Fabian (Fabianus), St.: Pope (rAD Jan 10, 236-Jan 20, 250). He was a native of Rome.
Fabrizia (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.
Faetar: a rare dialect of Franco-Provençal spoken in only 2 isolated towns (Faeto/Fayet and Celle di San Vito) in the province of Foggia. It has an estimated 1,400 speakers worldwide, only about 600 still living in Puglia. The language has no written tradition. The dialect was originally brought to Apulia in the 14th century by immigrants from the department of Ain, in SE France.
Faeto (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 689 (2006e).
Faggiano (TA): A commune in the province of Taranto.
Fagnano Alto (AQ): A commune in the province of L‘Aquila. Population: 452 (2006e).
Fagnano Castello >(CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 4,073 (2006e).
Faicchio (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 3,814 (2007e); 3,845 (2006e).
Falciano del Massico (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population: 3,807 (2006e).
Falconara Albanese >(CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,384 (2006e).
Falcone (ME): A commune in the province of Messina. Population: 2,946 (2006e).
Falconieri (or Falconiero), Andrea: b. 1585 or 1586, Naples. d. 29 July, 1656, Naples. Composer and lutenist. At the court of Parma from 1604 until 1614, then elsewhere in northern Italy, at Rome, and late in life at Naples; travels in Spain and France from 1621 until 1628; from 1639 lutenist, from 1647 maestro di cappella at the royal chapel at Naples. Compositions include songs and instrumental music.
Falconio, Diomede: (b. Sept. 20, 1842, Pescocostanzo (AQ); d. Feb. 8, 1917, Rome). (See Full Page)
Falerian Wine: A wine produced in the Falerian district (Falernus ager) of ancient Campania. It was highly prized in Roman times.
Falerna (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 3,938 (2006e).
Falernus ager (Falernum): an ancient district located in the northern part of the modern province of Campanian province of Caserta. It is mentioned in the writings of Pliny the Elder. The Falernus ager was famous for its wines in ancient times.
Fallo (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 154 (2006e).
family (famiglia): a local mafia group.
Fano Adriano (TE): A commune in the province of Teramo.
Fantinus: (fl. end of the 6th century). Byzantine official. He was probably defensor of Palermo, although some sources put him at Naples. In AD 599 he received letters from Pope Gregory I “the Great” on a variety of religious issues including the case of Bishop Exhilaratus, the treatment of the clergy, and the defense of Jews who had been turned out of their synagogue.
Fantius, St.: (fl. late 3rd or early 4th century AD). Martyr. He and his wife Deodata were wealthy nobles from Syracuse. Before their conversion to Christianity, they were dedicated pagans who asked the gods to bring them a child. Eventually a son, Fantinus, was born. The boy was also raised as a pagan until, at the age of 12, he was converted and baptized by a hermit. Upon his return home, Fantinus begged him parents to also convert. Shortly after their baptisms, they were arrested by the authorities and the family was thrown into prison. According to their legend, they were then visited by an angel who helped the boy to escape but, for whatever reason, did not free the parents. Soon afterward Fantius and Deodata were martyred. Feast Day: July 31.
Fanzago, Cosimo: (b. 1591, Clusone [Bergamo]. d. 1678, Naples. Architect and sculptor. Born into a family of sculptors, he relocated to Naples in 1612 where he began a career as a sculptor and architect. He is considered a master of the local style of Baroque manner. Most of his projects were centered in and around Naples. Principal Works: Spire of Chiesa di S.Gennaro.Chiesa di S.Giorgio Maggiore.Chiesa di S.Maria degli Angeli alle Croci.Chiesa di S.Teresa a Chiaia.Palazzo di Donn’Anna a Posillipo (1635-44).Cappella di Palazzo Reale, 1640-45.Cloister of the Certosa di San Martino (1623-31).
Fara Filiorum Petri (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 1,930 (2006e).
Fara San Martino (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 1,603 (2006e).
Faraglione (or Isole dei Ciolopi = “Cyclops’ Islands”): A good of small rocky islands off the eastern coast of Sicily near Aci Castello. According to ancient tradition, these were stones hurled by the blinded Cyclops Polyphemus at the escaping Greek hero Ulysses (Odysseus).
Fardella (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.
Farindola (PE): A commune in the province of Pescara.
Fasano (BR): A commune in the province of Brindisi. Population: 38,536 (2006e).
Fauna (Bona Dea): An ancient Italic fertility goddess who presided over fields and woods. Often called Bona Dea (the Good Goddess), farmers and herdsmen both prayed to her for the fertility of their fields and animals. She was either the sister or wife of Faunus.
Faunus: An ancient Italic nature god. The brother or husband of Fauna, he was the son of Picus and the grandson of Saturnus. He was often identified with the wolf-god Lupercus. Principally a protector deity of shepherds and countryfolk, he had special aspects with specific functions. In his aspect as Innus (“he who makes fruitful”), he increased herds. He was also involked as an oracle. The Romans eventually identified him with the Greek Pan, and he came to be depicted with goat-legs and horns. Faunus’s principal shrine was at Rome on an island in the river Tiber.
Fava beans: It is a Sicilian tradition in Sicily to carry a fava bean for good luck. The tradition was transferred to America where women of Sicilian ancestry sometimes carry a fava bean in their purses.
Favara (AG): A commune in the province of Agrigento. Population: 33,433 (2007e); 33,558 (2006e).
Favignana (anc. Aegusa) (TP): One of the principal islands of the Isole Egadi, off the west coast of Sicily. Its highest point rises to 1,070 feet.
Favignana (TP): A commune in the province of Trapani.
Februus: Etruscan god of the underworld and of purification. The month of February is named for him.
Federico, Gennaro Antonio: (d. 1743, Naples). Librettist.
Felitto (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.
Felix I, St.: Pope. (rAD Jan 5, 269-Dec 30, 274).
Felix “II”: Antipope (r356-357).
Felix II (or III), St.: Pope. (r Mar 13, 483-Mar 1, 492).
Felix III (or IV), St.: Pope. (r July 13, 523-Sept 22, 530).
Felix: An early bishop of Naples. He flourished in the mid-5th Century AD. He succeeded either St. Nostrianus or Timasius and, after holding the see for about 9 years, was succeeded by St. Soter.
Ferdinand (Ferrante) I of Naples: (b. c1424/5; d. Jan. 25, 1494. King of Naples (r1458-1494)). The illegitimate son of King Alfonso I “the Magnanimous”, he inherited the throne of Naples upon the death of his father in 1458. His reign was threatened by the claims of John of Anjou to the throne of Naples. Supported by many the the kingdom’s barons, John launched an invasion, defeating Ferdinand at Sarno in 1460. Ferdinand was able to escape back to Naples, accompanied by only 20 companions. His reign might has come to an end had Ferdinand not still had the powerful support of Pope Pius II and Francesco Sforza, duke of Milan. Ferdinand’s army was also reinforced by the timely arrival of Albanian reinforcements under the command of Scanderbeg. The latter was given command of the royal army and attained a decisive victory over John of Anjou at Troia in 1462. The Angevin threat was ended and Ferdinand exacted a terrible revenge on those nobles who had rebelled against him. In 1480, Ferdinand’s security was again threatened when a force of Ottoman Turks landed in Apulia and captured the port-city of Otranto. Fortunately, the death of the Sultan Mehmed II in 1481, led to the Ottoman withdrawal from the city, once more saving Ferdinand’s reign. When a new Barons’ Revolt occurred in 1485, Ferdinand agreed to the rebels’ demands only long enough for them to lay down their arms. He then reneged on his promises and had the rebel leaders arrested and executed. Ferdinand was excommunicated and he died shortly before a new invasion was launched against his kingdom by Charles VIII, king of France.
Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies (aka Ferdinand III of Sicily; Ferdinand IV of Naples): (b. Jan. 12, 1751, at Naples; d. Jan. 4, 1825, at Naples). King of the Two Sicilies. Upon the accession of his father, Charles III, to the throne of Spain, Ferdinand succeeded to the throne of Naples (Oct. 5, 1759). In 1767, he expelled the Jesuits from his kingdom. On Apr. 7, 1768, he married (by proxy) Maria Caroline, the strong-willed daughter of the Austrian empress Maria Theresa. On May 12 or 22, 1768, the ceremony was repeated in person. It was not long before the Austrian queen and her ambitious minister, the Englishman John Acton, held the true power in Naples. Native-born ministers like Tanucci were striped of nearly all their power and influence and summarily dismissed as the court took on a strong pro-Austrian and pro-English policy. In 1794, Naples even went so far as to join the coalition against France. This was to soon have a decidedly adverse result for Ferdinand. In 1796, Ferdinand was forced to agree to make peace with France. This agreement, however, lasted only until Napoleon embarked on his expedition to Egypt. Ferdinand’s betrayal resulted only in bringing about a French invasion of his kingdom. In late 1798 / early 1799, French forces advanced into Neapolitan territory forcing Ferdinand, his family, and supporters to board English warships and flee to Palermo. The mainland portion of the Regno was lost to the Bourbons and a new French-supported liberal government, known as the Parthenopean Republic, was established at Naples. This experiment in Republican government proved too unstable to last and collapsed before a pro-Bourbon peasant uprising led by Cardinal Ruffo. Ferdinand returned to Naples and exacted a terrible revenge on those who had supported the Republic. The liberal, intellectual caste suffered a terrible persecution, its members suffering execution, imprisonment, confiscation, and exile. By 1801, Ferdinand was again forced to agree to major concessions to the French in order to preserve his throne. This cooperation, however, proved unacceptable to the Queen. In 1805, when war broke out between France and her native Austria, Maria Caroline violated the treaty. She and Ferdinand relied on the support of British and Russian troops and to a quick Austrian victory. This last, however, proved a fallacy when the French triumphed at the battle of Austerlitz. The subsequent peace made between France and Austria left Naples and exposed and helpless target. A new French army was dispatched by Napoleon, forcing Ferdinand and Maria Carolina into a second exile at Palermo. The mainland portion of the Regno came under a period of French rule, first under Joseph Bonaparte and then Joachim Murat. Ferdinand was able to retain his power in Sicily but he was little more than a figurehead. The real power in Sicily was in the hands of the British ambassador, Lord William Bentinck. British sensitivities had little time for the absolutism of Queen Maria Caroline and, in 1811, sent her into permanent exile back to her homeland. Even Ferdinand himself was forced to sign over most of his power to his son Francis, who became regent. In 1815, Murat fell from power, and Ferdinand returned again to Naples. In 1817, he united the separate crowns of Naples and Sicily formally creating the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. The earlier concessions he had agreed to for Sicily in 1812 were soon repressed. Despite an uprising by the Carbonari in 1820, Ferdinand spent the final years of his reign again restored to the level of an absolute monarch thanks to the intercession of reactionary outside support especially by the Austrians.
Ferdinand (Ferrante) II: King of Naples (r.1495-1496).Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies: (b. Jan. 12, 1810 in Palermo; d. May 22, 1859, at Naples). King of the Two Sicilies (r1830-1859). The son of Francis I and grandson of Ferdinand I, he succeeded his father on the throne in 1830. Ferdinand’s early acts as king seemed to suggest that he would turn the Regno into an enlightened, liberal state. Unfortunately, this proved to be a false hope and it was not long before Ferdinand had adopted the heavy-handed absolutism practiced by his father and grandfather. This would lead to a series of revolts (1833, 1837, 1841, 1844, and 1847) all of which failed to convince Ferdinand to soften his hard line. Even the great uprisings of 1848, which gave the island of Sicily a brief taste of independence, and a liberal constitution to the mainland part of the kingdom, failed in the end. The Sicilian republic fell to the bombardment of its cities by Ferdinand’s troops (for which he earned the international nick-name of King Bomba), while the constitution and the chamber of deputies it spawned lasted only a matter of months. Ferdinand dealt harshly with those who opposed him politically. The British politician William Gladstone, who visited the harsh prisons of Naples during a holiday trip in 1857, estimated that Ferdinand had imprisoned at least 13,000 citizens for political reasons. Gladstone referred to Ferdinand’s regime as the “negation of God.” Ferdinand’s international relations were not warm. One of his few true friends was his neighbor Pope Pius IX, whom he sheltered at Gaeta during a brief period in 1848-49 when Rome rose up and formed a republic. Ferdinand chose to model his style of rule upon the Russian czars, sharing their reactionary policies and autocratic tendencies. His affairs with the more liberal governments in Britain, France, and Piedmont-Sardinia were far cooler. His hostility to political, economic and social reforms would last throughout his reign and ultimately led to the final doom of the Regno during the brief reign of his son and successor, Francis II.
Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies: (b. June 12, 1810, at Palermo; d. May 22, 1859, at Caserta). King of the Two Sicilies. He succeeded his father, Francis I, on Nov. 8, 1830. He married (1st) Maria Cristina (daughter of King Victor Emanuel I of Sardinia), on Nov. 21, 1832. From this marriage he had one son, his heir Francis II (b. 1859).
By his second marriage (Jan. 27, 1837, Naples) to Marie Therese (Maria Teresa), Archduchess of Austria, he was the father of Annunziata Maria Isabella Philomena, who married Karl Ludwig Josef, Archduke of Austria. The assassination of their son, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, at Sarajevo (June 28, 1914) was the spark that touched off World War I.
Ferdinand II of Sicily: See Ferdinard V of Castile “the Catholic.”
Ferdinand III of Sicily: See Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies.
Ferdinand III of Naples: See Ferdinard V of Castile “the Catholic.”
Ferdinand IV of Naples: See Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies.
Ferdinard V of Castile “the Catholic”: (II of Aragon; III of Naples; II of Sicily). b. Mar. 10, 1452, at Sos, Aragon; d. Jan. 23, 1516, in Madrigalejo. King of Aragon, Castile, Spain, Naples, and Sicily. He was the son of John II (king of Navarre and Aragon) and Juana Henriquez. In 1468, he was declared by his father as king of Sicily (and co-king of Aragon). On Oct. 19, 1469, he married Prince Isabella of Asturias, sister and heiress of King Henry IV of Castile. Upon Henry’s death (Dec. 12, 1474), Ferdinand and Isabella were proclaimed joint sovereigns of Castile. In 1494, when the kingdom of Naples was overrun by the French king Charles VIII, Ferdinand sent an army under his captain, Gonzalvo de Cordova, to successfully expel the French and restore the Aragonese dynasty to power. This action gave the Spaniards an advantage in southern Italy when, in 1500, Ferdinand made a secret treaty with the French king Louis XII to divide Naples between them. The outcome was a foregone conclusion since Naples could not hope to stand against an alliance of the two most powerful states of the day. Almost immediately after the conquest had been completed, the two partners began to quarrel. Over the course of time, the Spanish army under Gonsalvo de Cordova successfully drove the French out of the kingdom of Naples. Ferdinand was thus secured in his claim to the Neapolitan crown. With Ferdinand’s accession, the Regno became little more than an ancillary part of the Spanish Empire.
Ferdinando: (fl. 1st part of the 11th Century). Ecclesiastic. Bishop of Caiazzo. He succeeded Stefano in AD 1025.
Ferla (SR): A commune in the province of Siracusa.
Feroleto Antico (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 2,088 (2006e).
Feroleto della Chiesa (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.
Feronia: an ancient Italic goddess. In Etruscan religion she was a goddess of fire and fertility, while the Romans saw her as a deity presiding over springs and woods.
Ferrandina (MT): A commune in the province of Matera. Population: 9,279 (2006e).
Ferrante I: See Ferdinand I.
Ferrara, Francesco: (b. 1811, Palermo. d. 1900, Venice). Economist. In 1834, he became the head of the Statistical Bureau of Sicily, and was the founder of the Giornale di Statistica. In 1847, he was involved in the Sicilian independence movement and was imprisoned by the authorities. When Sicily revolted in the following year, he was freed and chosen as a special envoy to Turin. While there he accepted an offer to assune the chair of economics at the University of Turin. He later held a similar post at the University of Pisa. In 1867, he was appointed Minister of Finance. In 1868, he became director of a mercantile school in Venice, where he remained until his death in 1900. His written works included Importanza dell’Economia Politica (1849) and Memorie di Statistica (1890).
Ferrara, Franco: (b. 4 July, 1911, Palermo. d. 7 Sept. 1985, Florence). Violinist, pianist, composer. He served as Concertmaster at many of Italy’s great orchestras. A child prodigy, he began his professional career at the age of 9. At the age of 13 he became Concertmaster of Maggio Musicale Fiorentino. He was Concertmaster of the Augusteo Orchestra (Rome) under the baton of Bruno Walter, Toscanini, Guarnieri (his mentor), and De Sabata. In the course of his life he also served as a teacher of Composition at several schools and academies (Accademia Chigiana of Siena; Radio Hilversum Holland; Paris Conservatoire; Berkshire Music Centre Tanglewood; Julliard School New York; Accademia S. Cecilia Roma). His compositions include many orchestral pieces and much music for films and television.
Ferrazzano (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 3,282 (2006e).
Ferruzzano (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.
Fesro: Bishop of Capua (rAD590-594).
Festus: (fl. late AD 6th / early 7th centuries BC). Ecclesiastic. Bishop of Capua. He wrote to Pope Gregory I the Great complaining that he was despised by both the clergy and the citizens of Capua. In a letter from that same pope, Festus is ordered to pay restitution to a subdeacon from whom he had taken money.
Ficarazzi (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.
Ficarra (ME): A commune in the province of Messina. Population: 1,724 (2006e).
Figline Vegliaturo >(CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,048 (2006e).
Filadelfia (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.
Filandari (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.
Filangieri, Carlo: (b. 1783, in Naples; d. 1867). Neapolitan general and minister. Prince of Satriano. He was the son of Gaetano Filangieri (1752-1788). A protégé of Napoleon Bonaparte, he received a fine military education in Paris before entering the French army. He fought against the Austrians at the battle of Austerlitz and then served in the Neapolitan army under Murat. In 1815, he displayed great bravery and ability in 1815 in action against the Tyrolese. He was severely wounded but received a promotion to general. In 1848, he was in the service of Ferdinand I, commanding the Bourbon forces at Messina and crushing the revolution on the island. He was then appointed governor-general of the island with unlimited powers. In June, 1859, the new king, Francis II, appointed him prime minister and minister of foreign affairs. In 1860, Francis II unsuccessfully attempted to convince to crush the Sicilian uprising as he had done for his father.
Filangieri, Gaetano: b. Aug. 18, 1752, in Naples; d. July 21, 1788. Publicist. Entering the royal service in 1777, he held a number of different offices and, in 1787, he became part of the supreme council of finance. He published a number of works, the most important being Scienza della legislazione. He died at a young age, apparently from over-work. He was the father of Carlo Filangieri (b. 1783).
filbert: (corylus Avellana). A type of thick-husked hazelnut native to Europe. It receives its scientific name from the city of Avellino, where it has grown in abundance since ancient times.
Filetto (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 1,065 (2006e).
Filiano (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.
Filicudi: an island of the Isole Eolie (Lipari Islands).
Filignano (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 749 (2006e).
Filogaso (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.
finocchieto selvatico: a fresh wild fennel herb found throughout much of southern Italy. It is widely used in Sicilian cuisine. The seeds of the mature herb, called semi di finocchio, are often used to top breads or flavor meats and sausages.
Firmo (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 2,416 (2006e).
Fisciano (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.
Fiumara (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.
Fiumedinisi (ME): A commune in the province of Messina. Population: 1,599 (2006e).
Fiumefreddo Bruzio >(CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 3,239 (2006e).
Fiumefreddo di Sicilia (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 9,664 (2006e).
flabellum: a large, ivory fan formerly used as a mark of distinction carried before certain Roman Catholic prelates and officials: the Pope, the Grand Prior of the Knights of Malta, the Bishop of Troia (Apulia), and the Archbishop of Messina. These fans, with their peacock or ostrich feathers, were always used in pairs. Their origins date back to the courts of ancient Assyria, Babylonia and Egypt, and became part of Christian ecclesiastical paraphernalia during the 4th century. Use of the flabellum was restricted to the Popes during the 17th century and was finally discontinued in 1968 by Pope Paul VI.
Flora: An ancient Italian goddess of flowers and blooming plants. The Romans celebrated her festival, the Floralia, from April 28 to May 3. In 238 BC, a temple was dedicated to Flora at Rome.
Florentius: (fl. late 6th Century). Ecclesiastic. A subdeacon of Rome, he was elected bishop by the people of Naples but was undecided whether to accept or not. He finally chose to flee rather than make a decision. As a result, Pope Gregory I wrote (Dec 592) to Scholasticus, judge of Campania, to arrange a new election. Fortunatus was then elected to the see of Naples.
Floresta (ME): A commune in the province of Messina. Population: 577 (2006e).
Floridia (SR): A commune in the province of Siracusa.
Flumeri (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 3,290 (2007e); 3,302 (2006e).
Foggia, Province of: A province in the region of Puglia. Area: 7,190 km². Population: 686,856 (2005).
Foggia: A city and provincial capital in Puglia. Population: 153,650 (2006e).
The city’s name may derive from a local dialect word meaning “granary.” This, in turn, derived from the Latin word fovea (= “pit”). This last word is related to another Latin verb fovere (= “to keep warm).”
Foggia-Bovino, Metropolitan Archdiocese of:
Suffragans: Cerignola–Ascoli Satriano, Lucera–Troia, Manfredonia–Vieste–San Giovanni Rotondo, San Severo.
History: Diocese of Foggia established on June 25, 1855. Promoted as a Metropolitan Archdiocese on May 30, 1979. Renamed as Metropolitan Archdiocese of Foggia–Bovino on September 30, 1986.
Foglianise (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 3,548 (2007e); 3,567 (2006e).
Foiano de Val Fortore (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 1,511 (2007e); 1,524 (2006e).
follis (diminutive folliculus): A type of soft ball invented in the mid-1st Century BC by Atticus of Naples, the paidotribes (physical trainer) for the exercises of Pompey the Great. Made of skin or bladder and inflated with air, it was considered appropriate for use by children or the elderly, and the most popular ball used in Roman times. According to the most common story, Atticus invented the follis ball for Pompey the Great while the general was recovering from a serious illness in Campania.
Fondachelli-Fantina (ME): A commune in the province of Messina. Population: 1,159 (2006e).
Fondi (FR): A commune in the province of Frosinone, southern Lazio, formerly part of the province of Caserta. It is situated on the Appian Way about 14 miles NW of Gaeta. Its proximity to the malarial Lacus Fundanus made it an unhealthy place in times past.
Fontanarosa (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 3,428 (2007e); 3,426 (2006e).
Fontecchio (AQ): A commune in the province of L‘Aquila. Population: 425 (2006e).
Fontegreca (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population: 862 (2006e).
Forchia (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 1,156 (2007e); 1,161 (2006e).
Forino (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 5,298 (2007e); 5,300 (2006e).
Forli‘ del Sannio (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 794 (2006e).
Formicola (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population: 1,504 (2006e).
Formosus: Pope. (rSept. 19, 891-Apr. 4, 896).
Fornelli (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 2,002 (2006e).
Fortunatus (1), St.: (dates uncertain). Martyr. With fellow martyrs Gaius and Antus, he is one of the patron saints of Salerno.
Fortunatus I (2), St.: An early bishop of Naples. He succeeded St. Eustatius in AD 343/344 and was succeeded by St. Maximus at an unknown date. It is believed that he died before AD 359.
Fortunatus I (3): (fl. late 6th/early 5th centuries). Ecclesiastic. Bishop of Naples. He received letters from Pope Gregory I concerning the redemption of slaves bought by Jewish negotiators. Other letters from the same pope concerned themselves with accusing Fortunatus of avarice and of neglecting the monasteries in his see. He was present at both the synods of 595 and 601.
Forza d’Agro’ (ME): A commune in the province of Messina. Population: 905 (2006e).
Fossa (AQ): A commune in the province of L‘Aquila. Population: 673 (2006e).
Fossacesia (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 5,799 (2006e).
Fossalto (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 1,598 (2006e).
Fossato Serralta (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 627 (2006e).
foundlings: In the mid-19th Century, it was estimated that there were annually about 2,000 foundlings out of 15,000 births (out of a total population of about 400,000). During this period Naples was noted for devoting more care to the education and welfare of their foundlings than any other city in Italy.
Fra Diavolo (It. “Brother Devil”): (real name Michele Rezza). (b. 1740; d. 1806). Calabrian bandit and guerilla chief in the service of the Bourbons against the French.
Fragagnano (TA): A commune in the province of Taranto.
Fragneto l’Abate (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 1,163 (2007e); 1,173 (2006e).
Fragneto Monforte (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 1,883 (2007e); 1,912 (2006e).
Fraine (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 439 (2006e).
Francavilla al Mare (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 23,570 (2006e).
Francavilla Angitola (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.
Francavilla di Sicilia (ME): A commune in the province of Messina. Population: 4,218 (2006e). The town includes a medieval bridge which spans the river Alcantara. There is also the remains of a domed Byzatine church.
Francavilla Fontana (BR): A commune in the province of Brindisi. Population: 36,372 (2006e).
Francavilla in Sinni (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.
Francavilla Marittima >(CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 3,001(2006e).
Francica (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.
Francis I: King of the Two Sicilies (r1825-1830).
Maria Carolina: (b. Nov. 5, 1798). Married (Feb. 14, 1816) the Duke of Berri.
Louisa Charlotte: (b. Oct. 24, 1804). Married (June 12, 1819) Don Francis of Spain.
Maria Christina: (b. Apr. 27, 1806). Queen of Spain.
Ferdinand II: (b. Jan.12, 1810). King of the Two Sicilies (r1830-1859).
Charles: (b. Dec. 10, 1811). Prince of Capua.
Leopold: (b. May 22, 1813). Count of Syracuse.
Maria Antoinette: (b. Dec. 19, 1814).
Antonio: (b. Sept. 23, 1816). Count of Lecce.
Maria Amelia: (b. Feb. 25, 1818).
Caroline: (b. Feb. 29, 1820).
Theresa: (b. Mar. 14, 1822).
Louis: (b. July 19, 1824). Count of Aquila.
Francis: (b. Aug. 13, 1827). Count of Trapani.
Francis II: King of the Two Sicilies (r1859-1861).
Francis of Paola, S.: (b. 1416, Paola, Calabria; d. Apr. 1507). Monk. He was the founder of the religious order of the Friars Minim.
Francis of Paola, Friars of the Order of S.: A monastic order founded in 1474 by the Calabrian St. Francis of Paola. It is organized by the Franciscan rule. Members of this Order wear dark brown habits with rope belts. The friars sleep on the ground, and subsist on a diet mainly of bread and water, with occasional fish and vegetables. Their superior in called a Corrector. They are sometimes called Friars Minim. The Order was confirmed by Pope Sixtus IV.
King Louis XI of France gave them the nickname of Bons Hommes.
Francofonte (SR): A commune in the province of Siracusa.
Frangipane, Giuliano: (fl. 2nd part of the 15th Century). Ecclesiastic. Noted for his wisdom, he was elected Bishop of Caiazzo in 1472.
Frangipane, Ottavio Mirto: (fl. 2nd part of the 16th Century). He was elected Bishop of Caiazzo in 1572.
Francolise (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population: 4,919 (2006e).
Frascineto (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 2,399 (2006e).
Frasso Telesino (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 2,558 (2007e); 2,588 (2006e).
Frattamaggiore (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.
Frattaminore (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.
Frazzano’ (ME): A commune in the province of Messina. Population: 860 (2006e).
Frederick II: King of Sicily (r1198-1250).
Frederick II (III): King of Sicily (Trinacria) (r1296-1336).
Frederick III “the Simple”: King of Sicily (Trinacria) (r1355-1377).
Frederick IV: King of Naples (r.1496-1500).
Fresagrandinaria (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 1,097 (2006e).
Fresco: a technique of wall-painting in which the artist applies water-colored paint to wet plaster. This method is more permanent than painting on dry plaster as the color is absorbed into the wall’s surface.
Fretrum Siculum: Ancient name for the Strait of Messina.
Friars Minim: See Francis of Paula, Friars of the Order of S.
Frigento (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 4,110 (2007e); 4,100 (2006e).
Frignano> (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population: 8,489 (2006e).
Frisa (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 1,941 (2006e).
friscalettu: an ancient type of flute from Sicily made of cane. Still in use for folk-music, it has 7 front holes and 2 holes in the back.
Frontini, F. Paolo: b. Catania, Aug. 6, 1860. Dramatic composer and director. He studied under P. Platania at Palermo, and under Lauro Rossi at Naples. In 1917 he became Director of the Catania Music Institute. Among his works were the operas Nella (Catania, 1881); Malia (Bologna 1893); Il Falconire (Catania), Aleramo; the oratorio Sansone (1882), and several songs and piano pieces.
Frosolone (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 3,301 (2006e).
Fufluns: Etruscan god of vegetation, health and celebration. The son of the earth-goddess Semia, he is closely associated with the Greek Dionysus and the Roman Bacchus.
Fuga, Ferdinando: b. 1699, Florence. d. Rome, 1781. Architect. A pupil of G.B. Foggini, he centered his earlier career at Rome but came to Naples in 1726 to create the chapel in the Palazzo Cellamare (1726-1727). Returning to Rome, he created several major Baroque projects for the Church. In 1751, he returned to Naples at the behest of King Charles III to work in collaboration with L. Vanvitelli as court architect. Some of his great projects there were never or only partially realized. These include: Albergo dei Poveri: conceived as a hospice for 8,000 poor from throughout the kingdom of Naples (incomplete).
Furci (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 1,194 (2006e).
Furci Siculo (ME): A commune in the province of Messina. Population: 3,304 (2006e).
Furnari (ME): A commune in the province of Messina. Population: 3,494 (2006e).
Furore (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.
Fuscaldo >(CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 8,242 (2006e).
Fuscas: (fl. late 6th/early 7th centuries). Abbot of the monastery of Sts. Eramus, Maximus and Juliana, at Naples. Pope Gregory I commended him to Fortunatus, bishop of Naples, and wrote on his behalf to the Byzantine defensors Romanus and Fantinus.
Fuscus: See Festus.
Futani (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.