarino, Sortino.Province of Trapani:Alcamo, Buseto Palizzolo, Calatafimi, Campobello di Mazara, Castellammare del Golfo, Castelvetrano, Custonaci, Erice, Favignana, Gibellina, Marsala, Mazara del Vallo, Paceco, Pantelleria, Partanna, Petrosino, Poggioreale, Salaparuta, Salemi, Santa Ninfa, San Vito Lo Capo, Trapani, Valderice, Vita.Sicily, Kingdom of: The insular portion of the former kingdom of the Two Sicilies. It was separated from the mainland by the Strait of Messina. It encompassed the whole of the triangular inland of Sicily in addition to several smaller nearby islands. The surface area measured about 12,500 square miles. It had a population of 1,713,945 in 1817.                It was divided into seven intendancies:                Palermo (population in 1817: 465,231)                Trapani (145,712)                Girgenti (288,877)                Caltanissetta (155,225)                Syracuse (Siragoza) (192,710)                Catania (289,406)                Messina (236,784)Sicily, Sea (or Strait) of (It. Canale di SiciliaStretto di Sicilia): Sometimes called the Sicilian Sea Strait, it is a branch of the central Mediterranean Sea situated between Tunisia (to the S) and Sicily (to the N). It encompasses several islands including the Italian Pantelleria, Lampedusa, and Linosa, together called the Pelagie Islands, and Malta, Gozo, and Comiso (the Republic of Malta). The channel between Sicily and Malta is also sometimes referred to as the Strait (or Sea) of Malta.Sicily, Strait of: See Sea of Sicily.Sicone: Bishop of Capua (r ?-943).Siculiana (AG): A commune in the province of Agrigento. Population: 4,716 (2006e).Siderno (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio CalabriaSikania: A place referred to by Odysseus in Homer’s Odyssey (xxiv.307). It may be a reference to Sicily.Sikelia: an ancient Greek term for Sicily.Sikelos: an ancient Greek term for the native people of Sicily.Sikilřy: a medieval Norse name for the island of Sicily.Sila silva: Ancient name for the massif of Sila in Calabria. Its name appears to derive from an Oscan word related to the Latin silva (=wood), referring its thickly wooded slopes.Silvanus: an ancient Roman/Italic fertility god who watched over forests, groves and wild fields, as well as herds and cattle. He was often associated with Faunus. In keeping with his connection to nature, his principal attributes were a pruning knife and a pine bough. In order to placate Silvanus, an annual ritual was performed offering him the first fruits of the harvest, meat and wine. Because Silvanus was also associated with male sexual power, women were forbidden to attend his rituals.Silverius, St.: Pope. (rJune 1, 536-Nov 11, 537).Silvester I, St.: Pope. (rJan 31, 314-Dec 31, 335).Silvester II: Pope. (rApr. 2, 999-May 12, 1003).Silvester III: Pope. (r1045). His election has been questioned and he is now usually considered an antipope. He was deposed by the Council of Sutri.Silvi Marina (TE): A commune in the province of Teramo.Simbario (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.Simeri Crichi (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 4,142 (2006e).Simmaco, S.: Bishop of Capua (r422-440).Simon: Count of Sicily (r1101-1105).Simone d’Aversa: fl. 14th-15th centuries. A metal smith from Sicily.Simplicius, St.: Pope. (rMar 3, 468-Mar 10, 483).Sinagra (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Sinatra, Vincenzo: fl. 1742-1779. An architect from Noto (SR).Sinito, S.: Bishop of Capua (rAD 66-80).Sinopoli (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio di Calabria.Sinuessa (Sonuessa, Sinoessa) (mod. Torre San Limato di Cellole [CE]). A town of the ancient Aurunci located in northern Campania.Siqlliya: Arabic name for Sicily.Siracusa, Province of: A province of Sicily. Population: 398,948 (2007e).  Communes of Siracusa ProvinceCommuneArea(km˛)Population(2007e)Population(2006e)Population(2001 census)Population(1991 census)Augusta109.33339573393933,82034,189Avola74.26316203165331,28931,322Buccheri57.43218722002,3202,755Buscemi51.57115411651,2001,292Canicattini Bagni15.11734173897,5197,535Carlentini158.02173221728516,87916,946Cassaro19.40859859909989Ferla24.77265926752,7603,029Floridia26.22218642172920,67519,726Francofonte73.95124941254312,94914,815Lentini215.84241822435624,74827,764Melilli136.08127641263112,21611,656Noto551.12234732339123,06521,704Pachino50.47214782151821,32421,394Palazzolo Acreide86.32904090279,1099,097Portopalo di Capo Passero14.87364436343,5003,211Priolo Gargallo57.59120621200111,78511,466Rosolini76.15211702105520,15220,686Siracusa204.08123324122972123,657125,941Solarino13.01736573137,1997,252Sortino93.21898989959,0929,245Total2,109398,948398,330396,167402,014  Siracusa (SR): A commune and provincial capital of the province of Siracusa.Siragusa, Federico: fl. 18th century. A sculptor from Trapani.Sirako: Original Greek name for Siracusa (Syracuse). The name derives from the word for swamp, referring to marshlands which were once located nearby.Sirens: mythical creatures with the heads of women and the bodies of birds. In ancient Greek and Roman mythology, the Sirens inhabited small, rocky islands where they sang sweet songs to passing ships, hoping to lure sailors to their doom. Odysseus survived their trap by stuffing the ears of his men with wax so they could not hear the Sirens’ song. Curious to hear them, he ordered his men to lash him to the ship’s mast and not release him until they had passed the Sirens. Another group of heroes, the Argonauts succeeded in avoiding the lure of the Sirens by having Orpheus, one of their crew, sing and play his lyre so loud that the Sirens could not be heard. Ancient sources differ on the number of Sirens, Homer mentioning only two, but other writers like Ovid and Libanius, saying that there were three or four of them.Siricius, St.: Pope. (rDec 11, 384-Nov 26, 399).Sirignano (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 2,719 (2006e).sirocco: a hot, dry wind which blows off the North African deserts over the Mediterranean Sea to Sicily and Italy. It is often cited as the reason for what foreigners considered widespread indolence and lethargy of southern Italians.Sisinnius: Pope. (rJan 15-Feb 4, 708).Sixtus I, St.: Pope. (r115/116-125).Sixtus II, St.: Pope. (rAug 30/31, 257-Aug 6, 258).Sixtus III, St.: Pope. (rJuly 31, 432-Mar/Aug 440).Sixtus IV: Pope. (rAug. 9, 1471-Aug 12, 1484).Sixtus V: Pope. (rApr 24, 1585-Aug 27, 1590).Slavery in ancient Italy and Sicily (Roman Era): It has been estimated that during the time of Augustus (r 31 BC-AD 14) about a third of Italy’s population consisted of slaves. Slavery in ancient Italy was widespread during Roman times. According to one estimate, in 225 BC, the population of Italy (excluding Cisalpine Gaul in the north) numbered about 3,000,000 free inhabitants and about 2,000,000 slaves. Another estimate (which includes Cisalpine Gaul) puts the numbers at about 3,000,000 slaves out of a total population of c7,500,000. It has been suggested that between 225 BC to the end of the reign of Augustus (AD 14), the population of Roman Italy doubled in size. The free population remained relatively stable in number, but changed considerably in its composition. At the beginning of the period, the free population consisted mostly of the old native Italian stock. By its end, the bulk of free “Romans”; were either foreign-born freedmen or their descendants. The members of this group were mostly skilled and/or literate men who had been able to buy their freedom. We can get an idea of the extent of this group through literary and epigraphic sources. By far, the greatest increase in population came from hordes of agricultural slaves. Contrary to the free-born and freedmen, the vast majority of this group were no more than nameless “ghosts.” Lacking the necessary skills and literacy to obtain their freedom, they toiled their lives away on the wretched latifundi, huge farms or ranches where there was little hope of escape or freedom. Because no records survive concerning these slaves, it is impossible to estimate their exact numbers with any hope of accuracy. When the agricultural slaves do make their brief appearances in history, it is usually in connection with a violent revolt. During the Third Servile War (73-71 BC), that led by the famous Spartacus, it was said that his army numbered about 150,000 at its height. Most, though not all, of the members of this slave army came from the latifundi. This number, however, cannot be used to estimate the slave population. Most of the rebel slaves would have come from a relatively small number of ranches. Most of the latifundi would have been unaffected by the revolt. Likewise, a large percentage of Spartacus’s army was not servile at all but, rather were poor, landless, free-born Italians who had different motivations for joining the revolt. The slaves were seeking freedom and a way to return to their native homes. The free-born rebels were spurred on by the possibility of loot and revenge against the Romans. There were considerable numbers of Italics (Samnites, Campanians, Lucanians, Bruttii) who had lost their homes and livelihoods as a result of the Roman victory in the Social War (91-88 BC).While the majority of slaves on the latifundi were likely to be foreign-born, there would have been a considerable number of Italian slaves as well. Unwanted children, especially those born to free, but destitute, families were exposed to the elements soon after their birth. Although cruel by today’s standards, exposure was a widespread and necessary practice in the ancient world. Crop yields were at best erratic. Droughts and crop failures meant starvation and well as epidemics. In order for some to stay alive, others, especially infants, had to be sacrificed. By tradition and law, anyone who came upon one of these exposed babies could claim it as a slave, whether it had been born to free parents or not. There were also a considerable number of free Italians who sold themselves into slavery because of crippling debt. By the 1st Century BC, as the Republic was giving way to the chaos of civil war, the majority of “Roman” citizens would have been freedmen or servile in ancestry. The shop-keepers and artisans addressed by Marc Antony as “friends, Romans, and countrymen” in the Roman Forum would have actually had little in common with that great Roman noble. Another factor which blurred the social lines between the slave and free populations of Italy was in the act of manumission itself. Although slaves could “marry” one another after a fashion, the law did not recognize these bonds as legal. Thus, although slaves were manumitted, their spouses and offspring did not automatically gain their own freedom. It was usually up to the freedman to earn enough money to purchase their families if possible. Also, if an offspring were born to free/slave couple, it would automatically become a slave. People could only consider themselves freeborn if both of their parents were free at the time of birth. Contrary to what some might think, Roman masters were not particularly pleased to have their slaves produce offspring. While this may have added wealth to the master, it also created an additional economic burden. A certain amounts of basics had to be purchased for the maintainance of every slave. A master might expect a return on this expense through the labor of a slave old enough to work. With an infant, however, there was not only the direct expense of sheltering and feeding it for years, but also the loss time expended by the mother to provide care. Economically, it was far less costly to buy a slave old enough to work than to breed them domestically. Despite economic and legal obstacles, however, slaves, especially those in urban settings, tended to create their own families on an increasing basis. This was especially true among the wealthier, skilled slaves. Thus, while the modern racist claim that the southern Italian population descends from the slaves brought to Italy in ancient times, it neglects to add that the slaves in question were often the better educated and well-skilled. There still remained other social obstacles for a freedman wishing for his own family. Freedmen could not marry outside of their class and there were relatively few women who were manumitted in comparison to men. The fortunate few who did create families also had to deal with the economic burden of raising children. Surviving evidence indicates that freedman families were normally small, with only one of two children.Smikrinas: An athlete of ancient Taras. He was victor in the stadion at the Olympian Games in 352 BC.Smiriglio, Mariano: (b. 1561, in Palermo; d. 1636). Architect and painter.Social War or Marsic War: [Lat. socii=allies], 91 B.C.-88 B.C., struggle brought on by demands of the Italian allies for the privileges of Roman citizenship. The allies had fought on the side of Rome and had helped establish Roman hegemony, but they did not have the rights of the Romans. Most Romans were greatly averse to sharing the citizenship, but Marcus Livius Drusus in 91 B.C. proposed laws granting it to the allies. He was murdered, and a coalition of the allies, chief among them the Marsi, arose in desperation, waged war against Rome, and planned an Italian federation. Led by Quintus Pompaedius Silo and Caius Papius Mutilus, they gained some success but could not overcome the power of Rome. The revolt died down only after Lucius Julius Caesar secured passage of a law (90 B.C.) granting citizenship to allies who had not joined the revolt and to those who laid down their arms immediately. The allies were divided, and the revolt ceased. Citizenship was soon given to all of them.Sogliano Cavour (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 4,146 (2006e).Solarino (SR): A commune in the province of Siracusa.Soleto (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 5,551 (2006e).Solimena, Francesco: (b. 1657, at Canale [AV]; d. 1747). Architect and painter.Solofra (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 12,061 (2006e).Solopaca (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 4,104 (2006e).Somma Vesuviana (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.Sommatino (CL): A commune in the province of Caltanissetta. Population: 7,471 (2006e).Sorbo San Basile (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 941 (2006e).Sorbo Serpico (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 567 (2006e).Sporianello (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.Soriano Calabro (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.Sorrento (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.Sortino (SR): A commune in the province of Sirausa.Sosistratos: Ruler of Akragas (r280 BC).Soter, St.: Pope. (r c166-174/175).Sottintendente: A provincial official in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. The equivalent of a lieutenant governor, the Sottintendente, administered one of the 38 districts (distretti) into which the Regno was divided. The Sottintendente resided in the principal town of his district and acted as the assistant to the Intendente (provincial governor).Soverato (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 9,750 (2006e).Soveria Mannelli (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 3,284 (2006e).Soveria Simeri (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 1,642 (2006e).Sozzi, Olivio: (b. 1690, at Palermo; d. 1765). Painter.Spada, Mario: fl. 1694. An architect from Ragusa in Sicily.Spadafora (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Spadafora, Antonio: fl. 1585-1594. Painter from Palermo.Spadafora, Giuseppe: fl. 16th century. An architect and sculptor from Palermo.Spadetta, Almerindo: (d. April, 1894, Naples). Librettist.Spadola (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.Spara, Hieronyma (La Spara): (b. Sicily; fl. 2nd half of the 17th century). Poisoner. A student of the infamous Tofana of Palermo, she established a faction of the Secret Poisoners society in Rome during the time of Pope Alexander VII. Her group consisted of several young women who successfully murdered their husbands using the dreaded Aqua Tofana poison.Sparanise (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  7,422 (2006e).Specchia (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 5,003 (2006e).Sperlinga (EN): A commune in the province of Enna. Population: 923 (2006e).Sperone (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 3,475 (2006e).Spezzano Albanese (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 7,182 (2006e).Spezzano della Sila (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 4,736 (2006e).Spezzano Piccolo (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 2,095 (2006e).Spilinga (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.Spina, Rosario: fl. 19th century. A painter from Acireale (CT).Spinazzola (BA): A commune in the province of Bari: Population: 7,165 (2006e). It will become a part of the new province of Barletta-Andria-Trani when it becomes official in 2009.Spinelli, Giuseppe: (b. Feb. 1, 1694, in Naples; d. Apr. 12, 1763, in Ostia). Ecclesiatic. Ordained a priest in 1724, he was elevated to cardinal in 1735. He served as archbishop of Naples from 1734 to 1754.Spinete (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 1,425 (2006e).Spinoso (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Spoleto, Duchy of: A medieval Lombard state founded by Duke Faroald in cAD 570. Part of Abruzzo was included in its territory.Spoltore (PE): A commune in the province of Pescara.Spongano (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 3,832 (2006e).Squillace (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 3,384 (2006e).Squinzano (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 15,040 (2006e).Staiti (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio di Calabria.Staletti (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 2,391 (2006e).Statia: Ancient Roman gens or clan. Of Samnite or Lucanian origins, most of its influential members were centered in southern Italy. One of its early members, T. Statius, served as tribune of the plebs in Rome in 475 BC. The first member of the gens to hold a consulship was L. Statius Murcus who received the honor in AD 142.Statilia: An ancient Lucanian family which became a Roman gens or clan. They began to figure in Roman affairs during the last years of the Republic, with the most influential members bearing the surname of Taurus. T. Statilius Taurus became a consul in AD 37.Statilius, Marius: (fl. late 3rd Century BC). Lucanian commander. In 216 BC, as a commander (prefect) of a troop of Lucanian cavalry in the Roman army, he fought against Hannibal.Statilius, Stenius (or Statius): (fl. AD 1st part of the 3rd Century BC). A Lucanian leader who attacked Greek Thurii. As a consequence, in 285 BC, the Roman tribune of plebs, C. Aelius, issued a condemnation of Statilius. In thanks for this the people of Thurii awarded Aelius a statue and a golden crown.Statilius Taurus: (fl. late 1st Century BC). Roman military commander and statesman (Consul 26 BC). Having served as consul suffectus in 37 BC, he served in Sicily in the following year against Sextus Pompey. He commanded Antony’s fleet which sailed from Tarentum and later secured Africa for Octavian. His son, T. Statilius Taurus, served as consul in AD 11.Statte (TA): A commune in the province of Taranto.Statius: (d. 43 BC). Samnite leader. Executed by order of the Second Triumvirate, he is probably identified with C. Papirius Mutilus, one of the principal Italian leaders in the Social War.Statius “the Elder”, Publius Papinius: (b. c AD 50, in Neapolis; d, bef. AD 90). Poet.Statius “the Younger”, Publius Papinius: (b.). Poet.Statius Gellius: (fl. late 4th Century BC). Samnite general. In 305 BC, he was defeated and captured by the Romans.Statius Metius: (fl. late 3rd Century BC). Italian military leader. In 214 BC, during the Second Punic War, he was an officer in Hannibal’s army. He commanded the garrison of 2,000 Campanians and 700 Carthaginians in defense of Casilinum. There is no record of his fate after the capture of that city by the Romans.Stefanaconi (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.Stefano: (fl. late 8th Century). Ecclesiastic. He was a cardinal and Bishop of Capua (r786-?).Stefano: (d. 1025). Ecclesiastic. He served as Bishop of Caiazzo and Abbot of S. Salvatore in Capua.Stefano di Martino: fl. 1475-1495. Sculptor from Palermo.stele: a slab or inscription.Stella Cilento (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Stephen I, St.: Pope. (rMay 12, 254-Aug 2, 257).Stephen “II”: Pope. (rMar 23-25, 752). Dying only 3 days after his election, he had not yet been consecrated as a bishop. Because of this, his inclusion in the official list of popes is ambiguous. He was recognized as a legitimate only during the 16th century. In 1961, he was removed again. This has cause a problem in determining the numbering of later popes using the name of Stephen.Stephen II (III): Pope. (rMar 26, 752-Apr. 26, 757).Stephen III (IV): Pope. (rAug 1, 767-Jan 24, 772).Stephen IV (V): Pope. (rJune 12, 816-Jan 24, 817).Stephen V (VI): Pope. (r885-Sept 14, 891).Stephen VI (VII): Pope. (rMay 22, 896-Aug 897).Stephen VII (VIII): Pope. (rDec 928-Feb 931).Stephen VIII (IX): Pope. (rJuly 14-Oct 942).Stephen IX (X): Pope. (rAug 2, 1057-Mar 29, 1058).Stephen (Stefano): Bishop of Naples (AD 898). He was the son of Gregory III (Duke of Naples rAD 865-870), and the brother of Duke Sergius III (r870-877) and Athanasius II (Bishop and Duke of Naples 877-898). He succeeded Athanasius as Bishop in 898.stereobate: the visible base of a building, normally part of an ancient Greek temple.Sternatia (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 2,583 (2006e).Stidda (“bright star”): a criminal federation of gangs in southern and eastern Sicily created in the 1990s by “men of honor” who had been expelled from the mafia. Based in Gela, its members are called stiddari or stiddaroli, and its gangs are known as “clans” rather than families. Although not as tightly organized as the mafia, it is dedicated to toppling and replacing the Cosa Nostra. The organization’s name derives from the 5-pointed star which is tattooed on the right hand of each initiate.Stigliano (MT): A commune in the province of Matera. Population: 5,259 (2006e).Stignano (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio di Calabria.Stilo (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio di Calabria.Stio (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Stornara (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 4,706 (2006e).Stornarella (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 4,986 (2006e).stornello: A variety of Sicilian folk song.storia: A variety of southern Italian long song.strategos (pl. strategoi): an ancient Greek general.Streets of old Naples: Prior to the conquest of the Two Sicilies in 1860, the principal streets in Naples were known as Strade; after 1860, Vie. Cross-streets were designated as Vichi, while the narrow lanes which ascended hills were called Calate or Salite. Some of these last lanes were so steep that they required steps, and were called Gradoni.Striano (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.Stromboli: an island of the Isole Eolie (Lipari Islands).Strongoli (KR): A commune in the province of Crotone. Population: 6,172 (2006e)Strongyle: One of the seven principal islands of the Aeoliae Insulae (Aeolian Islands), off the N coast of Sicily. This volcanic island was identified as the home of Aeolus, mythical ruler of the winds, because its inhabitants could tell which way the wind was about to blow by looking at the smoke rising from the volcano.  Mod. Stromboli.strina: A variety of Calabrian multi-part song.stucco: a plaster made from water, lime, sand and powdered marble. It could be used as a medium to create moldings and other elaborate interior decoration.Stupor Mundi: Literally “Wonder of the World”. A name given to Emperor Frederick II (b.1194; d.1250).Sturno (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 3,219 (2006e).Succivo (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population: 7,258 (2006e).Suessa Aurunca (mod. Sessa Aurunca [CE]): A town of the ancient Aurunci located in northern Campania.Suffragan: A diocese within an ecclesiastic province other than the Metropolitan.Sulmo: Ancient name for Sulmona.Sulmona (anc. Sulmo) (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 25,307 (2006e).Sulmona-Valva, Diocese of: A diocese in the Ecclesiastical region of Abruzzo-Molise.Suffragans:Metropolitan: L’Aquila.Conference Region: Abruzzo-Molise.Area 1,814 km˛/ mi˛):Total Population: 83,909Catholic Population:Total Priests: 76 (Diocesan: 54; Religious: 22)Permanent Deacons: 1.Male Religious:Female Religious:Parishes: 76.History:Summonte (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 1,606 (2006e).Supersano (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 4,469 (2006e).Surano (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 1,755 (2006e).Surbo (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 13,842 (2006e).surulina: A variety of bagpipe from Basilicata.Sutera (CL): A commune in the province of Caltanissetta. Population: 1,621 (2006e).Swabian Period: Royal dynasty from Swabia in Germany, ruling Sicily 1194-1265.Sybaris: ancient city of Magna Graecia, S Italy, in Bruttium, on the Gulf of Tarentum (now Taranto). It was founded in 720 B.C. by Achaeans and people from Argolis, the Troezenians. It became a wealthy Greek city, and its inhabitants were reputed to live voluptuous lives, hence the word sybaritic. The Troezenians, ejected by the Achaeans, obtained the help of neighboring Croton and destroyed the city in 510 B.C. Thurii was supposedly built on the site.Sylvia, St.: (d. AD 592). Mother of Pope St. Gregory I “the Great” (rAD 590-604). She is the patron saint of the city of Messina and of the Camaldolite Order. Feast Day: Nov. 3.Symaethis (Gtk Symaithis): a Naiad nymph of the river Symaethos in Sicily. By the nature-god Pan-Faunus, she became the mother of the unfortunate shepherd boy Acis (see which).Symaethus (Grk Symaithos): an ancient river-god in eastern Sicily mentioned by Ovid in his Metamorphosis. The headwaters of his river rose in the Nerodes Mountains in the NE part of the island. Its waters flowed around the foot of Aitna (Mt. Etna) and emptied into the Mediterranean Sea to the south of Katane (mod. Catania).Symilos: an athlete of ancient Neapolis (Naples). He was victor in the Stadion at the Olympian Games in 248 BC.Symmachos: an athlete of ancient Messene in Sicily. He was victor in the Stadion at the Olympian Games in 428 BC and 424 BC.Symmachus, St.: Pope. (rNov 22, 498-July 19, 514).Syracuse: The name is believed to derive from a non-Greek (perhaps Phoenician) verb serah (= to feel ill). This may reflect the fact that the original site of the city was located near a swamp.                Ancient Syracuse was so great in size and population at its height that each of its four quarters (Ortygia, Achradina, Tyche, and Neapolis) rivaled the size of other cities.                The city’s vast wealth derived in part from its exports which included cheese, tallow, grain, textiles, and ceramics.Timeline of Rulers of SyracuseGelon I (son of Deinomenes, brother of Hieron I and Thrasybulus)485 – 478 BCHieron I (son of Deinomenes, brother of Gelon I and Thrasybulus)478 – 467 BCThrasybulus (son of Deinomenes, brother of Gelon I & Hieron I)467 – 466 BCRepublic466 – 415 BCHermocrates415 – 410 BCDiocles410 – 407 BCDaphnaeus407 – 406 BCDionysius I406 – 367 BCDionysius II (first reign)367 – 357 BCDion357 – 354 BCCallippus354 – 352 BCHipparinus352 – 350 BCNysaeus350 – 346 BCDionysius II (restored)346 – 345 BCHicetas I345 – 343 BCTimoleon343 – 337 BCSosistratus I337 – 322 BCAgathocles322 – 289 BCHicetas II289 – 280 BCThoenon280 – 279 BCSosistratus II279-278 BCPyrrhus I (King of Epirus)278 – 276 BCHieron II276 – 215 BCHieronymus215 – 214 BCDeinomenes214 – 213 BCHepicydes213 – 212 BCConquered by Rome and merged with the province of Sicily212 BC Syracusia: A famous ship designed in c240 BC by Archimedes and built by Archias of Corinth for King Hieron II of Syracuse. Believed to have been 55 meters (180.4 feet) in length, it would have been the largest transport vessel ever built in antiquity. The Syracusia proved to be too large to be practical for the Syracusan ruler because its great size may it impossible to fit even the great harbor of Syracuse. Hieron finally gave the ship to his ally Ptolemy III of Egypt who renamed it the Alexandria.                The ship was a marvel even by today’s standards, built from pine and fir taken mostly from the slopes of Mt. Etna, and some secondary wood from mainland Italy. Cordage was brought from Spain, and hemp and pitch came from the Rhone valley in Gaul. In all, the equivalent of 60 conventional trireme ships went into the construction of the Syracusia. The labor of 300 shipwrights was engaged to create the ship. The planks of the ship’s hull were covered with plates of lead, and each plank was held together with brass nails. Propulsion for the ship was provided by 20 banks of oars.                The Syracusia contained eating salons, with enough room in each for 4 to 15 couches. There was a galley, a gymnasium, walkways, gardens, a library, baths, and even a shrine dedicated to Venus. The library had walls lined with well-made bookcases and a sundial on the roof. The ship had one of Archimedes’ water-lifting screws as a bilge pump. The ship had room for 142 passengers and 400 soldiers. 
TTabula Bantina: See Bantine Table.Tagliacozzo (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 6,814 (2006e).tammorriata (tammuriata): Campanian couple-dance. It is usually accompanied by lyric songs called strambotti, and tammorra tambourines.tammuriata: See tammorriata.Tancred (de Hauteville): b. c AD 990; d. AD 1041. A minor baron in Normandy, he is best-known as the father of several sons who played important roles in the Norman conquest of southern Italy and the foundation of the kingdom of Sicily. Some sources state that his two wives were both daughters of Duke Richard I of Normandy, but this appears to have been a 16th Century fiction, perhaps designed to give the family line nobler roots.The Children of Tancred de HautevilleBy his first wife Muriel (or Muriella, Moriella, Moriellam):William Iron Arm, count of Apulia (1042-46)Drogo, count of Apulia (1046-51)Humphrey, count of Apulia (1051-57)Geoffrey, count of the Capitanate (d.1071)Serlo I, heir to the family estates in Normandy.By his second wife Fressenda (or Fedesenda, Fresendis):Robert Guiscard, count of Apulia (1057-59) and duke of Apulia (1059-85)Mauger, count of the Capitanate (1056-59)William, count of the Principate (1056-80)Aubrey (Alberic, Alberad, Alvered, Alvred, or Alfred), remained in NormandyHubert (Humbert), remained in NormandyTancred, remained in NormandyRoger I “Bosso”, Great Count of Sicily (1071-1101)Fressenda, wife of Richard, count of Aversa & prince of Capua Tancred: (d. Feb. 20, 1194). King of Sicily (r.1189-1194).Taormina (anc. Tauromenium) (ME): A commune (204m) in the province of Messina. Area: 13 km˛. Population: 10,863 (2005e).History: Ancient Tauromenium was founded in 403 BC by Dionysius I to replace the destroyed Naxos. In 358 BC, it received a colony on Naxian Greeks planted there by the tyrant Andromachus. Andromachus warmly welcomed Timoleon when he land at Tauromenium and supported him in his efforts to free Sicily from the other tyrants.                Tauromenium was an early supporter of the Roman republic for which it received great benefits. During the period of the Roman Civil Wars, it unfortunately threw its support to Sextus Pompey when the latter seized control of Sicily. Octavian punished the city in 35 BC by exiling the population. A new colony was settled there and Tauromenium flourished for centuries thereafter.                In AD 902, the original city was finally destroyed by the Saracens, who soon rebuilt it. In 1078, the Norman Count Roger I captured the place.Points of Interest:                Religious Monuments:                Cathedral: Dating to the 13th century, it sits on the site of an earlier basilica. Much of the surviving structure dates to restorations in the 15th and 16th centuries. The main west door was created in 1636.                Church of Sant’Agostino: Dating from 1448, it has a fine Gothic doorway. It is now the site for the Library.                Church of Sant’Antonio: Dating from the 15th century, the structure has a fine doorway. It suffered damaged in July 1943 from bambs.Taranta Peligna (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 492 (2006e).tarantate: Women who had been supposedly received the poisonous bites of tarantula spiders and then performed a ritual dance (the tarantella) to cure themselves.tarantel: An alternate term for the tarantella dance.tarantella: A couple dance performed in 6/8 time. Now found in many varieties throughout southern Italy, it had its beginnings in and around ancient Tarentum (mod. Taranto) as a ritual dance performed to cure the supposedly poisonous bite of the tarantula spider.tarantismo: Apulian term for the tarantella healing ritual.Taranto, Province of: A province of Puglia. Population: 580,189 (2007e).  Communes of Taranto ProvinceCommuneArea(km˛)Population(2007e)Population(2006e)Population(2001 census)Population(1991 census)Avetrana73.28710470767,3038,442Carosino10.79628362226,0705,959Castellaneta239.84172541730817,39317,294Crispiano111.75132831325112,97312,905Faggiano20.84351835063,5133,526Fragagnano22.04554155465,6395,482Ginosa187.06224212233822,14621,907Grottaglie101.37327463261031,89430,947Laterza159.63150421504014,99614,505Leporano15.10725471575,8105,221Lizzano46.32102841024810,1959,926Manduria178.33317083181131,74731,453Martina Franca295.42491334902348,75645,404Maruggio48.19546554865,3865,300Massafra125.52315483134330,92330,623Monteiasi9.31531852445,1995,295Montemesola16.20421242434,2774,422Monteparano3.74236123512,4112,551Mottola212.33164271650416,57516,795Palagianello43.27785577727,4837,136Palagiano69.15157891578515,81514,910Pulsano18.09105491053310,24010,216Roccaforzata5.72181517621,7561,702San Giorgio Ionico23.49159061585415,61316,081San Marzano di San Giuseppe19.00907990518,8308,703Sava44.05170521718216,16316,579Statte92.70146661467814,58514,477Taranto217.50196369197582202,033217,809Torricella26.64420741704,0824,006Total2,437580,189580,676579,806589,576 Taranto (TA): A commune and provincial capital of the province of Taranto in Puglia. The earliest name of the city, Taras, may derive from the Illyrian word darandos (= “oak”), so-called because of the abundance of that type of tree. Another theory, however, suggests that the name derives from the Indo-European root ter- or tor- (= “current”).tarantolati: An Apulian variety of the tarantella healing ritual.Taras: An ancient sea god who had a cult center at the Great city of Taras/Tarentum in Magna Graecia.tarentella: An alternate term for the tarantella.tarentule: An alternate term for the tarantella.tarě: a coin used principally in Sicily prior to the conquest of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. It was the equivalent of 20 grani, 40 tornesi, and, until 1784, 0.8737 lire. From 1784 to 1814, it was equivalent in value to 0.08497 lire.Tarsia (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 2,284 (2006e).Taurano (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 1,604 (2006e).Taurasi (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 2,689 (2006e).Taurisano (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 12,525 (2006e).Tauromenium: A ancient wine produced in eastern Sicily. It was said to be of high quality and there is evidence that it drunk at Pompeii.Tavenna (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 906 (2006e).Taverna (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 2,650 (2006e).Taviano (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 12,678 (2006e).Teana (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Teano (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  12,765 (2006e).Teanum Sidicinum (mod. Teano [CE]): ancient capital of the Sidicini, it was captured by the Samnites in the 4th Century BC, and later taken by the Romans. Under the Roman Empire it became a flourishing city, second in Campania only to Capua.Teate: Ancient name for Chieti.Teate, Duchy of: See Chieti.Teggiano (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Telemachus: Ruler of Akragas (r554-550 BC).Telese Terme (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 6,329 (2006e).Telesphorus, St: Pope. (rAD 125-136 or 138).Tellus: an ancient Italic/Roman earth goddess, also called Terra or Terra Mater (Mother Earth).Temesa: An ancient colony in Bruttium founded by Aetolian Greeks in the 6th century BC. Although mentioned by Strabo who noted the importance of its copper, its location is now uncertain. During the 4th century BC, it was seized by the Bruttians but survived until its abandonment during the 2nd Punic War. In 194 BC, the Romans found the colony of Tempsa on the site of Temesa.Tempsa (Temesa; possibly also Nuceria): An ancient city of Bruttium, identified with modern Nocera Terinese (CZ). It appears that the earliest version of the name was Temesa, an Oscan word derived from the Indo-European *tem(e)- (‘dark’).Teodoro: Bishop of Capua (r?). His term fell sometime between Ambrogio (740-744) and Stefano (786-?).Teofania di Adamo: A possible alternate name of the infamous poisoner Tofana of Palermo.Teora (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 1,565 (2006e).Teramo, Province of: A province in the region of Abruzzo.Communes of Teramo ProvinceCommuneArea(km˛)Population(2007e)Population(2006e)Population(2001 census)Population(1991 census)Alba Adriatica9.501154911341103899365Ancarano14.411898189717741753Arsita34.049219409691061Atri91.4411201112341126011378Basciano18.642498248823812228Bellante49.887283724169356296Bisenti30.892061209122052511Campli73.877522759572667356Canzano16.881861186018091802Castel Castagna17.72540536539609Castellalto33.827231706766375866Castelli49.731274130213911600Castiglione Messer Raimondo30.832398243025702590Castilenti23.521615160916241635Cellino Attanasio43.972658269227662936Cermignano26.091881190319702196Civitella del Tronto77.655402544152445421Colledara19.862265226621992155Colonnella21.743495343732723098Controguerra22.732491254124802494Corropoli21.984195408537523691Cortino62.727747668471026Crognaleto124.181537155215491778Fano Adriano35.43419413392432Giulianova27.3322383219552140021865Isola del Gran Sasso d’Italia83.264961494148834952Martinsicuro14.321563911711342812078Montefino18.471159805911841259Montorio al Vomano53.378061344680488918Morro d’Oro28.003468866533173015Mosciano Sant’Angelo48.258728479483137545Nereto7.014850687144254428Notaresco37.986873170867706502Penna Sant’Andrea11.04171431517611673Pietracamela44.3230013928312350Pineto37.74140896471309511980Rocca Santa Maria61.2363223831698849Roseto degli Abruzzi52.802404492272297821101Sant’Egidio alla Vibrata18.249415541588178004Sant’Omero33.9853981526452745119Silvi20.4415329527851447812754Teramo151.885326316625102351756Torano Nuovo10.191664274216841712Torricella Sicura54.082724874926922645Tortoreto22.968893149278367040Tossicia25.291474116514971456Valle Castellana133.9411581523012781574Total1,947.64301,188298,789287411279852 Teramo (TE): A commune in the province of Teramo.Teramo-Atri, Diocese of: A diocese in the Ecclesiastical Region of Abruzzo-Molise.Suffragans:Metropolitan: Pescara-Penne.Conference Region:  Abruzzo-Molise.Area: 1,480 km˛/ mi˛Total Population: 217,962.Catholic Population:Total Priests: 187(Diocesan: 126; Religious: 61)Permanent Deacons: 11.Male Religious:Female Religious:Parishes: 186.History:Terina: A city of ancient Bruttium identified with modern Lamezia Terme (CZ). The name derives from an Eastern Italic word meaning “piece of land”, related to the Indo-European root *(s)ter- (‘stiff, solid’).Terlizzi (BA): A commune in the province of Bari: Population: 27,422 (2006e).Terme Vigliatore (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Terminator: an official or “master of ceremonies” in some Sicilian cathedrals.Termini Imerese (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.Termoli (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 31,209 (2006e).Termoli-Larino, Diocese of: A diocese in the Ecclesiastical Region of Abruzzo-Molise.Suffragans:Metropolitan: Campobasso-Boiano.Conference Region:  Abruzzo-MoliseArea: 1,424 km˛/ mi˛Total Population: 103,121Catholic Population:Total Priests: 68 (Diocesan: 62; Religious: 6)Permanent Deacons: 8Male Religious:Female Religious:Parishes: 51.History:Terra (also Terra Mater or Tellus): An ancient Italic/Roman earth mother goddess.Terra di Lavoro (or Lavora): A province of the former Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. It was situated at the extreme northwest of the mainland portion of the Regno, bordering the Sea of Tuscany. Its territory encompassed part of ancient Campania.Terranova da Sibari (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 5,234 (2006e).Terranova di Pollino (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Terranova Sappo Minulio (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio di Calabria.Terrasini (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.Terravecchia (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 969 (2006e).Territorial Abbey: An abbey with some territory which functions in a similar manner as a diocese. The abbot is the Ordinary for the jurisdiction.Terzigno (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.Teura: An ancient town in Bruttium, identified with modern Tiriolo (CZ). The area around the town was called the Ager Teuranus. The name derives from the Indo-European root IE root *teu- (‘fat, strong”).Teverola (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  12,098 (2006e).Thalia (Thaleia): A nymph connected with ancient Mt. Aitna (Etna) in eastern Sicily. She was a daughter of Hephaestus. One of the many love interests of Zeus, she feared being discovered by Hera, Zeus’s wife. She thus went into hiding underground where she became the mother of the Palici, the twin gods who presided over the sacred springs-geysers on Mt. Etna.Theodore (Theodorus) I: Pope. (rNov 24, 642-May 14, 649).Theodore (Theodorus) II: Pope. (rDec 897).Theodorus (Theodoros): ( b. Tarentum; fl. 4th century BC). Dancer. At some time during the campaigns of Alexander the Great, Theodorus accompanied Philoxenus in Asia Minor. When Philoxenus wished to purchase two slave boys for Alexander from Theodorus he wrote to the king for permission. Alexander not only refused to agree the transaction, he severely rebuked Philoxenus and added a general condemnation of Theodorus.Theoxene: (fl. late 4th/early 3rd centuries BC). She was the wife of Agathocles, tyrant of Syracuse.Therasia: an ancient Greek name used by Pliny the Elder (iii.14) for the Aeolian island of Vulcano, north of Sicily. The Romans adopted the name and it eventually evolved into the personal feminine name Theresa.Thermae: Roman baths.iThermae Selenuritiae: See Aquae Labodes.Theron I: Ruler of Akragas (r550 BC-?).Theron II: Ruler of Akragas (r488-472 BC). He was victor in the Tethrippon in the Olympian Games in 476 BC.Thomas Aquinas, St. (San Tommaso da Aquino): (b. 1225, Castello di Roccasecca, near Aquino, in the Kingdom of Sicily; d. Mar. 7, 1274, at Fossanova Abbey, Lazio, Italy). Philosopher, theologian, scholar. He was a “Doctor of the Church” (Doctor Angelicus, Doctor Universalis), often considered the greatest theologian of Roman Catholicism.                Thomas was born into the important noble family of the Counts of Aquino and, through his mother, was related to the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II (His father was a nephew of Emperor Frederick I “Barbarossa”, the father of Frederick II). His father’s brother, Sinibald, was abbot of Monte Cassino. At an early age, Thomas’s family decided that he should follow a religious career and sent him to be trained by the Benedictines at Monte Cassino. At age 10, he was enrolled in the University of Naples, remaining there for six years. It was at this time that Thomas became strongly influenced by the Dominican Order and left the University at age 16 to go to Rome. Enroute, however, he was intercepted by his family who disapproved of his decision. He was brought back to his parents’ castle, where he was held against his will. A year or so later, Pope Innocent IV interceded on his behave and Thomas was freed. At the age of 17, he entered the Dominican order.                Thomas continued his education at Cologne and Paris, finally graduating as a bachelor of theology. He entered a career as a teacher and a supporter of Aristotelian science.                The influence Thomas had on the Roman Catholic Church cannot be stressed enough. His most important work, the Summa Theologiae, is often considered second in importance only to the Bible itself.                Even during his own lifetime, Thomas was considered exceptional. He refused attempts to make him archbishop of Naples and abbot of Monte Cassino, preferring his academic work.                He was a strong believer in mysticism, especially after having his mystic experience while celebrating Mass on December 6, 1273. According to later sources it was said he heard a voice speak to him from the cross complimenting him on his writing. Because of this, he ceased working on his great Summa Theologiae, believing that God was trying to tell him to leave it as it then was. It was also said that on at least one occasion, he seemed to levitate off the ground.                In January 1274, Thomas received a directive from Pope Gregory X to attend the Second Council of Lyons. Although in poor health, he set out on the arduous journey. While enroute he realized that he was dying and attempted, without success, to reach a Dominican house. When this was found to be impossible, he was brought to the Cistercian monastery of Fossa Nuova in Lazio, where he died a few weeks later on March 7, 1274. The monks of the monastery, seeking to take advantage of Thomas’s death, had his body quickly dismembered and the flesh boiled away. The bones could then be sold as holy relics.                Thomas’s family connections to the Hohenstaufen dynasty brought him under suspicion when the French Charles I of Anjou seized the Sicilian throne in 1266. Dante, in his Divine Comedy (Purg. xx.69), as well as other writers, claimed that Thomas’s death was the result of poisoning, secretly ordered by Charles.                Thomas was canonized as a saint by Pope John XXII on July 18, 1323.Thoosa: a sea nymph of Sicily, a daughter of Phorcys. By the god Poseidon, she became the mother of the monstrous Cyclops Polyphemus. The sister of Scylla and Echidna, she was, like them, often depicted as a mermaid. Her name derives from the Greek thoôsa or thoos meaning “swift”, and it is believed that she originally was a goddess who presided over dangerous swift ocean currents.Thrasydaeos: Ruler of Akragas (r472-470BC).Thurii: ancient city of Magna Graecia, S Italy, in Bruttium, on the Gulf of Tarentum (now Taranto). It was founded by Pericles in 443 B.C. to replace ruined Sybaris. New Greek colonists came, among them the city planner Hippodamus, Herodotus and Lysias. Thurii became an ally of Rome and was pillaged (204 B.C.) by Hannibal. Rome revived (193 B.C.) the colony, but it did not thrive.Thucles: the oikistos, or leader of the Greek colonists, who founded Naxos in Sicily in c734 BC.Tiggiano (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 2,896 (2006e).Timaeus: (b. c.345 BC, in Tauromenium, Sicily; d. c250 BC). Historian. The son of Andromachus, tyrant of Tauromenium, he was forced to flee from his home when Agathocles captured the city in 312 BC. He resettled at Athens, remaining there for the next 50 years. In c260 BC, he returned to Sicily, residing at the court of Hiero II in Syracuse for the last decade of his life. His principal works were a History of Sicily and a History of Pyrrhus. The first work covered Sicilian history from earliest times until the death of Agathocles in 289 BC. The second work picked up where the second left off and continued to the year 272 BC.  Timaeus drew information from many of earlier historians and supplemented them with inscriptions and official records. He was the first Greek historian to create a standardized system of chronology based on the Olympiads. Although he strived for chronological accuracy, he relied almost exclusively of written records rather than first-hand information. He was also highly prejudiced in his opinions of various historical figures, praising some to excess while ruthlessly condemning others. This lack of objectivity caused later historians like Polybius to criticize his work. He showed a special contempt towards Agathocles, though this was understandable in light of his own experiences with him.Timasitheos: an athlete of ancient Kroton. He was victor in wrestling at the Olympian Games in 512 BC.Time calculation: Prior to the Risorgimento, time was calculated using a 24 hour clock. The day began as sunset (referred to as Ave Maria) and progressed from 1 to 24 o’clock. Because the actual time of sunset varied throughout the year, clocks were readjusted every two weeks. After the unification of Italy, this practice was officially replaced by the standard method of time-keeping with each day beginning at midnight. The old system, however, remained in common use especially among the lower classes. It long remained in use in Sicily.Timoleon: (b. c394 BC, Corinth; d. 337 BC, Syracuse). Liberator of Sicily. Born into one of Corinth’s most notable families, Timoleon was praised for the great courage he showed in battle when he saved the life of his brother Timophanes at great risk to himself. Later, however, when Timophanes attempted to overthrow the democratic government of Corinth and set up a tyranny, Timoleon was forced to kill his kill. This action created a dilemma for the Corinthians. On one hand, Timoleon had saved their democracy, but on the other he had committed fratricide, one of the worst crimes in the Greek world, to do so. In 344 BC, while this debate was still unresolved, a deputation from Syracuse arrived at Corinth. The envoys desperately request help from the Corinthians to settle the terrible factional conflict that was then tearing Syracuse and the rest of Greek Sicily apart. For the Corinthians this request was a perfect way to settle their own problems over Timoleon’s fate. It was decided that he should be sent to Sicily at the head of a small force in an attempt to bring peace there. There were those who must have honestly believed that Timoleon’s talents could accomplish this seemingly impossible undertaking, while others believed that it would prove to be a suicide mission. Either way, their own problem over Timoleon’s fate was solved.                At the time of Timoleon’s expedition, Greek Sicily was in the grip of a contest between Hicetas and Dionysius the Younger over the control of Syracuse. The Siciliot Greek population, which had suffered so greatly from this conflict, saw Timoleon as a savior. Despite the small size of his force, he was able to drive both of the would-be tyrants from Syracuse. He then set about returning the stricken city to normalcy and peace. Nearly depopulated by the violent chaos of the previous years, Syracuse needed a new influx of people if it were to survive. Timoleon sent out word that all those who had suffered exile were now free to return home. He also encouraged new colonists from the other cities of Greek Sicily, from Italy, and from mainland Greece to relocate to Syracuse. For the next two years Timoleon worked tirelessly on rebuilding Syracuse’s size and strength, on rewriting the city’s legal codes, and on establishing a new constitution based on democratic principles.                Timoleon’s achievements soon caught the attention of the Carthaginians who controlled the western portion of Sicily. It had been to their advantage to have Greek Sicily weak and divided. They were able to maintain firm control over their holdings free from any threat by the Greeks and, at the same time, exert their own influence on the petty tyrants who dominated the Siciliot Greek cities. Now, the stability which Timoleon was bringing to Syracuse was seen as a serious threat to Carthaginian power. Should he return Syracuse to its former glory, he could use it as a base for uniting the whole of Greek Sicily. Before it was too late, the Carthaginians decided to take direct action. A massive army, 80,000 strong, was organized and placed under the command of Hasbrubal and Hamilcar. This force was assigned the mission of invading eastern Sicily and ending Greek power there once and for all. Faced with this threat, Timoleon was able to raise a force of only about 12,000 men. Nonetheless, in 339 BC, he marched to face the invaders. When the battle as the river Crimissus began, the Carthaginians seemed to had all the advantages and expect a quick and easy victory. The battle, however, ended in one of the greatest victories ever won by a Greek army over a non-Greek “barbarian” force. The key to the Greek victory was simple; Timoleon was a military genius who few generals could ever hope to equal.                The victory won at the Crimissus left Carthaginian Sicily helpless. Timoleon might have seen fit to continue marching west and sweep the Carthaginians from Sicily just as they had wished to do to the Greeks. But Timoleon was not interested in such projects. He knew that his own force was probably too small to have achieved a complete victory over the Carthaginians. And it would probably be only a matter of time before Carthage dispatching a new army to the island to try to regain its lost territory. He therefore concluded a new treaty with the Carthaginians. The river Halycus was fixed as the border between the two powers and Carthage was to give up its support of the petty Greek tyrants.                Timoleon could now turn his attentions back to restoring Greek Sicily. He successfully drove Hicetas from Leontini and Mamercus from Catana, replacing their tyrannies with new constitutional democracies. Eventually, Greek Sicily was restored to peace and prosperity. When he was finally satisfied with the state of affairs, Timoleon voluntarily relinquished his powers and planned to spend the remainder of his years as a simple private citizen of Syracuse. Unfortunately, fate proved unkind to the great leader. Not long after his retirement, he was suffered complete blindness. In 337 BC, at the age of 57, he died. The people of Syracuse gave Timoleon a grand state funeral and buried him in a tomb in the city’s marketplace. The site was later embellished with a colonnade and a gymnasium was built nearby which was named the Timoleonteum in his honor.Tione degli Abruzzi (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 353 (2006e).Tiriolo (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 4,055 (2006e).Tisandros: An athlete of ancient Naxos, in Sicily. He was victor in boxing at the Olympian Games in 572 BC, 568 BC, 564 BC and 560 BC.Tisikrates: an athlete of ancient Kroton. He was victor in the Stadion at the Olympian Games in 496 BC and 492 BC.Titianus: (fl. late 4th century AD). Roman administrator. He served as governor of Sicily (consularis Siciliae) in AD 398.Tito (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Titular Bishop: A bishop not assigned as the Ordinary of a diocese. Titular sees are historical dioceses no longer in existence.Tocco Caudio (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 1,593 (2006e).Tocco da Casauria (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Todaro: a surname found in southern Italy. It derives from the Greek personal name Theodoros (Theodore).Tofana of Palermo (or perhaps Teofania di Adamo): (d.1730). Poisoner. A native of Palermo, she was a member of the dreaded clandestine society known as the Secret Poisoners. While in Palermo, she trained other women in the art poisoning, including Hieronyma Spara, who later established a faction of the society in Rome. Tofara later moved the base of her movement to Naples. She created a unique liquid poison, known as Aqua della Tofana, which she sold in small glass phials inscribed with the words “Manna of St. Nicholas of Bari” and decorated with an image of that saint. Despite her long career, she managed to remain free from arrest until she had reached an advanced age. When she learned that the authorities were seeking her, she took refuge in a monastery. When discovered she was arrested and tortured. She finally confessed to having provided poison for at least 600 murders. Her Aqua della Tofana was a highly concentrated form of arsenic, virtually undetectable in the small dose it needed to be fatal.ton, Neapolitan: a measure of weight used under the Two Sicilies. It was equal to 1,000 kilogrammes, or 2,205 lbs avoirdupois, 35 lbs lighter than the standard English ton.Tollo (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 4,243 (2006e).Tolve (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Tora e Piccilli (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  1,029 (2006e).Torano Castello (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 4,835 (2006e).Torano Nuovo (TE): A commune in the province of Teramo.Torchiara (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Torchiarolo (BR): A commune in the province of Brindisi. Population: 5,069 (2006e).Torella dei Lombardi (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 2,242 (2006e).Torella del Sannio (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 839 (2006e).Torino di Sangro (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 3,119 (2006e).Toritto (BA): A commune in the province of Bari: Population: 8,768 (2006e).Tornareccio (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 1,963 (2006e).Tornimparte (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 2,966 (2006e).Toro (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 1,511 (2006e).Torraca (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Torre Annunziata (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.Torrebruna (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 1,075 (2006e).Torrecuso (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 3,527 (2006e).Torre del Greco (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.Torre de’ Passeri (PE): A commune in the province of Pescara.Torre di Ruggiero (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 1,222 (2006e).Torregrotta (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Torre le Nocelle (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 1,356 (2006e).Torremaggiore (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 17,027 (2006e).Torrenova (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Torre Orsaia (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Torre Santa Susanna (BR): A commune in the province of Brindisi. Population: 10,606 (2006e).torre saracena: See Saracen tower.Torretta (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.Torrevecchia Teatina (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 1,493 (2006e).Torricella (TA): A commune in the province of Taranto.Torricella Peligna (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti.Torricella Sicura (TE): A commune in the province of Teramo.Torrioni (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 613 (2006e).Torrone: a popular traditional nougat confection made with honey, almonds or hazelnuts, and egg whites. There are many varieties found in different parts of Italy.Tortiglione, Paolo: (b. 1965, in Naples). Composer.Tortora (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 6,040 (2006e).Tortorella (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Tortoreto (TE): A commune in the province of Teramo.Tortorici (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Tossicia (TE): A commune in the province of Teramo.Trabia (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.Traeis fl.: A river in ancient Bruttium, identified with the modern Trionto river in the province ov Cosenza. Its name appears to derive from the Indo-European root *dreu- (‘to run’).Traetta, Tommaso: (b. 30 March 1727, Bitonto. d. 6 April 1779, Venice). Composer. He studied under Porpora and Durante at the Conservatory of St. Maria di Loreto in Naples. Moving to Rome, he came under the influence of Jommelli. In 1762, he was director of the Mannheim orchestra, and, in 1765, became director of the Conservatorio dell’Ospedaletto at Venice. His works include the opera Sofonisba.Tramonti (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Tramutola (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Trani (BA): A commune in the province of Bari: Population: 53,485 (2006e).Trapani, Province of: A province of Sicily. Population: 434,738 (2007e) Communes of Trapani ProvinceCommuneArea(km˛)Population(2007e)Population(2006e)Population(2001 census)Population(1991 census)Alcamo130.7945237450984389042621Buseto Palizzolo72.723161317031973210Calatafimi-Segesta154.797292734174967636Campobello di Mazara65.7710763108761127012570Castellammare del Golfo127.1414863148321457313515Castelvetrano206.4330394303513051830272Custonaci69.575150507948144571Erice47.3028763288872933829420Favignana37.454383431141374335Gibellina45.024468453346775027Marsala241.6482337818847778480177Mazara del Vallo275.5151369514255037747750Paceco58.2611259111661094911348Pantelleria83.027635762072247484Partanna82.4211373114071137911741Petrosino44.547545755073307329Poggioreale37.621649165217151822Salaparuta41.681771177118351889Salemi181.7111274113561157812321Santa Ninfa63.525234526450875294San Vito Lo Capo59.684108405337983567Trapani271.7270648708726834669497Valderice52.9011802116491137410613Vita8.882260228824352701Total2,462434,738434,435425121426710 Trapani (TP): A commune and provincial capital of the province of Trapani.Trappeto (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.Trasacco (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 6,143 (2006e).Trebisacce (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 9,159 (2006e).Trecase (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.Trecastagni (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 9,236 (2006e). The name means “three chestnut trees.”                The principal monument is the Chiesa Madre which was designed by Antonello Gagini. Although better known as a sculptor, Gagini skill as an architect is proven by this structure which is sometimes called “the purest Renaissance building in Sicily.”Trecchina (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Treglio (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 1,417 (2006e).Tremestieri Etneo (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 21,321 (2006e).Trenta (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 2,722 (2006e).Trentinara (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Trentola-Ducenta (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population: 15,493 (2006e).Trepuzzi (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 14,525 (2006e).Trevico (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 1,191 (2006e).Tribuzio: Bishop of Capua (rAD 461-483).Tricarico (MT): A town in the province of Matera located 65 km from Matera. Population: 6,036 (2006e); 6,115 (2004). Alt.: 698 m. Population Designation: Tricaricesi. Patron Saint: S. Potito                The origin of the town’s name is debated. According to one theory, it derives from the Latin trigarium, a racetrack for horses.                The existing town was founded in AD 849 by the Lombards as a stronghold. In 1048, the Normans made it the seat of a county.                The Cathedral of Santa Maria Assunta was constructed by Robert Guiscard in 1061. Near the town is the shrine of Santa Maria delle Fonti, the site of an annual town festival held on the 1st Sunday in May.                The frazione of Calle has its own patron saint, Madonna del Carmine (Feast Day: July 15).Tricarico, Diocese of: A diocese in the Ecclesiastical Region of Basilicata.Suffragans:Metropolitan: Potenza-Muro Lucano-Marsico Nuovo.Conference Region: Basilicata.Area:  1,237 km˛/ mi˛Total Population: 39,686Catholic Population:Total Priests: 36 (Diocesan: 30; Religious: 6)Permanent Deacons: 0.Male Religious:Female Religious:Parishes: 32History:Tricase (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 17,909 (2006e).triccheballacche: A traditional Neapolitan percussion instrument. Mallets are attached to a wooden frame is create a type of wooden clapper.Trifanum: A town of the ancient Aurunci mentioned by Livy. It was situated in the modern province of Caserta, in northern Campania, but its exact location remains uncertain.Triggiano (BA): A commune in the province of Bari: Population: 27,310 (2006e).trinacria: an ancient symbol depicting three bent legs joined at the thighs by a central head of Medusa to form a triangular shape. It’s three-corners are meant to represent the three points of the island of Sicily.Trincaria: An ancient name for Sicily. It derives from the triangular shape of the island.Trinitapoli (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 14,396 (2006e). It is one of the three communes of the province of Foggia which will be transferred to the newly created province of Barletta-Andria-Trani in 2009.triptych (Ital. trittico): a painting rendered on three adjoining wooden panels.Tripi (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.trireme: an ancient Greek warship.Trivento (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 5,168 (2006e).Trivento, Diocese of: Diocese in the Ecclesiastical Region of Abruzzo-Molise.Suffragans:Metropolitan: Campobasso-Boiano.Conference Region: Abruzzo-Molise.Area: 1,234 km˛/ mi˛Total Population: 56,105Catholic Population:Total Priests: 72 (Diocesan: 68; Religious: 4)Permanent Deacons: 1.Male Religious:Female Religious:Parishes: 58.History:Trivento (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Troia (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 7,310 (2006e).Troina (EN): A commune in the province of Enna. Population: 9,832 (2006e).trompe l’oeil: a work of art designed to trick the viewer through perspective.Tropea (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.Tufara (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso.Tufillo (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 515 (2006e).Tufino (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.Tufo (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 911 (2006e).Tuglie (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 5,299 (2006e).Turans: An Etruscan goddess equivalent to the Roman Venus.Turi (BA): A commune in the province of Bari: Population: 11,339 (2006e).Turrivalignani (PE): A commune in the province of Pescara.Tursi (MT): A commune in the province of Matera. Population: 5,327 (2006e).Tursi-Lagonegro, Diocese of: A diocese in the Ecclesiastical Region of Basilicata.Suffragans:Metropolitan: Potenza-Muro Lucano-Marsico Nuovo.Conference Region: Basilicata.Area: 2,509 km˛/ mi˛Total Population: 124,942.Catholic Population:Total Priests: 78 (Diocesan: 65; Religious: 13)Permanent Deacons: 8.Male Religious:Female Religious:Parishes: 71.History:Tusa (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Two Sicilies, Kingdom of the: The name Two Sicilies was used in the Middle Ages to mean the kingdoms of Sicily and of Naples. Alfonso V of Aragon, who in 1442 reunited the two kingdoms under his rule, styled himself king of the Two Sicilies. Under his successors the kingdoms were again separate, but the title was revived during Spanish domination (1504-1713) of both kingdoms and after the accession (1759) of a cadet branch of the Spanish line of Bourbon to Naples and Sicily. Ferdinand IV of Naples (Ferdinand III of Sicily) officially merged the two kingdoms in 1816 and called himself Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies. Both the Sicilians, who thus lost their autonomy, and the pope, who saw his theoretical suzerainty over the two kingdoms ignored, protested the change. A popular uprising (1820) instigated by the Carbonari forced Ferdinand to concede a constitution, but Austrian intervention (1821) after the Congress of Laibach restored his absolute power. The reactionary regimes of his successors Francis I, Ferdinand II, and Francis II finally ended when Sicily and Naples fell to the forces of Garibaldi in 1860. In 1861, Gaeta, Francis’s last fortress, surrendered to Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia, and the Two Sicilies became part of the kingdom of Italy.                Through most of its history, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies maintained the same overall size. In area it was about 2/3 the size England. In 1843, it was estimated that the mainland portion of the kingdom was c31,600 square miles in size, or about 2,700 square miles larger than Ireland. Another source (The New American Cyclopaedia, 1860 ed. Vol IX) put the area of the kingdom at 41,521 square miles. In 1837, it had a population of over 8 million, of which 6 million inhabited the mainland (or Neapolitan) portion of the kingdom, and the remaining 2 million lived on Sicily and its neighboring smaller islands. Other sources from about the same period give somewhat different figures. Josiah Conder (A Dictionary of Geography, Ancient and Modern. 1834) gives the kingdom an area of 43,000 square miles and a population of 7,450,000.  Henry Howard Brownell (The Eastern, or Old World: Embracing Ancient and Modern Italy. 1862) describes the Two Sicilies as having an area of 42,131 square miles (Naples: 31,621 sq. miles; Sicily: 10,510 sq. miles) and a population of 8,904,472 (Naples: 6,612,892; Sicily: 2,291,580).tyrannos (Eng. tyrant): an ancient Greek ruler who lacked hereditary rights to hold power.   UUcria (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Ugento (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 11,836 (2006e).Uggiano la Chiesa (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 4,286 (2006e).Umbriatico (KR): A commune in the province of Crotone. Population: 2,326 (2006e)Underworld Painter: ( fl c.330-c.310 BC). Vase painter. Centered in ancient Apulia, he receives his name from a famous monumental volute krater found at Canosa (Munich, Staatl. Antikensamml., 3297), with a multi-figured composition showing Pluto and Persephone in their Palace surrounded by figures of the Underworld. Art historians consider this work to be one of the most important of a group of late Apulian vases attributed to various painters that show Underworld scenes. The Underworld Painter is notable for and his individualistic treatment of the Underworld theme and his particular interest in the fate of Orpheus.Uni: An Etruscan goddess, equivalent to the Roman Juno.Urban I, St.: Pope. (r222/223-230).Urban II: Pope. (rMar 12, 1068-July 29, 1099).Urban III: Pope. (rNov 25, 1185-Oct. 19, 1187).Urban IV: Pope. (rAug 29, 1261-Oct 2, 1264).Urban V: Pope. (rSept 28, 1362-Dec 19, 1370).Urban VI: Pope. (rApr 8, 1378-Oct 15, 1389).Urban VII: Pope. (rSept 15-27, 1590).Urban VIII: Pope. (rAug 6, 1623-July 29, 1644).Uria: See Hyrium.Ursulsines: An order of nuns founded by St. Ursula of Naples.Ururi (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 2,977 (2006e).Ustica (PA): A commune and island in the province of Palermo.History: A castle was built on the island in 1761 as a protection against Barbary pirates. This brought about enough security to allow a return of a population. VVaccarini, Giovanni Battista: (b. Feb. 3, 1702 in Palermo; d. Mar. 11, 1768 in Palermo). Architect. Having studied architecture at Rome, he returned to Sicily in c1730, where he did much to advance the Sicilian Baroque style. Most of his work was centered in and around Catania, redeveloping the area hit hard by the earthquake of 1693.Vaccarizzo Albanese (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,265 (2006e).Vaccaro, Andrea: b. 1598, in Naples; d. 1670, in Naples. Painter. A pupil of Stanzioni, he was also influenced by the styles of Caravaggio and Guido. After the death of Stanzioni, Vaccaro was said to have been the greatest painter of the Neapolitan school. Among his best works was a “Holy Family” in the church of Santa Maria degli Angeli in Naples.Vaccaro, Lorenzo: (b. 1655, Napoli, d. 1706, Torre del Greco). Sculptor, architect, silversmith and painter. Originally intending to follow a legal career, he turned to art and became a pupil of Cosimo Fanzago. On Fanzago’s death in 1678, Vaccaro inherited several of his unfinished commissions., including the marble monument to Francesco Rocco in the church of the Pieta dei Turchini, Naples. He later created several bronze and silver figures in the cathedral of S Gennaro, Naples (1679), marble putti in the church of Santa Croce, Torre del Greco (1680), stucco figures in the church of Gesu delle Monache, Naples (1681-5), and two terracottas depicting the Labors of Hercules. Over the last two decades of the 17th century, Vaccaro’s workshop created several important works of art including stucco decorations (1682) in the church of S Giorgio, over life-size stucco statues of St Helena and St Constantine (both 1689) in the church of S. Giovanni Maggiore and the light and graceful stucco decoration (1693-98) of the transept and cupola of the church of S Agostino degli Scalzi. Vaccaro was in the forefront of the change from High Baroque style to the more refined treatment known as barocchetto.Vacri (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 1,803 (2006e).Vaglio Basilicata (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Vairano Patenora (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population: 6,358 (2006e).Valderice (TP): A commune in the province of Trapani.Val di Demone: A former district of Sicily, encompassing the NE portion of the island.Val di Mazzara: A former district of Sicily, encompassing the SW portion of the island.Val di Noto: A former district of Sicily, encompassing the SE portion of the island.Valdina (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Valente, Antonio: b. c1520. d. 1581. Composer and musician. Blinded in his youth, he served as Organist at San Angelo a Nilo in Naples from 1565 to 1580. He published two collections of keyboard music.Valentine (Valentinus): Pope. (rAug-Sept 827). Reigning for only a few weeks, very little is known about him. He was a Roman who was made a deacon by Pope Paschal I (r817-824) and succeeded Eugene II as Pope.Valentius, A.: (fl. 1st Century BC) the Greek interpreter of the Roman governor Verres in Sicily.Valenzano (BA): A commune in the province of Bari: Population: 18,164 (2006e).Valetium: See Baletium.Valguarnera Caropepe (EN): A commune in the province of Enna. Population: 9,832 (2006e).Valla, Lorenzo: (b. 1406, Rome; d. 1457, Rome). Scholar. He moved to Naples in 1435 where he became a teacher of rhetoric. He was soon moving in the upper social circles and became a good friend of King Alfonso I. Returning to Rome, he served as a canon at the church of St. John Lateran. His outspoken opinions earned him the enmity of many other scholars and he was ordered by the pope to leave Rome. Returning once more to Naples, he became, in 1448, private secretary to King Alfonso I. He soon found himself embroiled in a theological dispute resulting in a summons from the archbishop of Naples to appear before an assembly of the city’s clergy. Condemned by the assembly to be burned at the stake, he escaped and made his way to Rome to appeal to the pope. His appeal was successful and, instead of punishment, he was given a new appointment as a professor of rhetoric, restored to his position as a canon at St. John Lateran and appointed secretary to the pope. He authored many Latin sermons, commentaries on the New Testament, and Latin translations of Thucydides, Herodotus, and Homer.Vallata (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 3,000 (2006e).Valle Agricola (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population: 1,068 (2006e).Valle Castellana (TE): A commune in the province of Teramo.Valle dell’Angelo (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Valle di Maddaloni (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population: 2,741 (2006e).Valledolmo (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.Vallefiorita (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 2,075 (2006e).Vallelonga (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.Vallelunga Pratameno (CL): A commune in the province of Caltanissetta. Population: 3,754 (2006e).Vallesaccarda (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 1,454 (2006e).Vallo della Lucania (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Valsinni (MT): A commune in the province of Matera. Population: 1,739 (2006e).Valva (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Valverde (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 7,546 (2006e).Vanvitelli, Luigi: (b. 1700, in Naples; d. Mar. 1, 1773, in Naples). Architect. He was the son of native of Utrecht who had changed his name from the Flemish Van Witel to Vanvitelli. Vanvitelli showed such talent at an early age that he was appointed architect of St. Peter’s at Rome at the age of 26. His greatest achievement, however, was the creation of the great Royal Palace at Caserta (begun 1752).Varapodio (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio di Calabria.Vasto (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 37,657 (2006e).Vastogirardi (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 793 (2006e).vatoccu, canti a (“songs in the manner of a bell clapper”): A variety of polyphonic lyric song, usually sung by 2 or 3 women, commonly in Umbria, Marche, and Abruzzo.Vazzano (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.Veglie (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 14,259 (2006e).Velia (Hyele, Elea): An ancient Greek colony founded on the west coast of Lucania, between Poseidonia (Paestum) and Buxentum. It was situated about 3 miles from the river Hylas and possessed a good harbor. During Roman times, it was the site of several villas, including one belonging to Cicero who mentioned it in his letters. Although the city was considered to possess a healthy climate, Velia never attained the status of other resort cities like Baiae and had shrunk to a place of little importance by the time of Strabo.Venafro (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 11,514 (2006e).vendetta: (from the Latin vindicta = revenge). A feud, or often a blood-feud, between families or factions. Although often thought to be a particularly “Italian” or “Sicilian” tradition, such practices were common in societies lacking a strong central government. Such feuds were sparked when a family or clan felt itself insulted or wronged.Venetico (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Venosa (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Venticano (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 2,602 (2006e).Ventignano, Cesare Della Valle (duke of): (b. Feb. 9, 1777, at Naples). Author. His first published work, “Vesuvius” (1810), was a poem in 5 cantos. Later works included “Lalage in the Studio of Casanova” (1812) and many tragedies. One of these, Mohammed (aka The Siege of Corinth), was adapted to music by Rossini. In 1830, he turned his attention to political economy, publishing several works on the subject. He published several later works of poetry, commentaries, and comical plays poking fun at the aristocratic class to which himself belonged.Ventimiglia di Sicilia (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.Ventura, G.D. Gioachino: (b. Dec. 8, 1792, in Palermo; d. Aug. 3, 1861, in Versailles). Orator and theologian. Initially educated by the Jesuits in Palermo, he switched to the Theatine order after the suppression of the Jesuits. Becoming a talented preacher, he rose through the ranks of the order, becoming general secretary. He also served as censor of the press and became a member of the royal council of public instruction for the kingdom of Naples. It was in this last position that he introduced the new Catholic philosophy of France into Italy. In 1824, he became general of the Theatine order and moved to Rome. He was deeply involved in the public affairs of the Church. In 1848, he became involved in the revolutionary ideas, favoring the creation of a federation of Italian states, overseen by the pope. While not completely favoring the cause of the Roman Republic, he regretted the attack on Rome by General Oudinot. He left Rome and eventually retired to France, where he spent the remainder of his life.Venusia: A city of ancient Apulia.Vesuvius: According to one theory, the name for the mountain derives from a pre-Celtic root element ves (= “mountain”). Another theory, however, states that the name comes from the Oscan word vesf (= “smoke” or “steam”), referring to its volcanic nature.Verbicaro (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 3,387 (2006e).Vernole (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 7,535 (2006e).Vertinae: An ancient town in ancient Bruttium. Its exact location is unknown but it is believed to lie within the confines of the modern province of Cosenza. The name is related to the Indo-European root root *uert- (‘to turn, wind’).Verzino (KR): A commune in the province of Crotone. Population: 2,177 (2006e)Vescia: A town of the ancient Aurunci mentioned by Livy and Cicero. It was situated in the modern province of Caserta, in northern Campania, but its exact location remains uncertain.Vestini: An ancient people related to the Sabines who inhabited parts of northern Abruzzo.Viagrande (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 7,402 (2006e).Vibonati (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Vibo Valentia, Province of: A province of Calabria. Population: 167,628 (2007e). Communes of Vibo Valentia ProvinceCommuneArea(km˛)Population(2007e)Population(2006e)Population(2001 census)Population(1991 census)Acquaro25.32274528533,0463,293Arena32.35167216851,7992,069Briatico27.75403940704,1064,333Brognaturo24.50707706766833Capistrano20.94113311361,2051,309Cessaniti17.86350336053,6474,079Dasŕ6.18126912851,3081,496Dinami44.06303231903,5443,245Drapia21.52219421952,1932,444Fabrizia38.78251325672,6983,026Filadelfia30.48581258356,2838,099Filandari18.54188418921,8391,703Filogaso23.69140313981,3771,366Francavilla Angitola28.25207520722,3543,018Francica22.73167916661,6701,852Gerocarne44.93237723852,4983,127Jonadi8.72322931072,6621,861Joppolo15.31212521382,2742,462Limbadi28.90370136923,6303,627Maierato39.88231323282,2563,111Mileto34.94702870327,1577,492Mongiana20.70865881881969Monterosso Calabro18.16187918932,0172,227Nardodipace32.78143114211,4771,610Nicotera32.77651165806,7786,913Parghelia8.00138313831,3771,385Pizzo22.34901089768,6028,512Pizzoni23.23128412991,3641,664Polia31.78116011861,3191,512Ricadi22.30466446434,4294,169Rombiolo22.81471147244,7304,830San Calogero25.12457745764,6494,777San Costantino Calabro7.03229523002,3082,427San Gregorio d’Ippona12.37223122502,3382,438San Nicola da Crissa19.32149615201,5991,887Sant’Onofrio18.36316832043,2383,955Serra San Bruno39.58704170087,0686,759Simbario19.25103210831,0821,237Sorianello9.72140814371,5891,654Soriano Calabro15.17288629333,0683,240Spadola9.58814798819821Spilinga18.69154915811,6091,615Stefanaconi23.23249724922,4972,395Tropea3.59684369026,8366,869Vallelonga17.53734722759883Vazzano19.85114711601,2311,309Vibo Valentia46.34338253392233,95734,836Zaccanopoli6.61829835888946Zambrone14.36184218181,7431,768Zungri23.26208321172,1822,188Total1,139167,628168481170,746179,640 Vibo Valentia (anc. Hipponion, Vibo Valentia, Vibona Balentia; med. Monteleone) (VV): A provincial capital in Calabria. Its name it thought to has been of pre-Greek origins. It was hellenized to Hipponion by the Greeks because of its similarity to their word for horse (=hippo).Vibullius, Quintus: (full name: Quintus Vibullius Q.F.Q.N.). See Gaius Cincius.Vicari (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.Vico, Giovanni Battista: (b. 1668, in Naples; d. Jan. 20, 1744). Critic, jurist, and historian. Although well-educated by the Jesuits and extremely knowledgeable law, he chose neither a religious nor legal career. After a long career as a professor of rhetoric, he was fortunate enough to become royal historiographer in 1735. Vico believed that such fields as theology, law, mythology, philology and philosophical history were all parts of one great science. By studying philology it was possible, according to his theories, to recognize the similarities in widely separated cultures. He felt that this proved the existence of a divine intellect which had existed prior to creation which had an “eternal idea of the history of mankind.” Thus, through the study of history it was possible to get an understanding of the nature of the divine.Vico del Gargano (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 7,952 (2006e).Vico Equense (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.Vicoli (PE): A commune in the province of Pescara.Victor I, St.: Pope. (r189-198/199).Victor II: Pope. (rApr. 13, 1055-July 28, 1057).Victor III: Pope. (rMay 24, 1086-Sept 16, 1087).Victor of Capua: (d. Apr. 2, AD 554). Bishop of Capua and harmonist of the Gospels.Victor Emmanuel II, Titles of: The full list of titles and honors claimed by Victor Emmanuel II, the first ruler of the United Kingdom of Italy were: Victor Emmanuel II, by the Grace of God, King of Italy, King of Sardinia, Cyprus, Jerusalem, Armenia, Duke of Savoy, count of Maurienne, Marquis (of the Holy Roman Empire) in Italy; Prince of Piedmont, Carignan, Oneglia, Poirino, Trino; Prince and Perpetual vicar of the Holy Roman Empire; Prince of Carmagnola, Montmellian with Arbin and Francin, Prince bailliff of the Duchy of Aosta, Prince of Chieri, Dronero, Crescentino, Riva di Chieri e Banna, Busca, Bene, Brŕ, Duke of Genoa, Monferrat, Aosta, Duke of Chablais, Genevois, Duke of Piacenza, Marquis of Saluzzo, Ivrea, Susa, del Maro, Oristano, Cesana, Savona, Tarantasia, Borgomanero e Cureggio, Caselle, Rivoli, Pianezza, Govone, Salussola, Racconigi con Tegerone, Migliabruna e Motturone, Cavallermaggiore, Marene, Modane e Lanslebourg, Livorno Ferraris, Santhiŕ Aglič, Centallo e Demonte, Desana, Ghemme, Vigone, Count of Barge, Villafranca, Ginevra, Nizza, Tenda, Romont, Asti, Alessandria, del Goceano, Novara, Tortona, Bobbio, Soissons, Sant’Antioco, Pollenzo, Roccabruna, Tricerro, Bairo, Ozegna, delle Apertole, Baron of Vaud e del Faucigni, Lord of Vercelli, Pinerolo, della Lomellina, della Valle Sesia, del marchesato di Ceva, Overlord of Monaco, Roccabruna and 11/12th of Menton, Noble patrician of Venice, Patrician of Ferrara.Vieste (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 13,595 (2006e).Vietri di Potenza (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Vietri sul Mare (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.Viggianello (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Viggiano (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.Vigilius: Pope. (rMar 29, 537-June 7, 555).Villabate (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.Villa Castelli (BR): A commune in the province of Brindisi. Population: 8,882 (2006e).Villa Celiera (PE): A commune in the province of Pescara.Villa di Briano (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  5,809 (2006e).Villafranca Sicula (AG): A commune in the province of Agrigento. Population: 1,493 (2006e).Villafranca Tirrena (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.Villafrati (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.Villalago (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 622 (2006e).Villalba (CL): A commune in the province of Caltanissetta. Population: 1,803 (2006e).Villalfonsina (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 1,023 (2006e).Villa Literno (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population: 10,695 (2006e).Villamagna (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 2,441 (2006e).Villamaina (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 985 (2006e).Villanella: A variety of Calabrian multi-part song.Villanova del Battista (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 1,934 (2006e).Villapiana (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 5,082 (2006e).Villaricca (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.Villarosa (EN): A commune in the province of Enna. Population: 5,464 (2006e).Villa San Giovanni (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio di Calabria.Villa Santa Lucia degli Abruzzi (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 185 (2006e).Villa Santa Maria (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 1,463 (2006e).Villa Sant’Angelo (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 432 (2006e).Villavallelonga (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 961 (2006e).Villetta Barrea (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 649 (2006e).Vincenzo: Bishop of Capua (r337-365).Vinchiaturo (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 2,977 (2006e).Virgil (Publius Vergilius Maro): b. Oct. 15, 70 BC, Andes (near Mantua); d. Sept. 22, 19 BC, Brundisium). Roman poet. The son of a small landowner, Virgil was first educated at Cremona and Mediolanum. As a young man, he journeyed to Neapolis (Naples) where he studied Greek language and culture under Parthenius. It was here that discovered his love and talent for poetry, and displayed abilities in other fields such as mathematics, medicine and agriculture. Poor health prevented him from pursuing any standard career and he retired at an early age back to his father’s estate at Mantua. After the victory of Octavian and Antony over the senatorial party, a colony of veteran soldiers was established at Mantua and Virgil’s family estate was among those confiscated to provide land for the soldier colonists. Through the intersession of influential friends, the order of confiscation was rescinded, but when Virgil returned to reclaim his property, the new owner, a centurion named Areus, refused to withdraw. Virgil was forced to flee for his life, swimming across the river Mincius to escape from his pursuer. He decided to settle in Rome where he soon earned the friendship of many notables including Pollio, Maecenas, and even the emperor Augustus. His fortunes now improved, Virgil began to divide his time between Rome, Tarentum, and Naples. This last city, with its natural beauty and high Greek culture, soon became his preferred residence. The great project of his life, the setting down of the Roman national epic, the great Aeneid, prompted him to journey to Greece in 19 BC. Soon after his arrival, however, he was met by Augustus in Athens who persuaded the poet to return with him to Italy. Virgil’s poor constitution had left him exhausted from his travels and, no sooner had the party returned to Brundisium, he became gravely ill and died. His body was brought back to his beloved Naples and he was buried in a fine tomb on the road between that city and Puteoli. There is good reason to accept the monument long identified with his tomb as being genuine. Virgil’s literary works extend well beyond the Aeneid and his poetry reveals much information about his life and interests. His influence on Roman literature, as well as no medieval and Renaissance learning cannot be underestimated.Visciano (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.Vita (TP): A commune in the province of Trapani.Vitalian, St: Pope. (rJuly 30, 657-Jan 27, 672).Vitaliano, St.: Bishop of Capua (rAD 700-?).Vittore, St.: Bishop of Capua (rAD 541-554).Vittoria (RG): A commune in the province of Ragusa.Vittorito (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 955 (2006e).Vitulano (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 3,026 (2006e).Vitulazio (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  5,755 (2006e).Vitus, St.: (poss. AD 3rd Century) According to an unreliable source, Vitus was the only son of a Roman senator in Sicily. Having been converted to Christianity at the age of 12, he was arrested and brought before Valerian, the governor of Sicily. He refused to recant his faith and was imprisoned. Escaping, he fled to Lucania on the mainland, in the company of his tutor Modestus and a servant named Crescentia. He eventually made his way to Rome where he was said to have driven an evil spirit out of the son of the Emperor Diocletian. When Vitus refused to make a formal sacrifice to the gods, however, his cure was attributed to sorcery. Once more under arrest, he and his companions were tortured but miraculously protected from harm. The story continues that a sudden storm arose which destroyed the temples in Rome and allowed Vitus and the other Christian prisoners to escape. They were said to have been guided back to safety in Lucania where they remained free and unharmed for the rest of their lives.St. Vitus’s cult remained strong in Lucania for many centuries. In AD 836, his relics were taken to Saxony where they became central to a major Germanic cult following. His feast day is June 15.Vizzini (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 6,925 (2006e).vjersh: A variety of Albanian song found in Calabria and Basilicata.voca diretta, a: A variety of Calabrian multi-part song.voca regolare, a: A variety of Calabrian multi-part song.Volla (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.Volturara Appula (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 529 (2006e).Volturara Irpina (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 4,199 (2006e).Volturino (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 1,907 (2006e).Volturno, River (anc. Vulturnus): Length: 175 km. A river rising in Molise and flowing S, E, and then W, through Campania, past Capua, and finally emptying into the Mediterranean near Castel Volturno, between Naples and Gaeta.Volturno, Battle of the River: Fought on Sept. 19-20, 1860, between the Southern Army of Garibaldi and the Bourbon Royal Army. It was the principal set-piece battle of Garibaldi’s conquest of the Kingdom of Naples and his victory here led to the retreat of royal forces into Gaeta and their ultimate defeat.Vortumna: An ancient Italic goddess, worshipped as Fortuna by the Romans. Her name means “She who revolves the year.”Vulcaniae: See Aeoliae Insulae.Vulcano: an island of the Isole Eolie (Lipari Islands).  W White Hart: A symbol, since ancient times, for good fortune. Its first mention is in Aristotle who states that the hero Diomedes consecrated a white stag to the goddess Artemis/Diana. This animal lived for a thousand years before being killed by Agathocles, king of Sicily. White harts are mentioned in legends connected with such historical figures as Alexander the AGreat, Julius Caesar, and Charlemagne. Each of these rulers was said to have captured the white stag, decorating it with golden bands, and then releasing it.William I “Iron Arm” (French: Guillaume Bras-de-Fer; Italian: Guglielmo Braccio-di-Ferro): Count of Apulia and Calabria (1042-1046).William I: King of Sicily (r1154-1166); Duke of Apulia and Calabria (as William III) (r1148-1154).William II: Count of Apulia and Calabria (r1111-1117).William II: King of Sicily (r1166-1189).William III: Duke of Apulia and Calabria (r1148-1154). See William I, King of Sicily (r1154-1166).William III: King of Sicily (r1194).Winds, Traditional Names of:NorthTramontana (= across the mountains) referring to the AlpsNorth-eastGreco (referring to Greece)EastLevante (“Sun Rising”)South-EastSirocco (The hot wind which blew off North Africa)SouthMezzogiorno (Midday)South-WestLibeccio (Libyan or African Wind)WestPontente (“Sun Setting“)North-WestMaestro (Master Wind) World Heritage Sites in Southern Italy:SiteLocationYear Chosen18th-Century Royal Palace at Caserta with the Park, the Aqueduct of Vanvitelli, and the San Leucio ComplexRef# 549revProvinces of Caserta and Benevento, Campania
N41 4 23.988E14 19 35.0041997A magnificent mid-18th century palatial complex including an associated park and gardens. It includes a natural woodland, hunting lodges, and the Belvedere, an industrial complex for silk production. Built to rival more famous royal estates like Versailles, the Palazzo Reale of Caserta represents one of the highest achievements in Enlightment era planning designed to incorporate urban structure into natural setting. Archaeological Area of AgrigentoRef #831Province of Agrigento, SicilyN37 17 23E13 35 361997The remains of one of the great cities of the ancient Greeks, this complex contains some of the finest surviving examples of Doric temple architecture, as well as remains from the Hellenistic, Roman and early Christian eras. Archaeological Areas of Pompei, Herculaneum and Torre AnnunziataRef # 829Province of Naples, Campania
N40 45E14 291997An area that contains the remains of the Roman towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum, and of a number of associated villas, buried by the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius in AD 79. The remains provide a vivid and unparalleled picture into the daily life during the early part of the Roman Empire. Castel del MonteRef #398revCommunes of Andria and Corato, Province of Bari, Puglia Region
N41 5 5.3E16 16 15.41996An incredibly designed and precisely built castle erected in the 13th century for Emperoror Frederick II. The building, known for the mathematical and astronomical precision of its layout, blends the styles of northern Europe, the Saracen world, and classical antiquity into a unique, near perfect form. Cilento and Vallo di Diano National Park with the Archeological sites of Paestum and Velia, and the Certosa di PadulaRef #842Province of Salerno, Campania
N40 17 E15 161998A unique area which sat on the boundaries of ancient Magna Graecia, and the cultural spheres of the Etruscans and Lucanians. The area includes sanctuaries and settlements with links tied to the prehistoric, ancient and medieval eras. The remains of two important Greek cities, Paestum and Velia, are located here. Costiera AmalfitanaRef #830Province of Salerno, Campania
N40 39 00E14 36 001997A coastal region of singular beauty which towns whose roots reach back into early medieval times. Many of these towns like Amalfi and Ravello contain examples of beautiful architecture, set to the backdrop of magnificent natural landscapes. Historic Center of NaplesRef #726City and Province of Naples, Campania
N40 51 05E14 15 461995The urban center of a city founded in the 5th century BC by Greek colonists. It includes many monuments reflective of centuries of interaction with the European and the Mediterranean worlds. Late Baroque Towns of the Val di Noto (South-Eastern Sicily)Ref #1024revProvinces of Catania, Ragusa, and Syracuse, Sicily
N36 53 35.5E15 04 08.12002A group of eight towns: Caltagirone, Militello Val di Catania, Catania, Modica, Noto, Palazzolo, Ragusa and Scicli, rebuilt after the terrible earthquake of 1693. These are excellent examples of late Baroque architecture and art, within a defined geography, chronology and cultural unit. Syracuse and the Rocky Necropolis of PantalicaRef # 1200City and Province of Syracuse, Sicily
N37 03 34.0E15 17 35.02005Within a relatively small area are preserved the remains of Mediterranean cultures stretching from the prehistoric (13th-7th century BC) Sikel burials at Pantalica to the Greek, Roman, Byzantine, Saracen, Norman, Hohenstaufen, Aragonese, Spanish and Bourbon era architecture in Syracuse. The Trulli of AlberobelloRef #787Prov. of Bari Puglia N40 46 57E17 14 131996The unique architecture of trulli limestone structures of this area show an unbroken traditional building technique stretching back to prehistoric times and continuing into the present day. The Sassi and the park of the Rupestrian Churches of MateraRef #670City and Province of Matera, Region of Basilicata
N40 39 59E16 36 371993One of the world’s most incredible examples of a “troglodyte” or cave-dwelling community. Use of the Sassi caves for dwellings and religious structures date back to the Paleolithic era and continue into recent times. Isole Eolie (Aeolian Islands)Ref #908Mediterranean Sea – Southern Tyrrhenian Sea
N38 29 16.3E14 56 44.12000An archipelago of islands which ongoing volcanic activity has allowed two centuries of important study in vulcanology to take place.  X Y ZZaccanopoli (VV): A commune in the province of vibo Valentia.Zachary, St.: Pope. (rDec 3, 741-Mar 14/22, 752).Zafferana Etnea (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 8,812 (2006e). It is principally a summer resort.Zagarise (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 1,836 (2006e).Zambrone (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.zampogna: a type of bagpipe used throughout southern Italy. It has five pipes of uneven length and a double reed. Another source describes it as most commonly having 2 drones and 2 conical chanters.zampogna a paro: a single-reed zampogna with 2 or 3 drones. It is normally used in Calabria and Sicily.zampogna zoppa: a Central Italian version of a zampogna. It is usually double-reeded and has a variable number of drones.Zapponeta (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 3,145 (2006e).zecchino: a gold coin (2.907 grams) used in the Two Sicilies. Equivalent to 2 ducati and to 9.07 lire, it was sometimes called the zecchino napoletano di don Carlos or zecchino napoletano di Ferdinando IV.Zenodorus, Flavius Hadrianus Hierius: (fl. Early AD 5th Century). Governor of Lucania and Bruttium (corrector Lucaniae et Bruttiorum) in AD 401. He is mentioned in the letters of Symmachus (Ep. IX. 3; IX. 9).Zephyrinus, St.: Pope. (r199-217).Zingarelli, Nicola Antonio: b. April 4, 1752, Naples (or Rome). d. May 5, 1837, Torre del Greco. Composer. Having earned a fine reputation as composer of Italian opera, he became director of the chapel of the Vatican in 1806. In 1812, Napoleon appointed him director of the conservatory at Rome and musical director of St. Peter’s. In the following year, the Emperor sent his to Naples as the directory of the new conservatory there. He later composed a cantata honoring Murat after his death but it was seized by the Bourbon authorities and never performed.Ziz: an ancient name for Palermo. The Phoenician founders of the colony established here named their new settlement Ziz, meaning “flowering,” The name is similar to other Semitic words such as the Arabic aziz (= beautiful).Zoippos: (fl. 3rd century BC). Syracusan statesman. The husband of Heraclia, daughter of Hieron II, he had a falling out with Hieronymus, Hieron’s successor, and was banished from Alexandria.Zollino (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 2,143 (2006e).Zopyros (1): an athlete of ancient Syracuse. He was victor in the Race in Armor at the Olympian Games in 476 BC.Zopyros (2): an athlete of ancient Syracuse. He was victor in the Stadion at the Olympian Games in 220 BC.Zosimus, St: Pope. (rMar. 18, 417-Dec 26, 418).Zotto: Duke of Benevento (AD 571-591). A Lombard. Paul the Deacon referred to him as “primus Langobardorum dux in Benevento…Zotto” and says he ruled Benevento for 20 years. He was succeeded by Archis I. Some sources date his tenure at AD 584 to 604.Zumpano (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,980 (2006e).Zungoli (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 1,344 (2006e).Zungri (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valetia.Zurlo, Count Giuseppe: (b. 1759, in Naples; d. Nov. 10, 1828, in Naples). Statesman. Entering into a legal career, he became a judge and, in 1798 was appointed minister of finance. In 1803, he was ousted from this office by the machinations of Acton. In 1809, Murat appointed him minister of the interior. After that king’s fall and death, Zurlo followed the queen into exile at Trieste. In 1818, he was allowed to return home by King Ferdinand. In 1820, he was again appointed as minister of the interior but soon retired.Zurlo, Giuseppe M.:(d. 1801, in Naples). Ecclesiastic. A cardinal, he served as bishop of Calvi (1756-1782) and archbishop of Naples (1782-1801).