Roman – Southern Italy History 500 A.D. – 1130 A.D.

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6th Century Dioceses established in the 6th Century: Amalfi, Chieti, Crotone, Nicastro, Salerno, Sulmona, Taranto, Trani. Bari-Canosa is promoted to status of a Metropolitan Archdiocese. 501 (Oct. 23) Theodoric I assembles the Synodus Palmaris where all charges leveled against Pope Symmachus. 503 Gratianus becomes bishop of Panormus (Palermo). 504 Theodoric I defeats the Gepids. 505 Birth of Belisarius, the future Byzantine general. (Nov 9) Eruption of Vesuvius. 507 Cassiodorus serves as Quaestor in Italy (to 511). 508 Earthquake in central Italy damages the Colosseum. 510 Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius, the great Roman philosopher, is appointed consul by Theodoric I. 511 Gesalec, king of the Visigoths dies. Theodoric I becomes regent for Gesalec’s half-brother and successor Amalaric, who is still a minor. There is some literary evidence to suggest that Romulus Augustus, the deposed (AD 476) last western Roman Emperor, was still alive at this time. About 13 years old at the time of his abdication, he would have been about 48 years of age at this time. His whereabouts, however, are uncertain since the site of the Castellum Lucullanum, the magnificent villa in Naples where he went to live after losing the throne, had been replaced by a monastery in c492. 512 (July 8) Mt. Vesuvius erupts. Earthquake in Campania. 514 (July 19) Pope Symmachus dies. He is succeeded by St. Hormisdas. Although a native of Frosinone, in Latium, Hormisdas has a royal Persian name, a variant of Hormizd, the name of five Persian kings (Hormizd I [rAD 272-273], Hormizd II [r AD 302-309], Hormizd III [r AD 457-459], Hormizd IV [rAD 570-590], and Hormizd V [rAD 631-632]).  Hormisdas had been married prior to becoming pope and had at least one son, Silverius, who also became pope for a short time (rAD 536-537). Cassiodorus becomes Consul in Italy. St. Sabinus becomes bishop of Canusium (mod. Canosa di Puglia [BA]) (to 566). 517 Aquilonia (mod. Lacedonia) in Campania is given to the Benedictine monks by the Byzantines. 518 (July 9) Byzantine Emperor Anastasius I dies. He is succeeded by Justin I. 519 Cassiodorus writes the Chronicon, a history of the world from Adam to 519. 522 Boethius is arrested on charges of conspiring with the Byzantines against Theodoric I. 523 Marriage of Justinian I and Theodora. (Apr. 6) Pope Hormisdas dies and is succeeded (Aug 13) by John I. Thrasamund, king of the Vandals and Alans, dies. He is succeeded by his cousin Hilderic. Boethius writes the Consolations of Philosophy from prison. The island of Capri given to the Benedictine order. 524 Boethius is executed. (alt. dates: 525, 526). 526 (Aug 30) Theodoric I dies. He is succeeded as Ostrogoth King of Italy by Athalaric. Since Athalaric is still a minor, his mother Amalasontha, daughter of Theodoric, rules as regent. (May 18) Pope John I dies. It is nearly two months before a successor, Felix IV (III) of Samnium, becomes pope. There are some sources which chose to list him as Felix III because one of his predecessors, Felix II (r 356-365), is now considered an antipope.  (c) Severus, governor of Lucania and Bruttium receives a letter from Athalaric complaining about landowners and town-councilors (possessores et curiales) of Bruttium who had abandoned the cities of their official residence in favor of retiring to their rural estates. It was felt that the educated members of society were not fulfilling their obligations. The church forbids the festival of Lupercalia. The ancient pagan fertility festival has remained popular despite two hundred years of suppression by the ruling Christian emperors and bishops. The Church institutes a new Festival of the Purification of the Virgin Mary to replace the Lupercalia. Possible eruption on Vulcano Island. 527 (Apr 1) Justin I raises his nephew Justinian I as his co-Emperor and successor. Justin dies on August 1, leaving Justinian I as the sole Emperor. Justinian’s ambitions went beyond those of any other emperor since the splitting of the Roman Empire. His goals included nothing less than the reconquest of the lost provinces of the western empire. 528 (Feb 13) Justinian appoints a commission for the codification of imperial law. The statutes gathered from the reigns of the emperor Hadrian to that of Justinian, would become the Corpus Juris Civilis. Justinian orders all pagans to be baptized within 3 months. 529 St. Benedict of Norcia founds the Benedictine monastery of Monte Cassino. According to legend, he had been led to the site by three ravens. (Apr 7) First issue of the Corpus Juris Civilis in the Eastern Roman Empire. Justinian orders the closing of the Academy of Plato at Athens after over 9 centuries in operation. 530 Hilderic, king of Vandals and Alans, is deposed by his cousin Gelimer. Peter is Metropolitan of Bari under Epiphanius, Patriarch of Constantinople. (Sept 22) Pope Felix IV (III) dies and is succeeded by Boniface II. 531 Beginning of the Justinian Plague (to 599). 532 (Jan 11) Nika riots in Constantinople. (Oct 17) Pope Boniface II dies. 533 Possible date, according to some sources, for the foundation of Amalfi. (See AD 337). Mt. Vesuvius erupts. After serving as Governor of Lucania and Magister Officiorum, Cassiodorus becomes Praetorian Prefect in Italy (to 536). (Jan. 2) John II becomes Pope. Belisarius invades the Vandal kingdom in North Africa. (Sept 13) Battle of Ad Decimium. Belisarius defeats the Vandals under Gelimer. Gelimer, flees, leaving Carthage unprotected. December 15 – (Dec 15) The Battle of Ticameron. Belisarius defeats a Vandal army under Gelimer and Tzazo. Tzazo falls in battle while Gelimer escapes into the mountains of Numidia. 534 (Jan 1) Decimus Theodorius Paulinus becomes consul in the Ostrogothic kingdom. The office of consul was inherited by the Ostrogoths as part of the old Roman bureaucratic structure.  (Oct 2) Athalaric dies. Amalasontha (Amalasuntha, Amalasuentha or Amalaswintha), now rules Italy in her own right as Ostrogoth queen of Italy. She chooses her elderly cousin Theodahad to share the throne. Gelimer surrenders to Belisarius bringing an end to the Vandal Kingdom. The former provinces in North Africa are restored to Roman rule. 535 (May 8) Pope John II dies. He is succeeded on May 13 by Agapetus I. Queen Amalasontha is overthrown and assassinated. Justinian orders Belisarius to invade Sicily and Italy. Justinian uses the assassination of Amalasontha to as justification for the invasion. (Sept) Belisarius invades Sicily. He quickly captured Palermo after a very short siege. On December 31, he defeats the Ostrogoths at Syracuse. Sicily is formally restored as a province of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire. Following the conquest of Sicily, Belisarius intends to immediately continue on to Italy. He is forced to delay his campaign when he is forced to return to North Africa to put down a mutiny. A massive explosive event, either a great volcanic eruption in Indonesia or an impact with a meteorite or comet, begins a period of world-wide climatic changes. 536 (Apr 22) Pope St. Agapius I dies. On June 1 or 8, St. Silverius, a native of Campania, becomes Pope. (Apr) Belisarius invades Italy from Sicily. Crossing the Straits of Messina, he quickly marched through Bruttium and Lucania meeting no resistance. Ebermund, the Gothic count of Lucania, deserts to Belisarius and joins the Roman army bringing several troops with him. Belisarius reaches Naples with a force of about 7,000 men. The city is defended by a strong Gothic garrison. The defenders choose to resist believing that King Theodahad will march to relieve them. Theodahad, who has gathered an army of 50,000 at Rome, makes no effort to rescue Naples. Belisarius lays siege to Naples for the next several weeks. The city finally falls when a unit of Byzantine Isaurian troops discovers an unused aqueduct that leads through the city walls. A large portion of the population is massacred because of the support it provided to the Goths during the siege. The Ostrogoths depose Theodahad and choose Witiges as king. Theodahad flees and attempts to reach Ravenna but is assassinated enroute. Witiges marches north to Ravenna instead of engaging Belisarius, leaving a garrison of 4,000 to defend Rome. (Dec 9) Belisarius reaches Rome with 5,000 men and captures the city without a fight. The Gothic garrison abandons the city. Eruption of Mt. Vesuvius. 537 (Mar 2) Witiges arrives outside of Rome with a large Ostrogoth army. Rome is surrounded as the Ostrogoths lay siege to the city. Although Witiges cuts all of the aqueducts leading into Rome and strongly blockades the northern and western approaches to the city, he does little to block off the southern approach. Thus, Belisarius continues to receive supplies and reinforcements. Belisarius successfully defends the city thanks, in part, to the use of the new composite bow. Both besiegers and besieged suffer from famine and plague. (Mar 29) Belisarius deposes Pope Silverius on orders from Justinian. Vigilius is appointed as the new pope. Silverius dies on November 11. Eastern Roman army winters at Alba Fucens. 538 Cassiodorus goes to Constantinople. (Mar 12) Witiges breaks off the siege of Rome and retreats back to Ravenna as a Roman army under Belisarius reaches the city. 539 Byzantines capture Ravenna in northern Italy, the Ostrogoth capital. It becomes the seat of the Byzantine governor (Exarch). Ostrogoths, supported by 10,000 Burgundian mercenaries, sack Milan. About 300,000 men are massacred and the women and children of the city are given to the Burgundians as slaves. Italy suffers widespread depopulation from war, plagues, and famine. 540 Witiges and his wife Mathesuentha are taken captive and sent to Constantinople. Mathesuentha was the only surviving child of Amalasontha, and was a granddaughter of Theodoric I. Soon after arriving in Constantinople, Witiges died, and Mathesuentha married Germanus (Germanus Justinus), nephew of Emperor Justinian. Ildibad, a Visigoth, becomes king of the Ostrogoths. Byzantines capture Tarentum. Belisarius is recalled from Italy back to Constantinople. Cassiodorus gives up his political career and enters the church. He founds the monastery Vivarium (Monasterium Vivariense) near his native town of Scylacium (mod. Squillace) in Calabria. The monastery took its name from the fish pond (vivarium) which Cassiodorus had created nearby. The monastery becomes a major center for copying ancient manuscripts. Eruption on Ischia. A severe famine grips Italy and much of the rest Europe and the Mediterranean that continues for 50 years. There is some evidence that cannibalism took place. 541 Ildibad is assassinated. His nephew, Totila (real name: Baduila) succeeds him as king of the Ostrogoths. Benedictus, bishop of Capua, dies. He is succeeded by Victor Capuanus who holds that seat until 554. Plague begins to sweep through the Mediterranean basin. Probably a form of Bubonic/Pneunomic plague, it kills 10,000 people a day in Constantinople and claims about 40% of that city’s population. About 25% of the population of the Eastern Roman Empire perish from the disease. The plague spares no group and many members of the Senate at Constantinople die. 542 Plague reaches Constantinople. About 100,000 die in that city, while the total who perish in the empire number 2 million or more. Possibly indirectly caused by global climate change from the eruption of 535, the plague begins in Africa and follows the ivory trade routes into the Empire and beyond. Thousands die in Constantinople and an estimated 50-60% of Europe’s population perish. Totila retakes Naples. The city surrenders after the ranks of the defenders were thinned by plague within the city. (alt. date: 543). 544 Belisarius returns to Italy. Pope Vigilius is ordered to come to Constantinople. 545 Totila attacks Beneventum and razes the city walls. Totila destroys the city of Gnathia in Apulia. The surviving inhabitants flee to the nearby village of Monopoli Totila lays siege to Rome. 546 (Dec 17) Totila retakes Rome after a 3 month siege by bribing 4 members of the Roman garrison. The Goths entered the city at night through the Asinarian Gate and sack it for 40 days. The remaining Roman population is resettled in Campania. He then moves south into Lucania. (alt. date: Jan. 547). Totila sends Pelagius, the future pope, to Constantinople to attempt to negotiate a peace. Justinian dismisses him, saying that Belisarius, the Byzantine commander in Italy, was in charge of determining the fate of Italy. Pope Vigilius arrives in Constantinople to meet with Justinian. 547 (Mar 21) St. Benedict of Nursia dies at Monte Cassino. He is succeeded as abbot by Constantius. Taking advantage of Totila’s absence in Lucania, Belisarius is able to retake Rome. 548 (June 28) Empress Theodora dies of cancer. 549 Totila lays siege to Rome. 550 (Jan. 16) Totila recaptures Rome by bribing the Isaurian garrison. This is the fourth time since 536 that the city has changed hands between the warring armies. Repeated war, plague, famine, etc has reduced the city’s population to only about 30,000-50,000 (depending on the source). Totila exiles the remaining members of the Roman Senate from the city. Estimated population of Naples: c30-35 thousand. The aggressive offensive led by Totila has reduced Roman power in Italy to only Ravenna and a few coastal cities. Totila makes an unsuccessful attempt to capture Croton. Totila invades and retakes Sicily for the Ostrogoths. Eruption on Stromboli. 552 Emperor Justinian recalls Belisarius to Constantinople. Narses, a 74 year old eunuch, is appointed to replace him as commander of the Imperial Roman forces in Italy. (June or July) Ostrogoth hopes for retaking Italy are crushed when Totila is defeated and killed at the battle of Taginae (or Busta Gallorum) by the Byzantines under Narses. Teia becomes king of the Ostrogoths. (Dec) Narses retakes Rome. The much reduced city is now securely under Imperial control. (Dec) The extinction of the Roman Senate. The bulk of the Roman Senators who had been exiled from Rome by Totila in 549 had taken refuge in Campania, although a handful had continued on to Sicily. When news reached those in Campania that the Goths had been driven from Rome, a decision was made to return home.  Unfortunately, the countryside was far from secure. The retreating Ostrogoths, having lost Rome, were viciously killing any Romans they found. Upon learning that the senators were enroute back to Rome, the Goths slew all those they could find both on the road and still in the Campanian strongholds. A small number of the senators managed to survive and escaped to Constantinople. Some of these, as well as those who had been in Sicily, finally returned to Rome after the final defeat of the Ostrogoths.  These survivors attempted to revive the Senate but it never regained the status it once enjoyed. This shadow senate disappeared early in the 7th Century. (Dec) About the same time as the massacre of the Roman Senate, the Ostrogoths carried out another atrocity. Prior to his last battle against Narses, Totila had taken 300 noble youths from the Italian provincial towns as hostages. Totila’s successor, Teia, now had these hostages put to death. 553 Rome and Naples are annexed to the Byzantine Empire. (Oct) Battle of Mons Lactarius (or Battle of Vesuvius). Byzantines under Narses decisively defeat the Ostrogoths under Teia. Teia is killed in the battle. The result of this battle is the end of the Ostrogoth kingdom in Italy. Some historians cite this battle at the Roman revenge on the Ostrogoths for the terrible Roman massacre at the hands of the Goths at Adrianople in AD 378. With the establishment of Byzantine power in Italy, the traditional agricultural practice of olive and vine growing begins to revive. 554 Byzantines capture Bari. The destruction of the Ostrogoth kingdom leaves Italy almost completely in the hands of East Roman/Byzantine powers. A few small pockets of Ostrogothic resistance continue in northern Italy. (Aug 13) Justinian formally proclaims the restoration of Roman Imperial power in Italy. (summer) Battle of the Volturnus (or Casilinum). A Roman force of 18,000, including many Huns, under Narses defeats a much larger invading army of Franks and Alemanni led by Butilnus (alt date: 553). 555 (June 7) Pope Vigilius dies. 556 (Apr 16) Pelagius I becomes pope. 557 Earthquake felt from Rome to Constantinople. 558 Plague sweeps through the Empire again (to 661). 559 Deacon Anastasius is consecrated as bishop of Luceria in Apulia. 560 (c) Simplicius becomes abbot of Monte Cassino. 561 Last Ostrogoth strongholds in northern Italy are captured by the Byzantines. (Mar 4) Pope Pelagius I dies. He is succeeded, on July 17, by John III. 563 Plague still rages throughout Italy. 565 (Mar 13) Death of Belisarius. (Nov 13) Death of Justinian I. Often considered to be the last “Roman” Emperor, his death may be used to as the demarkation from the Latin Roman Empire to the Greek “Byzantine” Empire. (Nov 14) Justin II succeeds his uncle Justinian I as Emperor. Plague in Italy kills both humans and animals. (c) Alboin becomes King of the Lombards. 566 St. Constans becomes bishop of Aquino. 567 Narses is relieved of his command in Italy by the new Emperor Justin II. He retires to a villa near Naples. 568 The Lombards, forced from their lands north of the Alps by the migration of the Avars, invade northern Italy under their king Alboin. It was alleged that the Lombards had been secretly invited to invade Italy by Narses in revenge for the ill-treatment he had received from Emperor Justin II. While the bulk of the barbarian invaders were Lombards, they were accompanied by elements of other Germanic tribes including Bavarians, Saxons and, especially, Avars. Exarchate of Ravenna is established. Widespread famine in Italy. 569 Lombards overrun the Venetian Plain in northern Italy. Many refugees flee into the marshes of the Po estuary where they join with others whose ancestors had fled from the earlier Visigothic, Hun, and Ostrogothic invasions. Together, they form the core of a new community that becomes Venice. Pestilence in Italy and Gaul kills both humans and animals (to 570). 570 (c) S. Potamio becomes bishop of Agrigentum. The Lombard duchy of Spoleto is established under Faroald I. Events Elsewhere: (Apr 20 or 26) Birth of Muhammad in Mecca. (Alt. date: 571) (Aug) Lombards under Zotto invade Campania. 571 The Lombard duchy of Benevento is established. Zotto (Zottone) becomes duke of Benevento. (Alternate date: 576). Although nominally subject to the Lombard Kings of Italy, the duchy is essentially autonomous, being separated from the Lombard kingdom by a large area of Byzantine-controlled land. This new state in southern Italy will play a major role in blocking Byzantine expansion in Italy. 572 Lombards capture Pavia and establish their capital there. Alboin is assassinated. He is succeeded as king of the Lombards by Cleph. (Alt. date: 573). Under his rule, there was a severe persecution against Romans living under Lombard rule. Many Roman nobles were executed while others were forced into exile out of Italy. Those who remained were forced to surrender a third of their wealth and land to the Lombards. Narses died in Naples at the age of 95. By the time of his death half of Italy had been lost by the Byzantines to the Lombards. (Alt. date: 573). 574 (Dec) Emperor Justin II chooses general Tiberius II Constantine as Caesar. Justin, who is suffering from increasing mental disorders, effectively retires leaving the reins of government in the hands of Tiberius and the Empress Sophia. There are a number of stories concerning the last years of Justin’s life, including rumors of cannibalism, which must be viewed with skeptical mind. Cleph, king of the Lombards, is assassinated by a servant. The kingdom enters a decade-long period of anarchy known as the Rule of the Dukes during which the Lombard throne remains vacant. The disunity of the Lombards during this time eases pressure on the Byzantines who are trying to maintain their hold on the Exarchate of Ravenna and southern Italy. (July 7) Pope John III dies. 575 (June 2) Benedict I becomes pope. 576 (c) Vitalis becomes abbot of Monte Cassino. 578 (Oct 5) Justin II dies leaving Tiberius II Constantine as full Emperor. 579 Lombards unsuccessfully besiege Rome. (July 30) Pope Benedict I dies. He is succeeded by Pelagius II who, although born in Rome, is of Gothic ancestry. 580 Plague again sweeps through the Empire (to 582). (c) Bonitus becomes abbot of Monte Cassino. The Roman Senate sends an embassy to Constantinople. This is the last-known act to be conducted by this assembly. The Roman Senate had ceased to be an important factor in government centuries earlier. Few members of the ancient families which had traditionally filled the ranks of the Senate still survived. Many had earlier immigrated to Constantinople, while most of the rest had been killed during the Roman-Gothic war in Italy. What remained was a mere shadow of the old assembly and its end was little noticed. While the Senate itself disappeared, the title of Senator would continue in use for a number of centuries afterwards. 581 Duke Zotto of Benevento unsuccessfully besieges Naples. 582 (Aug 14) Emperor Tiberius II Constantine dies, possibly from poison. He is succeeded by Maurice. 583 The city of Constantinople is severely damages by a fire in April. Only a few weeks later, in May, the city is shaken by a major earthquake. 584 Autharis, son of Cleph, becomes king of the Lombards. The monastery at Monte Cassino is sacked by the Lombards under Duke Zotto of Benevento. Monte Cassino will not be revived until c717. (date 589). 585 Smaragdus is appointed Exarch of Ravenna. 588 The Byzantines give control of the island of Ischia to Naples. Lombards are converted to Christianity. Another outbreak of plague in the Empire (to 591). Unlike most outbreaks, this one spreads from west to east. 589 Duke Zotto of Benevento accepts the authority of the Lombard king. Smaragdus is removed as Exarch of Ravenna because of complaints about his cruel behavior. It is also believed that he accused of being insane. Romanus becomes Exarch of Ravenna. He immediately sets out on a campaign against the Lombards and recovers the cities of Modena, Reggio (mod. Reggio Emilia), Parma, Piacenza, Altinum, and Mantua. (late in year) Plague reaches Rome, killing both humans and animals. 590 Estimated population of Rome: c30,000. (Feb 7 or 12) Pope Pelagius II dies from the plague. He is succeeded, on September 3, by Gregory I the Great. Under Gregory the papacy will organize itself into a force strong enough to defy Byzantine control. It is also under this pope that Benedictine monasticism is established. (Sept 5) Autharis, king of the Lombards, dies at Ticinum, possibly a victim of poisoning. He is succeeded by Agilulf, the duke of Turin. Agilulf marries Theodelinda, Authari’s widow, in 591. Plague continues to spread through Italy. One of the symptoms of this sickness is sneezing and it is at this time that the practice of blessing a sneeze (Dominus tecum) begins. 591 The Lombard king Agilulf appoints Arichis (aka Arigisus, Arechi) I Duke of Benevento. During Arichis’ term he often found himself at war with his neighbors, the Byzantines and other small southern Italian city-states. Capua came under his control and he annexed considerable parts of Campania and southern Abruzzi to his duchy. His long rule lasted until 641. Zotto, duke of Benevento, dies. He is succeeded by his nephew, Arechis. Faroald I, duke of Spoleto, dies. He is succeeded by Ariulf. (alt. date: 592). Most of the harvest in Italy is destroys by a massive locust swarm. 592 Duke Arechis of Benevento marches on Naples. The city at that time had neither a bishop nor a commander for its garrison. When Pope Gregory was unsuccessful in convincing the Byzantine Exarch Romanus from going to the defense of Naples, he took the initiative himself by appointing a tribune for the besieged city. Gregory succeeds in negotiating a peace with the Lombards. The initiative shown by Gregory led to the Byzantine Exarch Romanus marching to Rome to reassert imperial authority. Diocese of Atella erected. 593 (Spring) Romanus, the Byzantine Exarch, departs from Rome, taking the city’s garrison with him. This left Rome exposed to attack from the Lombards. (June) Lombards under King Agilulf marches on Rome. After a short siege, Agilulf withdraws. 595 Lombards sack Terracina. 596 First historical mention of Amalfi as a Byzantine port. According to some sources (Catholic Encyclopedia), the diocese of Amalfi was founded in this year by its first bishop, Primenus. It appears that Primenus tended to travel about outside of his diocese so much that Pope Gregory I sent a letter to the Subdeacon Antemius, his legate and administrator in Campania, directing him to confine Primenus within a monastery. Petrus, the first known bishop of Otranto, is mentioned by Pope St. Gregory the Great. (late in year) Romanus, Byzantine Exarch of Ravenna, dies. 597 Lombards destroy Aternum (mod. Pescara). Callinicus (Kallinikos, Gallicinus) becomes Exarch of Ravenna. A Christian basilica is built on the site of the Temple of Concordia at Agrigentum (mod. Agrigento). While preparing the site, the local bishop, Gregory, pulled down a pagan statue known as the Raps or Rapum (= turnip). As a consequence, his new church came to be dedicated to S. Gregorio di Rape (St. Gregory of the Turnips). 598 Armistice is arranged between the Byzantines and Lombards in Italy. 599 A treaty is concluded between the Byzantines and Lombards. Meant to last 2 years, the Byzantines formally acknowledge the sovereignty of the Lombards over the lands they have conquered. Sabinus becomes bishop of Otranto. Another outbreak of plague in the Empire (to 600). Many scholars state that this was the earliest appearance of smallpox in Europe. Others, however, identify the Antonine Plague of the 2nd Century AD and the Plague of Cyprian on the 3rd Century AD as possibly being smallpox. Plague reported in Rome. 600 Events Elsewhere: (c) Cotton textiles begin to be used in China. 7th Century Dioceses established in the 7th Century: Cosenza, Otranto, Rossano. Church of Santa Restituta is built at Naples on the site of a temple of Apollo. It utilized Corinthian columns from the earlier structure. The church was utilized as the city’s cathedral prior to the construction of S. Gennaro in the late 13th-early 14th centuries. Some sources mistakenly claim that that Santa Restituta was founded by Emperor Constantine I in the 4th century. 601 (c) Exarch Callinicus attempts to extend the treaty between the Byzantines and Lombards. He tries to strengthen the Byzantine position by taking Agilulf’s daughter and her husband taken prisoner. The result, however, was to incite Agilulf to launch a new invasion of Byzantine territory. The Lombards devastate Pavia and capture Monselice. Petrus II becomes bishop of Otranto. Pestilence in Rome. 602 (Nov 27) Phocas assassinates Maurice and declares himself Byzantine emperor. 603 The Byzantine Exarch of Ravenna Callinicus dies. Emperor Phocas reappoints Smaragdus to the office. Smaragdus refuses to free Agilulf’s daughter and son-in-law, thus prolonging the conflict then raging between the Lombards and Byzantines. (July) New Lombard offensives result in their capture of Cremona, Mantua, and Vulturina. Exarch Smaragdus finally agrees to release his hostages to restore peace. Victor, bishop of Panormus (Palermo) dies. He is succeeded by Joannes. 604 Last Byzantine holdings in Spain are taken by the Visigoths. (Mar. 12) Pope Gregory I dies. He is succeeded, on September 13, by Sabinian. 605 Treaty between the Byzantines and Lombards. Pestilence in Italy kills both humans and animals (to 606). 606 (Feb 22) Pope Sabinian dies. 607 (Feb 19) Boniface III becomes pope but dies on November 12. 608 (Aug 25) St. Boniface IV, a native of the Marsian town of Valeria in the Abruzzo, becomes Pope. 610 (Oct. 4) Heraclius overthrows Phocas and becomes Byzantine emperor. He immediately decrees that Greek was to replace Latin as the official language of the eastern Roman Empire. Many scholars refer to this act as the event which changed the “Roman” empire into the “Byzantine” empire. In fact, however, the term Byzantine only came into use in the 18th century and the people of the Empire considered themselves “Romans” throughout their history. 611 John I Lemigius replaces Smaragdus as Exarch of Ravenna. 614 Epidemic elephantiasis occurs in Italy. 615 (May 8 or 25) Pope Boniface IV dies. He is succeeded, on October 19, by Adeodatus (Deusdedit) I. Rome is damaged by an earthquake and flood. In the wake of these disasters the city is struck by a plague which causes swellings. John I Lemigius, the Exarch of Ravenna, is killed during an uprising. He is succeeded by Eleutherius. 616 (c) Agilulf, King of the Lombards, dies. He is succeeded by his son Adaloald. 618 (Nov 8) Pope Adeodatus (Deusdedit) I dies 619 (Dec 23) Boniface V, a native of Naples, becomes Pope. Rebels under dux John of Compsa (Giovanni Cosino) seize control of Naples. (alt date: 615) Eleutherius, Exarch of Ravenna, crushes the uprising in Naples and kills John of Compsa. Returning to Ravenna, he is soon faced with a new threat from the Lombards, which he resolves through diplomacy and by agreeing to pay them a yearly tribute. Eleutherius, Exarch of Ravenna, revolts against the imperial government, and declares himself emperor. 620 Eleutherius marches towards Rome intending to make it his new imperial capital. Before reaching his destination, he is murdered by his own soldiers. Eleutherius’s corpse is decapitated and the head is sent to Emperor Heraclius. Emperor Heraclius dispatches Isaac the Armenian to Italy as the new Exarch of Ravenna. 622 Events Elsewhere: Muhammed flees from Mecca to Medina in Arabia. This event, known as the Hegira (or Hijra), is used to mark the starting date of the Islamic calendar. 624 Byzantines take Andalusia from the Visigoths. 625 (Oct 25) Pope Boniface V dies. He is succeeded, on October 27, by Honorius I, a native of Campania, becomes Pope. 626 Adaloald, king of the Lombards, dies. He is succeeded by his brother-in-law Ariold. 632 (June 8) Death of Muhammad. 636 Arioald, king of the Lombards, dies. He is succeeded by Rothari. 638 (Oct. 12) Pope Honorius I dies. Severinus is elected to succeed him but Emperor Heraclius I refuses to confirm him unless he signs the emperor’s Ecthesis, a document supporting Monothelitism. This doctrine, which states that Jesus had two natures (one divine and one human), and one divine will. Severinus refused to sign and would thus not be able to take control of the Papacy until 640. Maurice, a Byzantine official, is sent to Rome to negotiate with Severinus. Upon arriving, Maurice seizes control of the Lateran Palace and then sends word to the Byzantine Exarch of Ravenna, Isaac the Armenian, to come to Rome. The two officials then sack the palace of its treasures, sending some to the Emperor in Constantinople. Isaac took the opportunity to acquire a vast fortune for kimself. The two robber-lords later had a falling out over another act of plunder and Isaac had Maurice arrested and executed. Establishment of a Byzantine Greek Duchy of Naples. The first dukes of Naples are not natives and are essentially appointed imperial officials under the direction of the strategos of Sicily. 640 (May 28) Severinus is finally able to claim the papal throne. Unfortunately, he dies soon afterwards, on August 2. He is succeeded, on December 24, by John IV. 641 Arichis (Arechi) I dies. He is succeeded as Duke of Benevento by his son Aiulf (Aio, Aione) I. (Feb 11) Emperor Heraclius I dies. He was succeeded jointly by his eldest son Constantine III (from his first wife Eukodia) and his younger son Heraklonas (by his second wife and niece Martina). Constantine III dies soon afterwards (either on April 20 or May 24/26 depending on the source), a victim of either tuberculosis or poison. Upon his death, Heraklonas is sole emperor, but rumors quickly spread that he and his mother, Martina, were responsible for the death of Constantine III. A revolt soon broke out which forced Heraklonas to name Constans II, the young son of Constantine III, as co-emperor. This only delayed the inevitable and, in September, Heraklonas was deposed, mutilated, and banished to Rhodes where he died soon after. Constans II was left as the sole emperor. Events Elsewhere-Arabs capture Alexandria in Egypt. The last of the books of the Great Library of Alexandria are burned. 642 Lombards capture Byzantine-held Genoa. (Oct 12) Pope John IV dies. He is succeeded, on November 24, by Theodore I. 643 Rothari, king of the Lombards, issues the Lombard law code. Lombards defeat the Byzantines in a battle near the river Panaro. It was during this battle or a short time later, the Byzantine Exarch of Ravenna, Isaac the Armenian, fell in battle. He is succeeded by Theodore I Calliopolis. 645 The Byzantine Exarch of Ravenna, Theodore I Calliopolis, is recalled to Constantinople. 646 Plato becomes the Exarch of Ravenna. A supporter of monothelitism, he will spend most of his term of office in conflict with Pope Theodore I. Radoald becomes duke of Benevento. 649 Diocese of Atella suppressed. Saracen fleets begin to sail in the Mediterranean. (May 14) Pope Theodore I dies. He is succeeded, on July 5, by Martin I. (Oct 5-31) Pope Martin I convenes the First Lateran Synod which condemns the Monothelite heresy. Most of the 105 bishops in attendance come from Italy, Sicily, and Sardinia. Pope Martin I holds a synod at Rome. Emperor Constans II dispatches the imperial chamberlain Olympius to Italy as Exarch of Ravenna. He is ordered to arrest the new pope Martin I because his election had not received the emperor’s approval. Martin had also condemned Monothelitism, a heresy which Constans supported. When Olympius reached Rome he was unable to turn either the Roman populace or the bishops against Martin. Felix becomes bishop of Panormus (Palermo). 650 Earthquake strikes northeastern Sicily. 651 Olympius, the Exarch of Ravenna, deserts from Emperor Constans II and sides with Pope Martin I in the Monothelite controversy. He then openly revolts against Constans and declares himself emperor. Grimoald I becomes duke of Benevento. According to some sources, the first possible Saracen raid on Sicily took place about this time. Saracen armies and navies had been particularly active over the first half of the 7th Century in the eastern Mediterranean, seizing the provinces of the Eastern Roman Empire. Another line of assault was through North Africa, conquering Egypt and Tripoli. (alt date 652). 652 King Rothari of the Lombards dies. He is succeeded by his son Rodoald. Saracens from Syria, under the leadership of Mu’awiyâh ibn Hudayg (Mu’àuia ibn-Hodeig), raid Sicily for the first time. According to some sources, these raiders remained on Sicily for several years, defeating attempts to displace them, and finally returned to Syria on their own laden with loot and slaves. Olympius, the rebel Exarch of Ravenna, marches south into Sicily. While probably intending to seize control of the island for himself, some sources state that his intension was to rid Sicily of the Saracen pirates which had begun to plague the island. Shortly after arriving on Sicily, Olympius and many of his soldiers succumbed to an unknown plague. 653 Rodoald, king of the Lombards, dies. He is succeeded by Aripert I. (June 15) Pope Martin I is arrested by the Byzantine Exarch of Ravenna on orders from Emperor Constans II. Martin was a strong opponent of Monothelitism, which Constans supported. Martin remains a prisoner thereafter and is eventually sent into exile in the Crimea. 654 Pope Martin I is deposed by Emperor Constans II. He is succeeded, on August 10, by St. Eugene I. 655 (Sept 1) Deposed pope Martin I dies in exile at Cherson, in the Crimea. 657 (June 2) St. Eugene I dies. He is succeeded as pope, on July 30, by St. Vitalian. 661 Emperor Constans II grants Naples the right to choose its own local duke. The duchy, however, remains subject to Byzantine rule. Basil, the first native Neapolitan to hold the office, becomes Byzantine duke of Naples. A count is seated on Ischia subject to the duke of Naples. Lombards capture Taranto. Aripert I, king of the Lombards, dies. His two sons, Godepert and Perctarit, succeed him at co-rulers. 662 Grimoald I, duke of Benevento, deposes Perctarit and kills Godepert, and seizes the Lombard throne for himself. Romoald I succeeds him as duke of Benevento. Eastern Roman Emperor Constans II leaves Constantinople with a large army, planning to transfer his court to Rome. He lands at Taranto and prepares to invade Benevento. 663 Constans II advances through Lombard territory capturing the principal cities including Luceria. Bovino, near Foggia. He devastates these cities and destroys many classical Roman buildings that had managed to survive earlier wars.. He pushes Duke Romoald I back into Benevento itself and lays siege to the city. Upon learning that the Lombard army of King Grimoald I is marching to Benevento’s relief, Constans offers Romoald favorable terms to surrender the city. Romoald agrees to surrender the city, turning his sister Gisa over as a hostage and agreeing to pay annual tribute.  Constans now marches from Benevento to Rome, leaving behind a garrison commanded by a Persian named Sapor. As Constans II approaches Rome he is greeted by Pope Vitalian who escorts the emperor into the city in a great procession. Constans’ visit only lasts for 12 days (July 1-12). During this short time he manages to loot many of the treasures of the city’s churches. Among the prizes he steals are the gilded bronze tiles of the Pantheon. The last visit to be made by an eastern Roman emperor to Rome damages the city worse than an enemy attack. When Constans II finally departed from Rome, he moved south to Naples. As he continued on through Lucania and Bruttium, he expected an attack from the Lombards but neither Romoald nor Grimoald made any attempt to impede him. Constans finally reached Reggio and crossed the Straits of Messina to Sicily. Constans II arrives at Syracuse where he plans to establish his new imperial capital. Part of the circuit wall of Benevento is rebuilt. Slavic raiders attack and desptroy Sipontum, in Apulia. The city is soon rebuilt. Bovino [FG] is destroyed by the Byzantines. Most of the ancient Roman works are destroyed. 664 Constans II leads an army from Sicily against the Saracens in North Africa. He retakes Carthage and pushes the Saracens back to Tripoli. Gregory succeeds Theodore I Calliopas as Exarch of Ravenna. Matera is captured by the Lombards and annexed to the duchy of Benevento. 665 Pestilence in Italy. 666 Theophylactus (Theophilatus) I becomes Byzantine duke of Naples. 667 A Saracen fleet raids Sicily (alt date: 666). A plague rages in Rome. 668 (Sept 15) Constans II is assassinated in his bath at Daphne, near Syracuse. The killer is his chamberlain Andreas who crushed the emperor’s skull with a marble soapbox. The Armenian officer Mezezius, who was probably involved in the assassination, immediately revolts and declares himself emperor at Syracuse. Constantine IV Pogonatus, son of Constans II, becomes East Roman Emperor and transfers the imperial court back to Constantinople. He personally led an expedition to Sicily to deal with the usurper Mezezius. 669 Mezezius is defeated and killed by Constantine IV’s troops. Taking advantage of the disorder following the assassination of Constans II, the Saracens raid Syracuse. This expedition of 200 ships sailed from Alexandria and spent a month looting Syracuse and other Sicilian towns before returning home. 670 Cosmas becomes Byzantine duke of Naples. 671 Grimoald I, king of the Lombards, dies. He is succeeded for a short time by his young son Garibald. Perctarit, the former king who had been driven into exile in France, returns and deposes Garibald, regaining the throne for himself. 672 (Jan 27) Pope Vitalian dies. He is succeeded, on April 11, by Adeodatus II. 673 Andrew I becomes Byzantine duke of Naples. 674 Saracens launch their first siege of Constantinople (to 680). Romoald I, Lombard duke of Benevento, destroys Brundisium (mod. Brindisi). 676 (June 17) Pope Adeodatus II dies. He is succeeded, on November 2, by Donus. 677 Theodore II succeeds Gregory as Byzantine Exarch of Ravenna. Grimoald II becomes duke of Benevento. Caesarius I becomes Byzantine duke of Naples. Unsuccessful Saracen attack on Constantinople. 678 (Apr 11) Pope Donus dies. He is succeeded, on June 27, by St. Agatho, a native of Sicily. 680 Gisulf I becomes duke of Benevento. Perctarit, king of the Lombards, makes his son Cunincpert co-ruler. Diocese of Forconium, in the Abruzzi, is founded. It is the forerunner of the later see of Aquila. High mortality rates in Rome and northern Italian cities suggest a plague at this time. 681 (Jan 10) Pope Agatho dies. 682 (Aug 17) St. Leo II, a native of Sicily, becomes pope. 683 (July) Pope St. Leo II dies. 684 Stephen I becomes Byzantine duke of Naples. (June 26) Benedict II becomes pope. Eruption of Mt. Vesuvius. 685 (Feb 26) Mt. Vesuvius erupts (to Mar). (Sept) Emperor Constantine II dies of dysentery. He is succeeded by his son, Justinian II. Pope Benedict II dies. He is succeeded, on July 23, by John V. 686 (Aug 2) Pope John V dies. He is succeeded, on October 21, by Conon. Conon was the son of a Byzantine officer of Thracian descent. He was probably born in Sicily and certainly educated there prior to entering the priesthood. 687 John II Platinus (Joannes Platyn) replaces Theodore II as Exarch of Ravenna. Bonellus becomes Byzantine duke of Naples. (Sept 21) Pope Conon dies. He is succeeded, on December 15, by Sergius I. The Byzantine Exarch John II Platinus had backed Paschal, another candidate for the papal throne, after being promised a bribe of 100 pounds of gold. After determining that he could not make Paschal pope with causing a violent uprising, John betrayed Paschal and gave his support to Sergius. Once Sergius was crowned, John demanded that he pay the bribe earlier promised to him by Paschal. When Sergius refused, John seized the holy vessels in St. Peter’s Basilica. As news of the affair spread through the city, the Romans rallied behind the pope and paid John’s bribe themselves. 688 Perctarit, king of the Lombards, is assassinated. 690 Lombards of Benevento takes control of Bari. Beneventan vassals are established there as gastalds. 691 Emperor Justinian II sends an official named Zacharias to Rome to arrest Pope Sergius I after he refused to approve a list of canons. When Zacharias called on the Byzantine troops to carry out the arrest, however, he found that they all supported the pope. In defiance of the Exarch John, Byzantine units from Ravenna and the Pentapolis marched on Rome. Joining the soldiers of the city’s garrison, they surrounded the Lateran palace and called on Sergius to turn Zacharias over to them. Sergius, however, allowed Zacharias to escape. 692 Sicily becomes a Byzantine theme (thema). 695 Justinian II is overthrown and banished. He is mutilated by having his nose cut off, henceforth giving him the epithet Rinotmetos (=slit-nosed). Leontius becomes Emperor. 696 Theodosius becomes Byzantine duke of Naples. 698 The Saracens capture Carthage from the Byzantines. The city was nearly destroyed and most of the population was either killed or enslaved. The Saracens’ advance across North Africa has now positioned them as a direct threat to the security of Sicily. Leontius is deposed, mutilated, and imprisoned by Tiberius III who seizes the Byzantine throne. 700 Cunincpert, king of the Lombards, dies. He is succeeded by his son, Liutpert, with Ansprand, duke of Asti, serving as regent. Saracens massacre the Christian population on the island of Pantelleria, and occupy the island. The plan to invade Sicily from here was thwarted by internal dissention among the Saracens. 8th Century Dioceses established in the 8th Century: Gaeta. City of Campobasso is founded. The name appears to derive from Campus vassorum (= “camp of the vassals”), so-called because it served as the base for the vassals of the Count of Molise. Other sources contend that the name Campobasso means simply “low field.” 701 (Sept 8) Pope Sergius I dies. He was succeeded, on October 30, by John VI. Raginpert, son of King Godepert, overthrows Liutpert and seizes the Lombard throne for himself. He reigns only briefly before dying. Liupert returns to power 702 Theophylactus replaces John II Platinus as Exarch of Ravenna. Shortly after his arrival in Italy, he marched to Rome where he was greeted with great hostility by the local population. Aripert II, son of Raginpert, deposes Liutpert and takes the Lombard throne. Liutpert is captured and soon murdered. Aripert then defeats the regent Ansprand who escaped across the Alps. Atina is captured by the Lombards and annexed to the duchy of Benevento. 703 Saracen pirates raid Sicily. 704 Justinian II returns to power at Constantinople. The Saracen leader Musa declares a Holy War in the western Mediterranean. He sends his ships into the Tyrrhenian Sea and attacks Sicily. 705 (Jan 11) Pope John VI dies. He is succeeded, on March 1, by John VII, a Greek from Rossano in Calabria. 706 Romoald II becomes duke of Benevento. Caesarius II becomes Byzantine duke of Naples. 707 Saracens lose the Balearic Islands to the Saracens. (Oct 18) Pope John VII dies. 708 (Jan 15) Sisinnius becomes pope but dies on February 4. He is succeeded, on March 25, by Constantine. 709 Byzantine Emperor Justinian II sends the Patrician Theodore to Ravenna with an army with the secret mission of punishing the city for its support of his overthrow in 695. Theodore tricks the city leaders into assembling for a banquet and then has them all arrested. His troops then rampage through Ravenna sacking the city. The noble prisoners are transported to Constantinople where most of them are executed. By exacting this personal revenge, Justinian II succeeded only in weakening Byzantine power in Italy. 710 John III Rizocopo (Joannes Rizocopus) becomes Exarch of Ravenna for a short time. He is known to have met with Pope Constantine shortly before the latter departed on a trip to Constantinople in October. A rebel named Giorgius (George) leads an uprising in Ravenna which soon spreads to several other cities including Cervia, Forli, and Forlimpopoli. During the violence John III Rizocopo, the Exarch of Ravenna, is killed. Saracens attack Cagliari in southern Sardinia. 711 Entichius becomes Exarch of Ravenna. He successfully puts down a rebellion in northern Italy led by Giorgius. (Sept) John I becomes Byzantine duke of Naples. (Dec) Emperor Justinian II is overthrown and executed. The imperial throne is seized by the Monothelite Philippikos. Ansprand returns to the Lombard kingdom at the head of a large army of Bavarians and Austrians. Saracens invade southern Spain, beginning their conquest of the Iberian peninsula. 712 Aripert II is drowned while attempting to cross the river Ticino. Ansprand becomes king of the Lombards. Liutprand becomes King of the Lombards in March but dies in June. He is succeeded, on June 12, by his son, Liutprand. 713 (June 3) Byzantine emperor Philippikos is deposed and blinded. He is succeeded by Anastasius II. Scholasticus becomes Byzantine Exarch of Ravenna 715 (Apr 9) Pope Constantine dies. He is succeeded, on May 19, by Gregory II. Rebel Byzantine troops revolt and declare Theodosius, a tax-official, as emperor. Theodosius III lays siege to Constantinople as Emperor Anastasius II flees to Nicaea. Saracens lay siege to Constantinople for a second time (to 717). 716 Theodosius III captures Constantinople and the former emperor Anastasius II is allowed to retire to a monastery in Thessalonika. Anastasius attempts to lead a revolt sometime later against Emperor Leo III. The revolt fails and Anastasius is executed in 721. Pestilence in Naples. Romoald II of Benevento takes advantage of the pestilence then in Naples to seize the castle at Cumae. Pope Gregory II orders Romoald to withdraw and even offers him compensation. Romoald refuses and places a strong garrison at Cumae. 717 (Mar 25) Theodosius III is compelled to abdicate and Leo III the Isaurian becomes Byzantine emperor. Theodosius and his son are spared and allowed to enter the clergy. Pope Gregory II bribes Duke John I of Naples with 70 pounds of gold to expel Duke Romoald’s garrison from Cumae. John marches against Cumae and prepares to take the city. Prior to the conflict, John has a local priest named Sergius bless his troops. As thanks for doing so, John promises the cleric that he will become the next bishop of Naples after the death of the incumbent Laurence. The battle ends in a complete victory for the Greek army of Naples. The Lombard gastald is killed in the battle along with about 300 of his men. Another 500 Lombards are taken prisoner. John chose to keep Cumae as a fief of Naples rather than turn it over to papal control. (c) Petronace da Brescia becomes the first abbot of Monte Cassino since the monastery was destroyed in 584. An epidemic in Rome kills 50,000. A plague raging at the same time in Constantinople takes 30,000 lives. 719 John I dies. He is succeeded as Byzantine duke of Naples by Theodore I. He used the Byzantine titles of ypatos chai doux (hypatus and duke). 720 Saracens raid the coasts of Sicily. 721 (early Apr) Plague strikes Naples killing about 10% of the population. 722 Severe drought leads to crop failure and famine in Campania. 726 Byzantine Emperor Leo III issues a ban on religious images known as icons. A supporter of this policy came to be known as an “iconoclast” (= image-breaker), as opposed to a supporter for the use of icons who is called “iconodulist” or “iconodule” (=one who serves the icons). Paul becomes Exarch of Ravenna. 727 Pope Gregory II condemns Emperor Leo III’s iconoclastic policy. This creates a major rift between the papacy and the Empire. The entire Byzantine exarchate of Ravenna rises in revolt against the imposition of iconoclasm. Emperor Leo III appoints Eutychus as Exarch to deal with the revolt. Eutychus arrives in Naples and devises an unsuccessful plot to assassinate Pope Gregory II. Exarch Eutychus bribes the Lombard king Liutprand into a new agreement. Eutychus offers to provide Byzantine help to Liutprand in imposing his authority over Benevento and Spoleto. In return, Liutprand will help Eutychus to eliminate Pope Gregory VII. Upon learning of the agreement Gregory VII meets with Liutprand and convinces him not act against him. Liutprand does, however, does send troops to help Eutychus suppress the revolts in the Exarchate. Eastern Roman/Byzantine power in northern Italy suffers a major blow when the Lombard king Liutprand conquers the exarchate of Ravenna forcing the Exarch Eutychius to flee to Venice. Byzantine interests in Italy begin to focus increasingly on the southern part of the peninsula. 728 Liutprand completes his conquest of the Byzantine exarchate of Ravenna. Saracen pirates raid Sicily. 729 Exarch Eutychius recovers Ravenna by a surprise attack. A temporary truce between the Lombards and Eastern Romans in northern Italy now put Rome in jeopardy. The Lombard king and the Eastern Roman Exarch Eutychius agreed to mount a joint attack on Papal Rome. Laying siege to the city they hoped to force Pope Gregory II into surrender. Gregory, however, went to Liutprand and confronted the king. As a result of the meeting Liutprand agreed to lift the siege and offered his weapons and armor at the tomb of St. Peter. In return, Gregory agreed to condemn Tiberius Petasius, a rival claimant to the Lombard throne. Without Liutprand, Eutychius was forced to withdraw as well. Theodore I, Byzantine duke of Naples, dies. He is succeeded by George. During this period, the dukes of Naples were charged with the defense of the Italian coast as far north as Terracina, as well as the north coast of Sicily. Saracen pirates raid Sicily. Volcanic eruptions on Lipari and Vulcano Islands. This was the last recorded eruption on Lipari. 730 Theodore becomes Beneventan Gastald of Bari. The Lombards retake Ravenna for a short time. Saracen pirates raid Sicily. 731 (Feb 11) Pope Gregory II dies. He is succeeded on the same day by Pope Gregory III. Gregory III follows his predecessor in condemning iconoclasm. Saracen pirates raid Sicily. 732 Adelais (Andelais) becomes duke of Benevento. Byzantine Emperor Leo III, a champion of iconoclasm, is defied by the new Pope Gregory III on the issue of sacred images. In retaliation, Leo confiscates papal estates in Sicily and southern Italy, the principal source of income for the papacy at this time. He further transfers jurisdiction over the Greek archbishoprics of Thessalonica, Corinth, Nicopolis, Athens, and Patras, and the Italian archdioceses of Reggio and Syracuse, from the papacy to the Patriarch of Constantinople. The papacy never regains control over the Greek seats, while the Italian ones are only restored by the Normans in the latter half of the 11th century. 733 Gregory becomes duke of Benevento. Saracen pirates raid Sicily but meet stiff Byzantine resistance for the first time. 734 Saracen pirates raid Sicily but are again repulsed by Byzantine defenses. 737 Liutprand, King of the Lombards, raises Hildeprand “the Useless”, either his nephew or grandson, to share the throne. Lombards under Liutprand sack Ravenna. 738 Thrasimund II, Lombard duke of Spoleto, rebels against Liutprand. The king suppresses the revolt and captures Spoleto and Benevento. He places his nephews in command of both duchies while their dukes flee the protection of Pope Gregory III at Rome. 739 George, Byzantine duke of Naples, dies. He is succeeded by Gregory I. Pope Gregory III supports the dukes of Spoleto and Benevento against Liutprand. Liutprand, King of the Lombards, attacks the Duchy of Rome, seizes 4 cities including Orte and Bomarzo, and besieges Rome itself. Pope Gregory III unsuccessfully appeals for help to the Frankish leader Charles Martel. Liutprand proceeds to ravage both the Duchy of Rome and Byzantine territories in central Italy. 740 Godescalc becomes duke of Benevento. Saracens launch an attack in strength against Sicily. Led by prince Habib, who participated to the 728 attack, and his son Abd-ar-Rahman, the Saracens captured Syracuse by siege and planned to use the city as a base to conquer the rest of Sicily. Their plans were thwarted when a Berber revolt forced them to return to Tunisia. Violent earthquakes damage Rome. These are followed by an epidemic. Recurrences of this sickness will strike the city until c1000. 741 (June 18) Emperor Leo III dies. He is succeeded by his son Constantine V Copronymus. Like his father, he was an ardent iconoclast. His derogatory nickname derives from the Greek words kopra (= feces) and onoma (= name). It was given to him by the iconodule enemies on basis of a rumor that, as an infant, he defecated into the baptismal font or in the imperial purple cloth in which he was wrapped. (Nov 29) Pope Gregory III dies. He is succeeded, on December 10, by Zachary. Liutprand makes a new attempt to capture Ravenna. Pope Zachary marches north and meets with Exarch Eutychius near Rimini, and then moves on to Ravenna. After securing that city, Zachary travels to the Lombard capital at Pavia. Meeting with Liutprand, the pope convinces him not only to give his planned assault on Ravenna but also to return some territory he had earlier seized control of. 742 (Apr 2) Charlemagne born at Aachen. King Liutprand occupies the duchies of Spoleto and Benevento. 743 Gisulf II becomes duke of Benevento. 744 Angelbert becomes Beneventan Gastald of Bari. (Jan) Liutprand, king of the Lombards, dies. He is succeeded by Hildeprand “the Useless.” Within a few months he is deposed by a great council of nobles who considered him to be too incompetent. Ratchis, the duke of Friuli, becomes the new king. A plague breaks out in Calabria. Over the next two years it will spread into Sicily, the Greek mainland and the Aegean Islands. 746 A deadly outbreak of the Bubonic plague rages through the Greek Peloponnesus. Having arisen a year before in Asia Minor, it had killed about a third of the population there. The death rate in Greece is so great that it is nearly depopulated and resettled by Slavs. Because of this many scholars believe that the only true survivors of the old Hellenic race are now those residing in southern Italy and Sicily. 747 Carloman, Mayor of Austrasia, retires as a monk to Monte Cassino. Plague spreads throughout Greek-held Calabria and Sicily. 748 New outbreak of plague in Constantinople. 749 Ratchis, king of the Lombards, abdicates and retires to Monte Cassino. He is succeeded by his brother Aistulf. Liutprand, son of Gisulf II, becomes duke of Benevento. Pestilence in Calabria, Naples and Constantinople. 750 Optato becomes abbot of Monte Cassino. 751 Aistulf, king of the Lombards, conquers the Exarchate of Ravenna, effectively destroying Byzantine power in northern Italy. Shortly after this, the Exarch Eutychius falls in battle against the Lombards. He is the last person to hold the office of Exarch of Ravenna. Henceforth, Byzantine (i.e. imperial Roman) interests in Italy would focus on the southern mainland and Sicily. 752 (Mar 14) Pope Zachary dies. Stephen succeeds him on March 23. He dies, however, on March 26 before he can be consecrated, thus causing many scholars to reject him from the papal list. His successor, also named Stephen is thus referred to either as Stephen II or Stephen III because of the ambiguous nature of his predecessor. 753 Saracens launch another major raid on Sicily (alt. date 752). 754 Pope Stephen II (III) crowns Pepin the Short as king of the Franks at St. –Denis near Paris. Franks under Pepin the Short invade northern Italy to support Pope Stephen II (III) against the Lombards. The Donation of Pepin. Pepin, King of the Franks, defeats Aistulf, king of the Lombards. He then “donates” the lands that once comprised the old Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna to papal control, thus creating the Papal States. Interestingly, for centuries after this, Frankish documents refer to the Papal States as the “Roman Empire” while the true Roman Empire is referred to as the Greek or Byzantine Empire. The Papacy becomes fully independent of Byzantine control. 755 Stephen II becomes Byzantine duke of Naples. Although he held the Byzantine title of Patrician (patricius), it was Stephen who began the process of making Naples autonomous from the eastern empire. 756 Pepin successfully defends Rome from another attack by Aistulf, King of the Lombards. (Dec) Aistulf, King of the Lombards, is killed in a hunting accident. He is succeeded by Desiderius. 757 (Apr 26) Pope Stephen II (III) dies. He is succeeded by Paul I. 758 Desiderius, King of the Lombards, briefly captures Benevento and Spoleto. Arechis II, husband of Adelperga, daughter of King Desiderius, succeeds his father, Liutprand as duke of Benevento. 760 (c) Church of Santa Sophia is built at Benevento. Ermeri becomes abbot of Monte Cassino. On July 18, he was replaced by Graziano. 761 Duke Stephen II refuses to allow Bishop Paul, the papal envoy, to enter Naples because the latter was an enemy of iconoclasm. At that time, the Byzantine Empire, of which Naples was then a part, was controlled by iconoclastic emperors. Domnus becomes the first bishop of Mortorano (anc. Mamertum), Calabria. 763 Naples continues its allegiance to the Byzantines. Duke Stephen II acknowledges the authority of Antiochos, the Byzantine Patrician of Sicily, addressing him in correspondence as “our lord” and “most excellent patrician and protostrategos.” At this time Stephen secures control of the duchy of Naples as an hereditary right. This is often seen as the beginning of the independent duchy of Naples, which will survive until 1139. 764 Duke Stephen II of Naples switches his allegiance from Constantinople to Rome. Rejecting the imperial iconoclastic policy, Stephen acknowledges the Pope as his suzerain instead of the Emperor. Bishop Paul, who had been shut out of the city in 761, is now allowed to take control of the city of Naples. (Aug) Tomichi becomes abbot of Monte Cassino. 765 Papal privileges are restored in Benevento and Tuscany. Some papal privileges are also restored in Spoleto. 766 Naples is struck by a new plague which devastates the population. Among the dead is Bishop Paul. Stephen II abdicates as duke of Naples in order to succeed Paul as bishop. The duchy now enters a long period of chaos. Antiochus, Byzantine governor (Patrician) of Sicily, is executed at Constantinople for refusing to obey iconoclast decrees. 767 (June 28) Pope Paul I dies. Constantine becomes antipope. He is soon taken prisoner by the Lombards and imprisoned at the monastery of San Saba where he dies in 768. The former duke Stephen II is consecrated as bishop of Naples by Pope Paul I. Stephen’s son, Gregory II, becomes Byzantine duke of Naples. Outbreak of plague in Naples and the rest of Byzantine Italy. 768 (Aug 7) Stephen III (IV), a native of Sicily, becomes Pope. (alt. date 767). 769 Pope Stephen III (IV) holds a council which changes the procedures on papal elections. Devotion to icons is also confirmed as the Papacy continues its opposition to Byzantine iconoclasm. 771 (Feb) Potone becomes abbot of Monte Cassino. (Dec 4) Carloman, king of Austrasia, dies. The rule of all the Franks is now united under his brother Charles, better known as Charlemagne. 772 (Jan 24) Pope Stephen III (IV) dies. He is succeeded, on February 9, by Adrian I. Jacob, bishop of Catania, is executed for refusing to obey iconoclast decrees. 773 Desiderius, King of the Lombards, quarrels with Pope Hadrian I over control of the old Exarchate of Ravenna. When the Lombard king lays siege to Rome, Hadrian appeals for help to Charlemagne, king of the Franks. 774 Charlemagne marches into northern Italy and conquers the Lombard kingdom. He assumes the title of King of the Lombards (alt date 773 ). Charlemagne confirms Papal control over those lands bestowed by the Donation of Pepin in 754. Arechis II unsuccessfully attempts to become King of the Lombards. Arechis II is elevated to the status of prince of Benevento by the new Frank rulers in northern Italy, as compensation for giving up some territory to the newly created Papal States. He acknowledges Charlemagne as his lord and returns territory to papal control.  He issues laws that would be enforced within his state as a supplement to the standard Lombard law code Arechis becomes autonomous of royal authority. (alt. date: 773). 775 (Sept 14) Byzantine emperor Constantine V dies. He is succeeded by Leo IV. 777 Teodemaro becomes abbot of Monte Cassino. (alt. date 778). 778 The Byzantine patrician of Sicily establishes his headquarters at Gaeta during his campaign against the Saracens in Campania. 780 (Sept 8) Byzantine emperor Leo IV dies. He is succeeded by his 10-year old son Constantine VI with his mother Irene acting as guardian. Bishop Leontius of Bari attends the Seventh Ecumenical Council (2nd Council of Nicaea). 781 Byzantine empress Irene signs an agreement with Charlemagne to renounce all claims to the Papal States.  As part of the agreement, Charlemagne betroths his 6 year old daughter Rotrude to Constantine VI. Some scholars believe that this was meant to be an attempt at an eventual unification of the Byzantine and Frankish domains under one rule. The intended marriage never took place. Charlemagne defines the boundaries of the Papal States. Centering on the Duchy of Rome (also known as the Patrimony of Peter), papal authority is extended over a considerable amount of central Italy and beyond, including Ravenna, the Pentapolis (Rimini, Pesaro, Fano, Sinigaglia, and Ancona), Tuscany, Corsica, Lombardy, and parts of the duchy of Benevento. Revolt of Elpidius, Byzantine strategos of Sicily. A fleet is dispatched from Constantinople under the command of the patrician Theodore. Theodore crushes the rebels and Elpidius escapes to Africa where he defects to the Saracens. 786 Charlemagne reduces Arichis of Benevento to subjugation. 787 Grimoald III becomes prince of Benevento. (Oct 15) Eruption of Vesuvius (to Jan 15, 788). 13 Sicilian cities send bishops to the 2nd Council of Nicaea, which brings an end to the first period of Byzantine iconoclasm, and reunites the western and eastern churches. Among those in attendance is Bishop John of Tricala, Sicily. There are 2 Byzantine headquarters located in the theme of Sicily. Theodorus becomes bishop of Panormus (Palermo). 790 Byzantines attack Benevento but are forced to withdraw when Frankish reinforcements arrive to help the defenders. A military revolt makes Constantine VI sole Byzantine ruler. Irene is allowed to retain her title but has no actual power. Although Constantine and Irene remain outwardly friendly towards one another, factional tensions grow. Paulus Diaconus (Paul the Deacon) at the monastery of Monte Cassino, writes his history of the Lombards. 792 Irene receives confirmation of her title but tensions continue between her followers and those of Constantine VI. 794 Theophylactus (Theophilatus) II succeeds Gregory II as Byzantine duke of Naples. Benedictine monastery is founded at Salerno. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, the library of ancient botanical and medical works that was collected here formed the basis of the famed Salerno medical school. 795 (Dec 25) Pope Adrian I dies. He is succeeded, on December 26, by St. Leo III. Leo’s election creates much hostility from Rome’s noble families who are insulted because a commoner had been chosen as pope. 796 Gisolfo becomes abbot of Monte Cassino. 797 A conspiracy of supporters of the Empress Irene forces Constantine VI to flee from Constantinople. Irene is then able to seize full power in the Byzantine Empire for herself. Constantine is able to escape at first but is captured and brought back to Constantinople. On August 15, he is formally deposed and blinded by order of his mother Irene. His ultimate fate is uncertain. According to some sources he soon died of his wounds but there is evidence that he may have survived and actually outlived his mother. (Aug 16) Irene is formally declared as the ruler of the Byzantine Empire. Technically, Irene held the masculine title of basileus (=emperor) because its feminine equivalent of basilissa was properly meant to designate the wife or mother of a reigning Byzantine Emperor. The title “Empress” is used in this work for clarity and convenience. 799 (Apr) Pope Leo III is physically attacked by a gang. The assailants unsuccessfully try to blind him and attempt to cut out his tongue. He survives the attack but is formally deposed and sent to a monastery. Leo manages to escape and is given protection by Charlemagne. On November 29, Leo returns to Rome with a Frankish escort and resumes his papacy. Stephen II, former duke of Naples, dies. He is buried in the Catecombs of San Gennaro. Bishop Leo II builds a church at Acerenza [PZ] to house the relics of the martyr S. Canio (d. 395). (Apr 13) The historian Paul the Deacon, the Benedictine monk of Monte Cassino who wrote the important Historia gentis Langobardorum (History of the Lombards), dies. 800 (Dec 25) Charlemagne is crowned Roman Emperor at Rome by Pope Leo III. The rulers of this newly revived “Western Roman Empire” (better known to history as the Holy Roman Empire) will lay claim to southern Italy and Sicily as parts of their legitimate legacy. In this claim they are opposed by the Byzantines who still consider their realm to be the true “Roman Empire.” Isernia is sacked by the Saracens. 9th Century Dioceses established in the 9th Century: Matera, Marsi. 801 Anthimus (Anthemus) succeeds Theophylactus II as Byzantine duke of Naples. 802 (Oct 31) Byzantine Empress Irene is deposed and exiled to Lesbos. She dies the next year. Nicephorus I becomes emperor. 803 Treaty (the Pax Nicephori) between Charlemagne and Nicephorus I establishes the boundaries between the two “Roman” empires. The treaty does not, however, include Byzantine recognition of Charlemagne’s recent crowning as Roman Emperor. 805 A 10 year truce and trade treaty is concluded between Constantine, the Byzantine governor of Sicily and the Saracen Aghlabid Emir of Ifriqiya (Tunisia), Ibrahim I ibn al-Aghlab. This treaty does not prevent raids originating from other Saracen states nor does it extend to protecting other islands like Corsica and Sardinia. 806 Grimoald IV becomes prince of Benevento. Saracens sack Nola. Ademaro, the Frankish Count of Genoa, battle with the Saracens on Corsica. 807 (c) Marcus becomes bishop of Otranto. 810 (July 8) Death of King Pippin of Italy. He is succeeded by his son Bernard. (Oct 1) Unsuccessful assassination attempt of Emperor Nicephorus I. 811 (July 26) Nicephorus I is defeated and killed by the Bulgars at Pliska. His son, Staurakios, is quickly crown despite the fact that he was severely wounded in the same battle. On October 2, he is forced to abdicate in favor of his brother-in-law Michael I Rangabe. Staurakios then retires to a monastery where, on Jan 11, 812, he finally dies from the effects of his wound. 812 Byzantine Emperor Leo III calls on the cities of the duchy of Naples to send ships to join the imperial fleet for a campaign against the Saracens of Sicily. Duke Anthimius of Naples ignores the order although the semi-autonomous cities of Amalfi and Gaeta do send ships. (c) Mt. Etna erupts. Abdallah I, the son and successor of Ibrahim I ibn al-Aghlab, Saracen Aghlabid Emir of Ifriqiya (Tunisia), gathers a large fleet and army with the intention of conquering Sicily and the Italian south. The invaders are ultimately defeated thanks to the fleets of Amalfi and Gaeta, as well as a great storm which sinks many Saracen ships. Ultimately, the invasion fleet manages to seize the island of Lampedusa and raid Sicily, Ischia, Ponza, Reggio Calabria, Sardinia, Corsica, and Nice (to 813). 813 2nd trade treaty concluded between the Byzantine governor of Sicily and the Saracen Aghlabids of Tunisia. Ischia is ravaged by the Saracens. (June 22) Emperor Michael I Rangabe is defeated by the Bulgars. As a revolt he is deposed by a revolt on July 12 and replaced on the throne by Leo V. Michael is allowed to enter a monastery. He sons are castrated and forced to become monks. Emperor Leo V deposes the Patriarch Nikephoros of Constantinople and reinstitutes iconoclasm. Nikephoros responds by excommunicating Leo. 814 (Jan 28) Charlemagne dies of pleurisy. Although he had named his son, Louis the Pious, as his sole heir, the Carolingian Empire is soon divided into three states. Possible eruption of Mt. Etna. 815 Emperor Leo convokes a synod in support of iconoclasm. The synod is denounced by Patriarch Nikephoros. 816 Byzantine troop strength in the Theme of Sicily: 2,000 (to 842). (June 12) Pope Leo III dies. He is succeeded, on June 22, by Stephen IV (V). Louis the Pious is crowned Emperor by Pope Stephen IV (V). 817                 Sico (Sicone) I becomes prince of Benevento. Emperor Louis the Pious divides the Carolingian Empire between his three sons. Lothair becomes co-emperor and receives the bulk of the territory, including Italy; Pepin becomes King of Aquitaine; and Louis the German becomes King of East Francia, receiving Bavaria and some nearby lands. (Jan 24) Pope Stephen IV (V) dies. He is succeeded, on January 25, by Paschal I. (Dec) Apollinare becomes abbot of Monte Cassino. 818 (c) Theoctistus is appointed by the Patrician of Sicily as Byzantine duke of Naples without imperial approval. Bernard, King of Italy, revolts against Louis the Pious. The revolt is crushed and Bernard receives a death sentence. Louis commuted the sentence and Bernard was blinded and imprisoned. He dies in 819. 819 Saracens under the command of Mohammed ibn-Adballad launch a new attack of Sicily. 820 (Dec 24) Emperor Leo V is assassinated in the cathedral of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople. He is succeeded by Michael II. Eruption on Ischia. 821 The Patrician of Sicily appoints Theodore II as Byzantine duke of Naples without the emperor’s approval. Theodore is not well-received and is soon driven from Naples. The locally chosen Stephen III becomes duke. 822 Civil war breaks out between Emperor Michael II and rebel leader Thomas the Slav. The struggle will result in the severe weakening of the Byzantine military and open new opportunities for the Saracens to expand. 823 First historical reference to the town of Gaeta. It was then a town until the rulership of hereditary hypati or consuls. Although today attached to the region of Lazio, Gaeta is historically and culturally at part of Campania. 824 (Feb 11) Pope Paschal I dies. He is succeeded, on May 11, by Eugene II. Byzantine rebel Thomas the Slav surrenders to Michael II and is executed. 827 Revolt of Euphemius in Sicily. Euphemius, Byzantine tumarch of the theme of Sicily, and a noted general, abducts and rapes a nun. For this crime, Emperor Michael II orders Gregoras, the strategos of Syracuse to arrest Euphemius, cut off the criminal’s nose, and send him in chains back to Constantinople. Before this can be accomplished, however, Euphemius rose in revolt and killed the strategos. Seizing control of Syracuse, he then declared himself Emperor. A strong fleet was dispatched from Constantinople to Sicily and Euphemius was soon defeated. Eluding capture, he boarded a ship and escaped to Tunisia where he took refuge with the Saracen Aghlabid Emir Ziyadat Allah. The Greek exile convinces the Emir that Sicily can be conquered and that if Ziyadat Allah would set him up as Emperor in Sicily, he would pay the Saracen a large annual tribute. Ziyadat Allah willingly listened and agreed to mount a large expedition, but with the secret intention of conquering the island for himself rather than Euphemius. Ziyadat Allah declares a holy war against the Byzantines and readies his forces when he puts under the command of the 70 year old lawyer and holy man Ased-ibn-Forat (or Furat). He rallies supporters from throughout the Muslim world and soon had an Islamic army of Arabs, Berbers, Moors, Spanish Saracens, and even Persians. (June 18) Saracen Aghlabids of Northern Africa invade Sicily. The invasion fleet, consisting of 100 Saracen ships, plus Euphemius’s ships, reached Mazara (Mazara del Vallo [TP]) on the southwest coast of Sicily, where they landed a force of 10,000 infantry and 700 cavalry. The rebel Euphemius had accompanied the Saracens in the belief that the Sicilians would rally to him rather than support the Byzantines. Although he had a small group of supporters, most Sicilians rejected him as a traitor and criminal. (July 15) Photinus, the Byzantine strategos, attacks the Saracen invaders near Platana, in the vicinity of Mazara but suffers a major defeat, losing most of his army. Photinus manages to escape capture and retreats to Enna, and eventually to Calabria, only to die soon afterwards. It is reported that the Saracen victory was largely due to the state of religious fervor which Ased-ibn-Forat stirred in his followers prior to the battle. A story, probably apochryphal, said that Forat himself led the Saracen charge against the Byzantine front ranks and slew so many of the enemy that his hand became glued to his lance by their dried blood. Saracens capture Agrigentum and rename it Kerkent (or 828). They then continued eastwards towards Syracuse. The invasion begins to stall temporarily until a second wave of invaders arrives in 831. Saracens besiege Syracuse. Encamped outside the city, their army is struck by a severe plague, probably malaria from the nearby marshes along the river Anapo. When the sickness finally claims the life of their fanatical leader, Ased-ibn-Forat, the Saracens lose heart and lift their siege. Abu ‘Abdallah Asad ibn Furat ibn Sinan becomes Saracen Aghlabid governor of Sicily. (Aug) Pope Eugene II dies. He is succeeded by Valentine. After a reign of less than 40 days, Valentine dies. In September Gregory IV becomes Pope. (c) Saracens introduce spinach to Sicily. 828 Having retreated from Syracuse, the Saracens unsuccessfully lay siege to Enna. Saracen leader al-Kamuk founds Alcamo (Alqama, Alkamuk, Alqamah) in western Sicily. Some sources give an alternative date of c972. Muhammad ibn al-Jawari becomes Saracen Aghlabid governor of Sicily. SS. Philaretus and Oliva are martyred by the Saracens at Palermo. (Nov/Dec) Deusdedit becomes abbot of Monte Cassino. 829          Castra Nicia is captured by the Saracens. They rename the place Qalat al Nissa (= “Fortress of the Women”). The name eventually evolves into Caltanissetta. Zuhair ibn Ghauth becomes Saracen Aghlabid governor of Sicily. (Oct 2) Emperor Michael II dies. He is succeeded by his son Theophilus. Saracens capture Mineo and Mazzara. Byzantine Greek natives along the Calabrian/Bruttian coast flee inland to escape Saracen raiders. Saracens attack Civitavecchia near Rome. Regular list of bishops at Amalfi begins. 830 Saracens invade the Roman Campagna. The basilicas of St. Peter and St. Paul are sacked. 831 The Byzantine Emperor Theophilus withdraws troops from Sicily to help repel the Saracen invasion of Cappadocia. This severely weakens the Byzantine defenses in Sicily to a point where the defenders can no longer effectively resist the Saracen threat on the island. New wave of 30,000 Saracen invaders arrive in northwestern Sicily. These reinforcements, sailing from Iberia, are North Africa and Spanish origins. Abu Fihr Muhammad ibn ‘Abdallah ibn al-Aghlab becomes Saracen Aghlabid governor of Sicily. (Sept 9) Panormus (Palermo) falls to the Iberian Saracens. They rename the city Bal’harm. (alt. date 832). 832 Emperor Theophilus issues a strong decree forbidding the use of icons. Sicard becomes prince of Benevento. Bonus becomes Byzantine duke of Naples. King Pepin of Aquitaine and King Louis the German rebel against Emperor Louis the Pious. 833 Ziyadat Allah, emir of Tunisia, sends his cousin Abu-Fihr to command the Saracens in Sicily. 834 Leo becomes Byzantine duke of Naples. He is deposed by Andrew II in September. Stephen immediately orders the cessation of paying tribute to Sicard, the Lombard prince of Benevento. Ilderico becomes abbot of Monte Cassino. He is soon replaced by Autperto. 835 Frazzanò [ME] founded by refugees from the town of Castro, fleeing from the Saracen invaders. The town’s name derives from the Sicilian dialect word fratstsa or fradzdza meaning “acorn”, so-named because of the abundance of acorn-bearing beech trees in the area. Saracens under Ziyadat Allah reach Taormina. (May-July) Sicard, prince of Benevento, lays siege to Naples. After a new peace treaty is negotiated between Sicard and Andrew II of Naples, the siege is lifted. During the course of his siege of Naples, Sicard steals the relics of San Gennaro and has them transported to Benevento. Fadl ibn Ya’qub becomes Saracen Aghlabid governor of Sicily. He is soon replaced by Abu’l-Aghlab Ibrahim ibn ‘Abdallah. 836 Within months of signing a peace treaty with Duke Andrew II, Prince Sicard of Benevento breaks the agreement and begins a new siege of Naples. Desperate to defend his city from the Lombards, Andrew hires Saracens from Sicily as mercenaries, becoming the first Italian prince to do so. The siege is finally lifted when Andrew and Sicard sign a new peace treaty, known as the Pactum Sicardi. (July 4) In addition to his treaty with Sicard of Benevento, Duke Andrew II of Naples also makes new treaties with the duchies of Amalfi and Sorrento. These accords are meant to be of 5 years duration and to provide Greek merchants from Naples, Amalfi, and Sorrento freedom to travel safely through the principality of Benevento. Saracen pirates raid Brindisi. Saracens raiders strike deep into the Adriatic, attacking the Republic of Venice. 837 Less than a year after signing a new peace treaty, war again breaks out between Andrew of Naples and Sicard of Benevento. As he had done earlier, Andrew hires Aghlabid Saracen mercenaries. Saracens captureTricala (mod. Caltabellotta) in Sicily. Bassacio becomes abbot of Monte Cassino. 838 Saracens take Brindisi from the Beneventan Lombards. 839 (between July & Aug)  Andrew II of Naples sends an appeal to Lothair I, the Frankish king of Italy, for help against the aggression of the Lombards of Benevento. Lothair sends a noble named Contard (Contardus) with a force to Naples who soon begins to act like an enemy rather than an ally to Andrew. Andrew attempts to prevent any problems with Contard by offering him the hand of his daughter Eupraxia. Contard does not respond immediately to the offer. Radelchis I assassinates Sicard and becomes prince of Benevento. Amalfi gains its independence under Byzantine suzerainty. Pietro becomes the first comes (Count) of Amalfi. Other sources, however, state that in this year Amalfi was conquered by the Lombard Duchy of Benevento and did not gain independence until later. Constantine becomes hypatus/consul of Gaeta. The title hypatus is a Latinized form of the Greek hypatos, a designation used by Byzantine officials who controlled various Italian city-states between the 9th and 11th centuries. Saracens pillage Lipari and massacre much of the population. As a result of this attack, the relics of St. Bartholomew are transferred to Benevento for safe-keeping and most of the surviving residents abandon the island. Saracens launch raids from Sicily into Calabria. Byzantines in the theme of Sicily increase the number of their headquarters there from 2 to 9. Louis (the future Emperor Louis II), eldest son of Lothair, is designated King of Italy. Saracens capture Taranto. 840                 (June 20) Emperor Louis the Pious dies. The western empire is soon plunged into civil war as his sons (Lothar, Charles the Bald and Louis the German) fight for dominance. After the assassination of Sicard of Benevento, the people of Salerno revolt against the usurper Radelchis. They proclaim Siconulf, Sicard’s brother, as their prince. Salerno becomes an independent Lombard principality. A civil war will rage between Benevento and Salerno until 849. Landulf I, the gastald of Capua, allies himself with Siconulf of Salerno against Radelchis of Benevento. (Mar) Contard (Contardus), the Frankish noble, deposes and executes Andrew II, seizing the Duchy of Naples for himself. Contard soon finds himself opposed by the Neapolitan population who drive him out of Naples after only 3 days. The Neapolitans choose Sergius I, the dux of Cumae (then a dependency of Naples), to be their new Duke and magister militum. Sergius founds a new dynasty, the Sergi, who would rule Naples until 1137. Caesar “the Brave”, the son of Duke Sergius I, becomes Admiral of the Neapolitan fleet. Saracens capture Thermae Selinuntinae (mod. Sciacca [AG]). Saracens captures Santa Severina [KR]. They will hold the town until 886. Inhabitants of Formiae flee to Gaeta to escape from the Saracens. Saracens defeat a Venetian fleet in the Gulf of Taranto. The Saracens continue into the Adriatic, attacking the Po delta and Ancona. 841 Saracens destroy Marcianise in Campania. Some sources state that Marcianise was destroyed during the same raid that also destroyed old Capua, which would date it to 841. Unfortunately, the same source incorrectly dates the attack on Capua as taking place in 861, two decades too late. Radelchis of Benevento.sends his Saracen mercenaries against Capua. The ancient city is destroyed by the Saracens. Only the church of Santa Maria Maggiore (founded AD 497) survives the carnage. Around it a new town, Santa Maria in Capua Vetere, eventually arises. The survivors of old Capua, however, move to the site of the now-abandoned Casilinum, and there refound Capua. (alt. date: 840). Saracens advance to Quarnaro, destroying a Venetian fleet at the island of Sansego. Sergius I, duke of Naples, continues the policy started by Andrew II of forming alliances with to Saracens against their fellow Christians. 842 (Jan 20) Byzantine emperor Theophilus dies. He is succeeded by his 3 year old son Michael III. The Saracen Emir of Palermo, Abu-al-Aghlab, captures Messina from the Byzantines. They rename the city Msna. The Saracens receive help from Naples despite that duchy being both a Christian state and largely Byzantine Greek in population.  (alt. dates: 831, 843). Saracens destroy Formia. The survivors escape to Gaeta (alt. date 846). Radelchis, Lombard prince of Benevento, is overthrown by Saracen mercenaries whom he hired to attack Siconulf of Salerno. (Apr 10) Saracens capture Bari with the help of Naples. They use the city as a base for further raids along the coasts of Apulia and Campania. Locust swarms plague Sicily. 843 Treaty of Verdun brings an end to the conflict between the heirs of Louis the Pious. The Carolingian empire is permanently divided. Lothair retains the title of Emperor and rule over Italy. Iconoclasm ends in the Byzantine empire. Landulf becomes the first bishop of Capua Nova (to 879). Lando I becomes count of Capua. 844 (Jan 25) Pope Gregory IV dies. He is succeeded by Sergius II. (June 15) Louis II is formally crowned King of Italy at Rome by Pope Sergius II. St. Angelarius, Bishop of Canosa, transfers the relics of Sts. Rufinus, Memorus, and Sabinus from Canosa to Bari. He is named by Pope Sergius II as Bishop of both Canosa and Bari. 845 Modica falls to the Saracens, who change its name to Mudiquh. Saracens are defeated in a naval battle by the allied fleets of Naples, Amalfi, Gaeta, and Sorrento, under the command of Duke Sergius I. 846 Byzantines suffer a major defeat by the Saracens near Enna. Sources state the Greek losses at 9,000 killed. Lentini falls to the Saracens. A large Saracen fleet (73 vessels and 10,000 men) attacks Ponza and Capo Miseno. They sail north up the Italian coast and, on August 23, land at the mouth of the river Tiber. Although they are opposed by a Christian alliance (Naples, Amalfi, Gaeta, and Sorrento) the Saracen occupy Ostia and Porto. The Christian defenders of the castle of Gregoriopolis quickly retreat before the advancing Saracens. After defeating a papal force of Saxons, Frisons, and Franks in the countryside, the Saracens reach the suburbs of Rome. The basilicas of St. Peter and St. Paul, located outside the city walls, are sacked. The pirates, being unable to breach the Aurelian wall of Rome, depart and continue to advance inland as far as Subiaco. Upon learning of the advance of a relief army under King Louis II, the Saracens withdraw from the area arourd Rome. Moving south, they plunder Terracina and Fondi, and lay siege to Gaeta. The siege is broken by a violent storm and the arrival of the allied Christian fleet. The Neapolitan contingent of the fleet is commanded by Admiral Caesar “the Brave.” (alt. date: 847). The diocese of Gaeta is established when Constantine, bishop of Formiae, flees there from the Saracens. 847 Saracens Berbers defeat Pandone, the Beneventan gastald of Bari, and capture the city. A Berber emirate is established at Bari with Khalfun as the first emir. (Jan) Pope Sergius II dies. He is succeeded by Leo IV. Duke Sergius I of Naples and Duke Guy I of Spoleto arrange a peace agreement to end the war between the Lombard princes Siconulf of Salerno and Radelchis I of Benevento. Ischia is ravaged by the Saracens. Earthquake damages Isernia. 848 As a result of the recent Saracens raids, Pope Leo IV encircles the Vatican with walls. Leontini (mod. Lentini [SR]) is destroyed by the Saracens. (alt. date: 847). Ragusa is taken by the Saracens. Famine in Sicily. Amalfi enters into an alliance with the Papacy against the Saracens. Louis II, King of Italy, drives the Saracens from Benevento. (June) Earthquake in Samnium (Abruzzo). (c) Earliest definite evidence for the existence of the medical school at Salerno dates from 848 to 856. 849 First historical mention of the town of Tricarico (MT). It was, at that time, a Lombard county included in the gastaldato of Salerno. Battle of Ostia. A massive Saracen fleet, approaching Ostia at the mouth of the Tiber with the intent to sack Rome, is surprised by an allied fleet of Papal, Neapolitan, and Gaetan ships. The Christian fleet defeats the Saracens who are forced to retreat. The Neapolitan contingent is commanded by Duke Sergius I and his son, Admiral Caesar. Saracens taken prisoner at the battle of Ostia are put to work as slave labor, helping to strengthen the fortifications of Rome. Saracens plunder Luni and Capo Teulada on Sardinia. 850 (c) Pomarico (MT) is founded by the Byzantines. Lothair I raises his son Louis II the Younger to be co-emperor. Sergius I appoints his eldest son Gregory III to be co-Duke of Naples. Gregory is described as being a well-educated man fluent in both Greek and Latin. St. Athanasius I, second son of Sergius I, becomes bishop of Naples. Sergius I of Naples and Lando I of Capua go to war with one another. 851 Radelgar becomes prince of Benevento. Western Emperor Louis II marches into Campania and forces Benevento and Salerno to make peace. Siconulf is officially recognized as prince of Salerno. Siconulf, the newly confirmed prince of Salerno, dies. He is succeeded by his son Sico II. He is given the appellation “II” because Salerno had formerly been part of the principality of Benevento where Sico “I” had reigned from 817 to 832. Abu’l-Aghlab Abbas ibn Fadl ibn Ya’qub ibn Fezara becomes Saracen Aghlabid governor of Sicily. 852 Muffarag-ibn-Sallám becomes emir of Bari. Saracens launch a new series of raids on the coasts of Calabria and Campania (to 853). 853 Peter becomes prince of Salerno. He is soon replaced by Adhemar. Camarina is sacked by the Saracens. (Aug 31) Earthquake at Messina. 854 Adelchis succeeds his brother Radelgar as prince of Benevento. Butera is besieged by the Saracens. 855 (Mar 2) Emperor Lothair I dies. His son Louis II is now sole emperor in the west. (July 17) Pope Leo IV dies. He is succeeded, on September 29, by Benedict III. 856 Sawdan becomes emir of Bari. Saracens raid throughout the southern Italian mainland, attacking Isernia, Canosa, Capua, and Teano. Major flooding in Rome, followed by an epidemic, possibly of diphtheria. Bardas becomes regent for Byzantine emperor Michael III. (Apr) Bertario becomes abbot of Monte Cassino. 858 (Apr 7) Pope Benedict III dies. He is succeeded, on April 24, by Nicholas I. Aghlab, first Saracen governor of Sicily, dies at Palermo. He is succeeded by Abas. 859 Saracens under Abas ibn Fahdi capture Enna, ending a 30 year siege. They rename it Qasryānnih (Kasr Yannas). The besiegers had managed to enter the town through an unguarded sewer. Republic of Amalfi established. It survives until 958. (May 8) An allied expedition of 7,000 troops from Naples, Salerno, Amalfi, and Suessola, under the command of the sons of Duke Sergius I, co-Duke and magister militum Gregory III and Admiral Caesar of Naples, and their brother-in-law Landulf, the gastald of Suessola, march against Capua. The ruling Count of Capua, Lando I, afflicted with paralysis, turned the command of the Capuan army over to his son, Lando II. The battle was joined at the bridge of Teodemondo over the river Volturno. The Capuans were victorious and Caesar was taken prisoner along with 800 of his soldiers. Caesar was later released and continued to serve as Admiral of Naples until 870. 860 Vesuvius erupts. 861 Lando II becomes count of Capua. He is soon succeeded by Pando “the Rapacious”. Guaifer becomes prince of Salerno. Ahmad ibn Ya’qub ibn Fezara becomes Saracen Aghlabid governor of Sicily. 862 Pando, count of Capua, erects a fortified tower which forms the core for the city of Caserta. Pandenulf succeeds his father, Pando, as count of Capua. (alt. date. 863) ‘Abdallah ibn ‘Abbas ibn al-Fadl becomes Saracen Aghlabid governor of Sicily. He is soon replaced by Khafaja ibn Sufian ibn Sawada ibn Sufian ibn Salim. 863 Pandenulf is deposed and replaced as count of Capua by his uncle Landulf II. Heavy snowfall in Naples. 864 Sergius I dies. Gregory III becomes sole duke of Naples. Pope Nicholas I refuses to grant an annulment to Lothair II, brother of Emperor Louis II. In February, Emperor Louis II marches on Rome. Before he can act against the pope, however, Louis becomes seriously ill and makes peace instead. St. Elias “the Cave-Dweller” is born at Reggio Calabria. 866 Emperor Louis II achieves a major victory over Saracens in southern Italy but is unable to follow up because of his lack of a fleet. Duke Gregory III of Naples accompanies Louis II on his campaign against Capua, Salerno and Amalfi. Sergius, the son of Duke Gregory III of Naples, serves briefly as prefect of Amalfi. (Apr 21) Byzantine regent Bardas is murdered by Basil I on the order of Emperor Michael III. (May 26) Basil I is raised to the rank of co-emperor. Noto is captured by the Saracens. Docibilis I becomes ruler of Gaeta. It is believed that he gained power through a violent revolt against the previous co-hypati Constantine and his son Marinus. He does not initially take the title of hypatus/consul but rules as prefectus or prefecturius (prefect). (alt date 867). 867 (Sept 23/24) Byzantine Emperor Michael III is assassinated on the order of Basil I. Basil I is now sole emperor. (Nov 13) Pope Nicholas I dies. He is succeeded, on December 14, by Adrian II. Docibilis I, prefect of Gaeta, makes his son, John I, co-ruler. Duke Gregory III of Naples renounces his loyalty to Emperor Louis II and forms a new alliance with the Byzantines. He acknowledges the Byzantine Emperor Basil I as his suzerain and begins to mint coins bearing Basil’s image. 868 Aghlabid Saracens from Tunisia capture Malta. High mortality rates are recorded in Naples for both humans and animals. Emperor Louis II drives the Saracens from Matera, Venosa, and part of Calabria. 869 Emperors Louis II and Basil I form an alliance against the Saracens. Muhammad ibn Khafaja becomes Saracen Aghlabid governor of Sicily. 870 (Jan) Duke Gregory III of Naples falls seriously ill and turns the government over to his son Sergius II. Gregory III dies in March and Sergius II becomes duke of Naples. Duke Sergius II continues the tradition of the Neapolitan dukes by maintaining friendly relations with the Saracens. As a result, Sergius is excommunicated by Pope John VIII. When Sergius’s brothers, Bishop Athanasius I and Admiral Caesar, openly challenge his pro-Saracen policy, Sergius reacts harshly. Caesar is stripped of his position and imprisoned and Bishop Athanasius is exiled to a small island. Saracens sack Croton. The raiders kill the city’s bishop and many others who had taken refuge in the cathedral. Saracens raid into northern Italy and sack Ravenna. Malta is occupied by Aghlabid Saracens from Sicily. 871 Sawdan, the Berber emir of Bari, is defeated by the Franks under Louis II, who is assisted by the Byzantine fleet. Bari comes under Frankish control. Muhammad ibn Abi Husayn becomes Saracen Aghlabid governor of Sicily. He is replaced for a short time by Ribbah ibn Ya’qub ibn Fezara, who, in turn, is succeeded by Abu ‘Abbas ibn Ya’qub ibn ‘Abdallah. 872 (May 18) Louis II is crowned Emperor at Rome for a second time by Pope Adrian II. Pope Adrian II dies. He is succeeded, on December 14, by John VIII. Saracens make an unsuccessful attempt to capture Salerno. They are forced to break off their siege by the approach of Louis II’s army. The Saracens retreat south into Calabria where they pillage several towns. Bishop St. Athanasius is rescued from his exile by ships from Amalfi sent by Emperor Louis II. They sail for Rome but Athanasius dies before arriving. He is buried in the catacombs of San Gennaro. Ahmad ibn Ya’qub ibn Modha ibn Sawada ibn Sufian ibn Salim becomes Saracen Aghlabid governor of Sicily. He is soon replaced by Husayn ibn Ribbah. 873 Locust swarms spread across Italy, France and Italy. The principalities of Benevento and Salerno see the bulk of their crops destroyed. The result is widespread poverty throughout Italy. Abu ‘Abbas ‘Abdallah ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Abdallah ibn al-Aghlab becomes Saracen Aghlabid governor of Sicily. He is soon replaced by Abu Malik Ahmad ibn ‘Umar ibn ‘Abdallah ibn Ibrahim I ibn al-Aghlab. 874 Byzantines establish the thema of Langobardia (or Langobardia minor), encompassing all of the territory which they controlled of the southern Italian mainland. They retake Bari from the Franks and make it the seat of a strategos. The thema was divided between the strategoi (military governors) of Apulia and of Calabria. Plague in Rome. 875 (Aug 12) Emperor Louis II dies. On December 29, Louis’s brother, Charles II the Bald, is crowned western emperor and King of Italy after bribing the church. 876          (Aug 28) Louis the German, king of East Francia, dies. His 3 sons divide up his kingdom. Carloman, the eldest son of Louis II, becomes king of Bavaria. Pope John VIII travels to Campania to form an alliance with Capua and Salerno in preparation for a war against the Saracens. At Traetto, he also meets with Docibilis I, prefect of Gaeta, whom he had earlier excommunicated for making peace with the Saracens. The two rulers were unable to come to terms. Basil I becomes Byzantine strategos at Bari. A Byzantine garrison is planted at Bari. Dja’far ibn Muhammad ibn Khafaja becomes Saracen Aghlabid governor of Sicily. 877 Pope John VIII asks Charles the Bald for help against the Saracen attacks. In late June, Charles sets out for Italy with a small party and meets with the Pope at Vercelli. At the same time, Carloman of Bavaria enters eastern Lombardy with a large army. When Charles calls for his Frankish nobles to send troops to Italy they refuse because their own lands are under attack from the Vikings. Charles then decides to abandon his campaign against the Saracens and to return home. Enroute, however, on October 6, he suddenly dies, possibly the victim of poison. Carloman, meanwhile, is also forced to withdraw after an epidemic breaks out in his army. (Oct 6) Charles the Bald dies. The western imperial throne remains vacant until 890. Charles is succeeded as king of Western Francia (France), on December 8, by his son Louis the Stammerer.  Charles’s nephew, Carloman of Bavaria, becomes king of Italy. Carloman is the first German ruler to control the kingdom of Italy. Duke Sergius II of Naples is deposed by his brother Athanasius II, bishop of Naples. Sergius is blinded and sent as a prisoner to Rome. Docibilis and John assume the title of hypatus/consul of Gaeta. An affliction sweeps through Italy and into northern Europe, causing eye afflictions, coughing and plague. 878 Waifer becomes prince of Benevento. Bishop Athanasius II becomes duke of Naples having deposed his brother Sergius II. His seizure of political power was supported by Pope John VIII, who believed that Athanasius would finally break off the accord between Naples and the Saracens. Saracens besiege Syracuse. During the siege, the price of wheat in the city soars as supply dwindles. As a result, instances of cannibalism are reported which cause the spread of disease. The city is finally captured and sacked. Its great cathedral is converted into a mosque by the Saracens. al-Aghlab ibn Muhammad ibn al-Aghlab usurps the Saracen Aghlabid governorship in Sicily. He is soon ousted and Husayn ibn Ribbah, who had previous served as governor from 872 to 873, is restored. 879 (Apr 10) Louis the Stammerer, king of Western Francia, dies. His domain is divided up between Louis III and Carloman. Carloman suffers a severe stroke. Unable to rule, he abdicates and divides his domain between his brothers. Louis the Younger becomes king of Bavaria and Charles the Fat becomes king of Italy. Landulf II, count of Capua, dies. A succession crisis arises in which Pope John VIII arranges for Pandenulf to be restored as count over the claim of Lando. In return Pandenulf agrees to attack Docibilis I of Gaeta, the pope’s enemy. Pandenulf of Capua attacks Gaetan territory, capturing the town of Formia. Pope John VIII excommunicates Bishop/Duke Athanasius II of Naples for not breaking off Naples’s alliance with the Saracens. Taormina falls to the Saracens. Saracens sack Teano and Caserta and ravage the Roman Campagna. 880 Carloman dies. Guaimar I becomes prince of Salerno. Hasan ibn Abbas becomes the Saracen Aghlabid governor in Sicily. 881 (Feb 12) Charles the Fat, king of Italy, is crowned western emperor. Radelchis II becomes prince of Benevento. (c) Bishop/Duke Athanasius II takes control of Capua. This puts him in the awkward position of being a vassal to Prince Guaimar I of Salerno. 882 Pope John VIII dies. He is succeeded, on December 16, by Marinus I. Lando III becomes count of Capua. Agropoli, in Campania, is captured from the Byzantines by the Saracens. They turn the town into a base from which to launch further raids deeper into Italy. Docibilis I of Gaeta hires Saracen mercenaries from Agropoli in his war again Capua. Muhammad ibn Fadl becomes the Saracen Aghlabid governor in Sicily. Saracens capture Saepinum in Samnium. 883 (Oct 22) Monastery of Monte Cassino is destroyed by the Saracens. The monks escape and take refuge at Teano. Angelario I becomes the new abbot. (alt. date: 884) The Saracens plunder the Terra di Lavoro. (alt. date: 885). Husayn ibn Ahmad becomes the Saracen Aghlabid governor in Sicily. 884 (May 15) Pope Marinus I dies. He is succeeded, on May 17, by Adrian III. Radelchis II is deposed and replaced by Aiulf II as prince of Benevento. Theophilatus becomes Byzantine strategos at Bari. 885 (Sept) Pope Adrian III dies. He is succeeded by Stephen V. Landenulf I becomes count of Capua. Bari is established as the seat of the Byzantine Catapan (governor) of Apulia. Sawada ibn Muhammad ibn Khajafa becomes the Saracen Aghlabid governor in Sicily. 886 (Aug 29) Byzantine Emperor, Basil I, dies. He is succeeded by his step-son Leo VI. Trapezzi becomes Byzantine strategos at Bari. Pope Stephen V lifts the excommunication of Bishop/Duke Athanasius II of Naples. Despite this, Athanasius renews his alliance with the Saracens. The infuriated pope threatens Athanasius with a blockade. Abu ‘Abbas ibn ‘Ali becomes the Saracen Aghlabid governor in Sicily for a short time. His predecessor, Sawada ibn Muhammad ibn Khajafa, is reinstated as governor. 887  (Jan 7) Atenulf I becomes sole count of Capua with the help of Athanasius II of Naples. Charles the Fat, having briefly reunited parts of the old Carolingian Empire under his rule, is deposed and his domain again divided up. Odo, Count of Paris, takes Western Francia (France); Arnulf of Carinthia takes Eastern Francia (Germany); and Berengar of Friuli takes Italy. Saracens sack Paestum. The survivors abandon the ancient city and resettle nearby on higher territory at Capaccio Vecchio. 888 (Jan 13) Charles the Fat dies. Constantine I becomes Byzantine strategos at Bari. Despite their recent accord, Athanasius II of Naples and Atenulf I of Capua go to war over Liburnia. An indecisive battle is fought at S. Carzio on the river Clanio. 889 Duke Guy III of Spoleto is crowned king of Italy by Pope Stephen V. Guy is the son of Guy II of Spoleto and Itta, daughter of Sico, Prince of Benevento. Magyars (Hungarians) raid into Italy. 890 Orso becomes prince of Benevento. Creation of the Byzantine province of Lombardia in southern Italy. Misenum, on the coast of Campania, is destroyed by the Saracens. (Mar) Ragembrando becomes abbot of Teano (Monte Cassino). 891 (May) Pope Stephen V crowns King Guy III as western Emperor. Pope Stephen V dies. He is succeeded, on October 6, by Formosus. Principality of Benevento is occupied by the Byzantines. Sympaticius becomes Byzantine strategos at Bari. Muhammad ibn Fadl, who had served as the Saracen Aghlabid governor in Sicily in 882-883, is reinstated in that position. 892 Guy III forces Pope Formosus to crown Lambert II as western co-emperor. Lambert is Guy’s son by Ageltrude, daughter of Prince Adelchis of Benevento. George becomes Byzantine strategos at Bari. 893 Pope Formosus requests that Arnulf, king of eastern Francia, “liberate” Italy from the rule of the western co-emperors, Guy and Lambert. Formosus promises the imperial crown to Arnulf. Arnulf sends an army under his son Zwentibold who joins up with Guy’s rival, King Berengar I of Italy. The allied army defeats Guy in battle but he bribes them to withdraw. 894 Arnulf, king of eastern Francia, personally leads a new expedition against Emperor Guy into northern Italy. He occupies all of the territory north of the Po. In late autumn, Guy dies unexpectedly. Lambert II, under the tutelage of his mother Ageltrude, becomes sole western Emperor. His claims are contested by Arnulf, king of eastern Francia, Berengar of Friuli, who also claims the crown of Italy. Lampert, with Ageltrude, travels to Rome where he hopes that Pope Formosus will confirm his claims. Formosus, who is a supporter of Arnulf, temporarily throws Lambert into prison. Theodore becomes Byzantine strategos at Bari. He is soon replaced by Barascius. Earthquake strikes much of Apulia and Samnium. 895 (Jan) Lampert II and Ageltrude occupy Rome. (Sept) Pope Formosus sends a new request for help to Arnulf against those nobles who still support Lambert II. Arnulf launches a new expedition into northern Italy. Guy, duke of Spoleto, becomes prince of Benevento. Duke Athanasius II of Naples provokes an unsuccessful revolt of the Neapolitans living in Salerno. The insurrection is put down by Prince Guaimar II. stir up 896 (Feb 21) Arnulf captures Rome and frees Pope Formosus. Formosus then deposes Lambert II and crowns Arnulf as King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor. Arnulf marches against Lampert II and Ageltrude at Spoleto. Before he reaches the city, however, he suffers a stroke and is forced to withdraw back to Germany. (Apr 4) Pope Formosus dies and is succeeded by Boniface VI. After a reign of only 15 days, Boniface dies and is succeeded in May by Stephen VI (VII). With the withdrawal of Arnulf and the death of Pope Formosus, Lambert II is restored to power in Italy. 897 (July or Aug) Pope Stephen VI (VII) is deposed and assassinated. He is succeeded, in August, by Romanus.  In November, Romanus is deposed and replaced by Theodore II. After a reign of only 20 days Theodore II dies in December. Peter, Bishop of Benevento, becomes regent of that principality for a short time. Radelchis II, who had been deposed in 884, is restored as prince of Benevento. 898 (Jan) John IX becomes Pope. Athanasius II of Naples dies. He is succeeded as duke by his nephew Gregory IV and as bishop by his brother Stephen. Saracens sack the Badia di Farfa in Lazio. 899 Abu Malik Ahmad ibn ‘Umar ibn ‘Abdallah ibn Ibrahim I ibn al-Aghlab, who had served as the Saracen Aghlabid governor in Sicily in 873–876, is reinstated in that position for a short time. He is soon replaced by Abu’L-Abbas ‘Abdallah ibn Ibrahim II. (Nov/Dec) Leone becomes abbot of Teano (Monte Cassino). (Dec 9) Arnulf, king of eastern Francia, dies. 900 Pope John IX dies. He is succeeded in February by Benedict IV. Louis the Blind becomes King of Italy. (Jan) Atenulf I, count of Capua, conquers the principality of Benevento. The two principalities remained united until 981. Guaimar II becomes prince of Salerno. Docibilis I of Gaeta attacks Capua with the help of Saracen mercenaries. Melisianus becomes Byzantine strategos at Bari. Eruption of Vesuvius.
10th Century Dioceses established in the 10th Century: Termoli, Trivento. Diocese of Brindisi is raised to the status of a Metropolitan Archdiocese. Diocese of Naples (Napoli) is raised to the status of a Metropolitan Archdiocese. Diocese of Salerno is raised to the status of a Metropolitan Archdiocese. Diocese of Taranto is raised to the status of a Metropolitan Archdiocese. 901 Louis the Blind becomes western emperor. Landulf III becomes co-count of Capua and co-prince in Benevento (as Landulf I) under Atenulf I. 902 (Aug 1) Aghlabid emir Abu’L-Abbas ‘Abdallah ibn Ibrahim II attacks and destroys Taormina. Docibilis I of Gaeta makes another attack on Capua with the help of Saracen mercenaries. Abu Mudar Ziyadat Allah ibn ‘Abdallah II becomes the Saracen Aghlabid governor in Sicily. 903 Pope Benedict IV dies. He is succeeded by Leo V. Leo V is deposed after a reign of only 30 days by the antipope Christopher. In October, Leo is imprisoned and assassinated. 904 (Jan 29) The antipope Christopher is deposed and Sergius III becomes pope. Saracens sack Nola. 905 Emperor Louis the Blind invades Italy but is defeated by Berengar. He is captured and has his eyes burned out. He is then forced to abdicate and Berengar I succeeds him as King of Italy and western emperor. 906 John I and Docibilis II, son and grandson of Docibilis I, become co-hypati of Gaeta. This is the last historical mention of Docibilis I and it is uncertain whether he died at this time or retired.. 908 (May 15) Constantine VII, the son of Leo VI, and nephew of Alexander, is associated on the Byzantine throne with him father and uncle. 909 Saracen Aghlabid dynasty in North Africa is overthrown by the Fatimids. 910 Landulf III unites the principalities of Capua and Benevento under his rule. He now assumes the title of Prince. Sicily comes under the rule of the Saracen Fatimid dynasty. 911 (Apr 14) Pope Sergius III dies. He is succeeded in April by Anastasius III. Atenulf II becomes co-prince of Capua and Benevento.               912 (May 11) Byzantine Emperor Leo VI dies. He is succeeded by his younger brother Alexander III. Saracens sack the Abbazia di Novalesa in Piedmont. 913 (June) Pope Anastasius III dies. He is succeeded in July or August by Lando. (June 6) Byzantine Emperor Alexander dies of exhaustion. His young nephew Constantine VII becomes sole emperor with Patriarch Nicholas Mystikos as regent. Saracens launch new attacks in Calabria. 914 (Feb or Mar) Pope Lando dies. He is succeeded in February or March by John X. Empress Zoe replaces Patriarch Nicholas Mystikos as regent for Byzantine emperor Constantine VII. Docibilis II becomes duke of Gaeta. (Sept) Giovanni I becomes abbot of Capua (Monte Cassino). Saracens establish bases at Trevi in Umbria and Sutri near Rome. 915 John II becomes duke of Naples. Nicholas (called Piccingli) becomes Byzantine strategos at Bari. (summer) Battle of the Garigliano. Christian League (Papacy, Salerno, Gaeta, Naples, Benevento, Capua, Spoleto, Marche, Byzantines) launch a major campaign to clear central Italy of Saracen raiders. A series of early Christian victories force the Saracens centered at Narni and Ciculi to fall back and mass their forces at their principal stronghold on the river Garigliano. The Christians lay siege to the citadel in June. After a short siege the Saracens abandon their main positions and concentrate in the nearby hills. From there the struggle became a series of repeated Christian attacks that were beaten back successfully. Finally, as their supplies dwindled, the Saracens launched a counter-attack with all their forces in an attempt to reach the sea and escape by ship back to Sicily. In the ensuing battle, the Saracens were completely destroyed. Those taken prisoner were all executed. As a reward for his services in the battle against the Saracens at the river Garigliano, John I, hypatus of Gaeta, receives the title of Patrician (patricius) from the Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII. Saracens are driven from their base at Agropoli, which they have held since 882. Capaccio (SA) founded by former residents of now-destroyed Paestum. Earliest evidence for a casale (=household) at Adria [BA]. 916 Saracens raid in the Savoy region. 919 Admiral Romanus Lekapenos replaces Empress Zoe as regent for Byzantine emperor Constantine VII. He quickly marries his daughter Helena to Constantine. Romanus becomes basileopatōr in May, Caesar in September, and finally co-emperor (as Romanos I) in December. Marinus I becomes duke of Naples. 921 Orseolo becomes Byzantine strategos at Bari. 922 Saracens sack Taranto. 924 Saracens capture Sant’Agata in Calabria. 925 Saracen raids continue throughout Calabria. Saracens raids continue in Apulia. The towns in the Terra d’Otranto suffer several attacks. On July 4, Oria is attacked by a Saracen force led by Ja’far ibn ‘Ubaid who massacres the town’s Christian and Jewish population. 927 (Aug 15) Saracens attack and destroy Taranto. 928 Rome is seized by Marozia, senatrix patricia Romanorum, and her husband Guy, margrave of Tuscany. Pope John X is captured and executed. He is succeeded in May by Leo VI. In December, after a reign of only about seven months, Leo VI dies. John III becomes duke of Naples. 929 Saracen raids continue along the coasts of Calabria. Stephen VII (VIII), a puppet of Marozia, becomes pope. 930 Saracens sack Paestum. 931 Pope Stephen VII (VIII) dies. He is succeeded in March by John XI, the son of Marozia and Alberic of Spoleto. There are some sources, notably Liutprand of Cremona and the Liber Pontificalis, which say that John XI was actually the illegitimate son of Pope Sergius III. His appointment as pope was arranged by his mother who had complete control over him. 932 Alberic II, son of Marozia, deposes his mother and his step-father, Hugh, King of Italy, from their rulership of Rome. Seizing the city for himself he manages to capture Marozia and imprisons her for the remainder of her life. Hugh manages to escape back to the north. Alberic also forces Pope John XI, his older brother, to acknowledge him as ruler. 933 Atenulf III Carinola becomes co-prince of Capua and Benevento. Docibilis II and John II become co-dukes and consuls of Gaeta. Pope John XI grants the bishops of Bari the right to wear the pallium. 934 (Apr 6) Adelperto becomes abbot of Capua (Monte Cassino). Saracens raid the coast of Liguria. 935 Epiphanuso becomes Byzantine strategos at Bari. Pope John XI is deposed. Saracens sack Genoa. 936 (Jan 3) Leo VII becomes pope. His election was arranged by Alberic II, ruler of Rome. Saracens attempt to attack the town of Acqui in Piedmont but are successfully repulsed by the defenders led by Count Aleramo. 939 (July 13) Pope Leo VII dies. He is succeeded, on July 14, by Stephen VIII (IX), who was a puppet of Alberic II. 940 Landulf IV “the Red” becomes co-prince of Capua and Benevento (as Landulf II) (alt. date: 939). Imogalaptus becomes Byzantine strategos at Bari. Famine in Italy. (c) Johannes Gorziensis, a monk from the region of Metz, visits southern Italy. He acquires a number of manuscripts to bring back with him. Through his efforts several classical works, including Aristotle’s Categories and Porphyry’s Isagogia, are introduced to Germany. Saracens raid through the St. Bernard pass in the Alps. 942 (Oct) Pope Stephen VIII (IX) dies. He is succeeded, on October 30, by Marinus II, whose election was arranged by Alberic II. 943 Pandulf I “Ironhead” becomes co-prince of Capua and Benevento. Baldovino and Maielpoto both becomes abbots of Capua (Monte Cassino). 944 (Dec 16) Byzantine Emperor Romanos I is deposed by his sons, leaving Constantine VII as sole emperor. Romanos’s life is spared but he he forced to become a monk. 945 (Apr 6) Constantine VII raises his son, Romanos II, to be co-emperor. 946 Pope Marinus II is deposed and replaced, on May 10, by Agapetus II. Gisulf I becomes prince of Salerno. 948 (Oct 25) Benedictine monastery at Monte Cassino is restored with Aligerno as abbot. (Dec 16) Romanus I Lecapenus, former Byzantine Emperor, dies. Hassan al-Kalbi is appointed emir of Sicily by the Fatimid Caliph Ismail al-Mansur (to 964). He founds the Saracen Kalbid dynasty of emirs which would rule Sicily until 1053. 949 A epidemic, described by sources as a “great disease” , strikes Salerno and Benevento. 950 (c) Ibn Haukal, Saracen traveler and writer, visits Palermo. The Saracens under the Emir of Palermo attack Reggio and Gerace in southern Calabria and lay siege to Cassano allo Jonio in northern Calabria. 951 Earthquake damages Rossano in Calabria. 952 Saracens establish colonies in Calabria as forward bases for future raids. Giovanni II, bishop of Bari, refuses to obey the prescriptions of the Patriarch of Constantinople regarding liturgical points. Although the see of Bari remains a dependency of Constantinople, this breach will continue to grow until, in the 11th century, Bari transfers its loyalties to the Popes in Rome. 953 Mastalus I, Patrician (patricius) of Amalfi, dies and is succeeded by his son, Mastalus II. 954 Docibilis II dies leaving John II as sole hypatus/duke of Gaeta. 955 (Nov 8) Pope Agapetus II dies. He is succeeded, on December 16, by John XII. Marianus becomes Byzantine strategos at Bari. 957 Mastalus II, the Patrician of Amalfi, becomes duke. 958 Sergius I, a member of the Musco Comite, assassinates Mastalus II, and assumes the title of duke of Amalfi. Petrus, bishop of Otranto. Is promoted to a Metropolitan by Polyeutus, Patriarch of Constantinople. 959 (Nov 9) Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII dies. Romanos II is sole Byzantine emperor. Landulf V becomes co-prince of Capua and Benevento (as Landulf III). 960 Saracens attempt to raid into the Val d’Aosta but are repulsed. 962 (Feb 2) Pope John XII crowns Otto I as Holy Roman Emperor. Gregory becomes duke of Gaeta. 963 Emperor Otto I, having discovered a conspiracy against him by Berengar II of Italy and Pope John XII. He quickly defeats and imprisons Berengar and then marches on Rome. John XII flees from the city and takes refuge in Campania. Otto then deposes John XII and, on December 6, has Leo VIII elected as the new pope. Following the defeat of a Byzantine expedition in Sicily, a treaty is concluded with the Saracens. 964 Upon the departure of Emperor Otto I, the deposed pope John XII, returns to Rome with his own army. Leo VIII flees and is deposed by a synod called by John XII. Otto I prepares to restore him and marches back to Rome. Before Otto reaches the city, however, John XII dies on May 14. (May 22) Benedict V is elected as Pope but Emperor Otto I refuses to approve the election. Benedict is deposed on June 23 and sent to Hamburg where he died in 966. (July) Pope Leo VIII is restored to the papal throne. 965 (Mar ) Pope Leo VIII dies. He is succeeded, on March 1, by John XIII. In December he was kidnapped by a conspiracy of nobles and imprisoned. Alife becomes an independent county. Rametta, the last Byzantine stronghold in Sicily, falls to the Saracens, completing their conquest of the island. The Saracens immediately launch a new invasion of Calabria. 966 Manso I becomes duke of Amalfi. Nicephorus becomes Byzantine strategos at Bari. Pope John XIII escapes from prison and takes refuge with at Capua under the protection of Prince Pandulf I. In gratitude for this, John raises (Aug 14) the see of Capua to the status of an archdiocese. The first archbishop is John who holds the seat until 973. 967 Pandulf I “Ironhead” becomes duke of Spoleto. 968 (Dec 1) Eruption of Vesuvius. Landulf VI becomes co-prince of Capua and Benevento (as Landulf IV). Landulf III, prince of Benevento, dies. He is succeeded by Landulf IV. John III, duke of Naples, dies. He is succeeded by his elder son Marinus II. Tricarico captured by the Byzantines. A cathedral is erected there by order of Polyeutos, the Patriarch of Constantinople. 969 Eugenius becomes Byzantine strategos at Bari. He is soon replaced by Abdila. (May 26) Benevento is promoted to the status of a Metropolitan Archdiocese. Earliest historical mention of a diocese of Ausculum Appulum (mod Ascoli). It was listed as a suffragan to Benevento. Byzantine Emperor Nikephoros II Phokas dies. He is succeeded, on December 11, by John I. Reinstatement of Alife as a diocese. 972 (Sept 6) Pope John XIII dies. The autonomous Kalbid Saracens take control of Sicily. 973 (Jan 19) Benedict VI, a supporter of Emperor Otto I, becomes pope. (May 7) Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor, dies. He is succeeded by his son Otto II. 974 (July or Aug) Pope Benedict VI dies. He is succeeded in October by Benedict VII. 975 Sergius III becomes duke of Naples. Zachary becomes Byzantine strategos at Bari. 976 (Jan 10) Byzantine Emperor John I dies. He is succeeded by Basil II. Holy Roman Emperor Otto II and Pope Benedict VII are acknowledged as feudal suzerains of Gaeta. 977 Heavy snowfalls are reported in Salerno and Calabria. Saracens capture Reggio di Calabria, Taranto, Otranto, and Oria. 978 Pandulf I “Ironhead” becomes prince of Salerno. Marinus II becomes duke of Gaeta. Saracens continue raiding in Calabria. 979 John III becomes co-duke of Gaeta. Porphyry becomes Byzantine strategos at Bari. Andrea, bishop of Brindisi, is killed by the Saracens. 980 Empress Theophano (Theophanu, Theophania), the Byzantine-born wife of Otto II, convinces her husband to conquer the Greek provinces of Italy. The imperial couple march their army to Ravenna. 981 (Mar) Pandulf I “Ironhead” dies. Landulf VI rules briefly as sole prince of Benevento. He then withdraws back to Capua. Pandulf II becomes prince of Benevento. Pandulf II becomes prince of Salerno but is soon replaced by Manso I, the duke of Amalfi. Manso makes his son, John I, co-prince. More Saracen raiding in Calabria. 982 The principalities of Capua and Benevento are split up again. Byzantines form an alliance with the Saracens against the threat from Emperor Otto II. Landenulf II becomes prince of Capua. Calochyrus (called Delfinus) becomes Byzantine strategos at Bari. (July 13) Battle of Basientello. Otto II suffers a major defeat from an army of 40,000 Kalbid Saracens near Crotone. Among those who fell were Pandulf II of Salerno and Landulf IV of Benevento. Otto was nearly captured but escaped by plunging his horse into the sea and swimming to a Greek ship off-shore. Now among his Byzantine enemies, he kept his identity secret. A Slavonian on board, however, recognized him but proved himself to be a friend. The sailor kept Otto’s identity a secret and convinced the rest of the crew to sail to Rossano where they might ransom the newcomer. Once they reached the town, the Slavonian went ashore and gathered a group which rescued Otto. Jabir al-Kalbi succeeds Abu al-Qasim as Kalbid emir of Sicily. 983 (Dec 7) Holy Roman Emperor Otto II dies in Rome. His wife, Theophano, has their 3 year old son, Otto III, crowned as emperor on Christmas. Theophano, as Empress-regent, holds the reins of government. (Dec) Pope Benedict VII dies. He is succeeded by John XIV. John II becomes prince of Salerno. Jafar al-Kalbi succeeds Jabir al-Kalbi as Kalbid emir of Sicily. 984 (Aug 20) Pope John XIV is assassinated by antipope Boniface VII. Adelfer, brother of Manso I, usurps the duchy of Amalfi during Manso’s absence in Salerno. Marinus III dies leaving John III as sole duke of Gaeta. 985 (July 20) Antipope Boniface VII is assassinated. (Aug) Pope John XV becomes pope. Romano and his son (name unknown) become co-Byzantine strategoi at Bari. Abd-Allah al-Kalbi succeeds Jafar al-Kalbi as Kalbid emir of Sicily. 986 Manso I returns to Amalfi and resumes his rule there. His brother, the usurper Adelfer, flees to Naples with his wife Drosu. (Nov 14) Mansone becomes abbot of Monte Cassino. Saracens sack Gerace. 987 Landulf V becomes co-prince of Benevento. Sergius becomes Byzantine strategos at Bari. Diocese of Amalfi is raised to the status of an Archdiocese by Pope John XV. Saracens sack Cassano allo Jonio. 988 Saracens seize Cosenza and Terra di Bari. 989 John I (called Ammirapolo) becomes Byzantine strategos at Bari. (Oct 25) Earthquake strikes the Irpinia region of Campania. A revolt at Rome is put down by the Empress Theophano. 990 Tubali becomes Byzantine strategos at Bari. Yusuf al-Kalbi succeeds Abd-Allah al-Kalbi as Kalbid emir of Sicily (to 998). 991 John IV becomes co-duke of Gaeta. Eruption of Vesuvius. 992 Major crop losses due to heavy rainfall cause an economic crisis at Naples. 993 Laidulf becomes prince of Capua. Plague in Capua. Eruption of Mt. Vesuvius. 994 Guaimar III becomes prince of Salerno. 995 Severe drought grips Italy from May to December. 996 (Mar/Apr) Pope John XV dies before he is able to crown Otto III as Holy Roman Emperor. Otto is forced to wait at Pavia until a new pope can be chosen. On May 3, Gregory V becomes pope and crowns the 16 year old Otto III as emperor on May 21. The 24 year old Gregory V is the first German pope and is Otto III’s first cousin. Giovanni II becomes abbot of Monte Cassino. Disease kills many horses in Italy. 997 The Roman noble Crescentius II, supported by the Byzantine emperor Basil II, leads a rebellion in Rome which overthrows Pope Gregory V. Crescentius places the antipope John XVI (born Johannes Philagathos in Rossano, Calabria) on the papal throne. (alt date: 998) (Oct) Giovanni III becomes abbot of Monte Cassino. Theodore II becomes Byzantine strategos at Bari. 998 (Feb) Emperor Otto III captures Rome and puts down the revolt there. The revolts leader, Crescentius, is executed. The antipope John XVI is captured and mutilated. Gregory V is restored to the papal throne. Ja’far al-Kalbi succeeds Yusuf al-Kalbi as Kalbid emir of Sicily. 999 (Feb 18) Pope Gregory V dies suddenly under suspicious circumstances. He is succeeded, on April 2, by Silvester II. Adhemar becomes prince of Capua. He is soon replaced by Landulf VII John IV becomes duke of Naples. (or 998)The status of the Byzantine strategos of Bari/Apulia is raised to the status of a Catapan. The title Catapan derives from the Greek word for “the uppermost” or “the highest.” Protospatharius Gregory Tarchaneiotes (Tracanioto) becomes Catapan of Apulia. (Dec) Byzantine Catapan of Italy Gregory Tarchaneiotes confirms the possessions of the monastery of Monte Cassino. Eruption of Mt. Vesuvius lasting into 1000. 1000 Marsicovetere (PZ) becomes the seat of a county. Cathedral of Acerenza [PZ] is built on the site of an earlier church. (c) Romanesque cathedral built at Matera. 11th Century Dioceses established in the 12th Century: Acerra, Andria, Anglona, Ariano, Ascoli Satriano, Boiano, Castellaneta, Lacedonia, Melfi, Mileto, San Severo, Tricarico. Diocese of Acerenza is raised to the status of a Metropolitan Archdiocese. Diocese of Palermo is raised to the status of a Metropolitan Archdiocese. Diocese of Reggio Calabria is raised to the status of a Metropolitan Archdiocese. Diocese of Matera is raised to the status of a Metropolitan Archdiocese. Diocese of Otranto is raised to the status of a Metropolitan Archdiocese. Diocese of Trani is raised to the status of a Metropolitan Archdiocese. Church of S. Giorgio is built at Campobasso on the site of an ancient temple. 1001 Citizens of Tricarico in Lucania petition the Byzantine Catapan, Gregory Tracanioto, to have their city-territory redefined because of the devastation caused by the Saracens. 1002 (Jan 23) Holy Roman Emperor Otto III dies at the castle of Paterno in Civita Castellana, near Viterbo. Only 22 years old, his cause of death is uncertain, some sources saying he succumbed to malaria, while others claim that he was poisoned by Stefania, the widow of Crescentius II. Henry II, duke of Bavaria, and Otto III’s cousin, becomes king of Germany. (Feb 2) Byzantine Catapan of Italy Gregory Tarchaneiotes repeats his confirmation of the possessions of the monastery of Monte Cassino. Sergius IV becomes duke of Naples. Saracens raid into Campania. Benevento is attacked and the countryside near Naples is devastated. Capua is besieged by the raiders. 1003 (May 12) Pope Silvester II dies and is succeeded by John XVII on May 16. John XVII dies on November 6 and is succeeded on December 25 by John XVIII. Saracens ravage the countryside around Taranto. 1004 John I becomes duke of Amalfi. Ischia is occupied the German King Henry II. Gregory Tarchaneiotes, the Byzantine Catapan of Apulia, fortifies and expands the castle of Dragonara on the Fortore. Four new towers (3 circular and 1 square) are added to the castle. Famine and widespread disease are reported in Rome. 1005 A severe drought in southern Italy leads to economic crisis, famine, and an outbreak of plague throughout Calabria and Apulia. The suffering continues until 1007. Saracens make serious inroads throughout Apulia and Calabria. 1006 Alexius Xiphias becomes protospatharius and Catapan of Apulia/Italy. (Dec 31) Eruption of Vesuvius. 1007 Byzantine Catapan Alexius Xiphias promulgates a diploma favoring Alexander, abbot of S. Giovanni in Lamis. Pandulf II becomes prince of Capua. Sergius II becomes duke of Amalfi. Byzantine Catapan Alexius Xiphias is killed in battle. 1008 John III dies leaving John IV as sole duke of Gaeta. (May) John Curcuas arrives at Bari to take the post of Catapan of Apulia/Italy. 1009 (June) Pope John XVIII dies. He is succeeded on July 31 by Sergius IV. Pandulf III becomes co-prince of Capua. (May 9) Lombard revolt led by Melus (Melo) against the Byzantines breaks out in Bari. It soon spreads to other cities in Apulia. (late in year)  John Curcuas, Byzantine Catapan of Apulia, is killed in battle with Lombard rebels. Some sources place this in early 1010. 1010 John I, duke of Amalfi, receives the title of Patrician (patricius) from the Byzantine Emperor Basil II “the Bulgar-slayer.” Giovanni IV, Docibile di Gaeta, becomes abbot of Monte Cassino. (Mar) Basil II Mesardonite (Basil Argyros Mesardonites) becomes Catapan of Apulia/Italy. Supported by Leo Tornikios Kontoleon, the strategos of Cephalonia, Basil lays siege to Bari, then in the hands of Lombard rebels. 1011 (June 11) Catapan Basil Argyros Mesardonites enters Bari after the Greek inhabitants of the city arrange for its surrender. The Lombard leaders, Melus and Dattus, manage to escape. Basil sends the family of Melus as hostages to Constantinople but makes no resprisals against the Lombards in Bari. (Oct) Catapan Basil Argyros Mesardonites visits Salerno, whose prince, Guaimar III, is a nominal vassal of the Byzantines. He then moves on to the abbey of Monte Cassino where he successfully demands that Abbot Atenulf stop sheltering the fugitive Dattus on monastery property. When Basil confirms Monte Cassino’s privileges on land in Byzantine territory, Dattus is forced to flee again, taking shelter in papal territory. Atenolfo becomes abbot of Monte Cassino. (winter) Naples endures severe cold, wet, and windy weather. Famine and economic crisis result from the losses of crops and livestock. 1012 (May 12) Pope Sergius IV dies. He is succeeded on May 18 by Benedict VIII. Pandulf III becomes co-prince of Benevento. (Apr or Aug) John IV, duke of Gaeta, dies. Leo I “the usurper” seizes power and drives away the legitimate heir, John V, the infant son of John IV. In October, the supporters of John V drive Leo from office. John V is restored to power with his maternal grandmother, the Roman senetrix, Emilia, as regent. 1014 (Feb 14) Pope Benedict VIII crowns Henry II as Holy Roman Emperor. Sergius II, duke of Amalfi, names his son, John II, as co-duke and successor. 1015 Leo II, uncle and tutor to John V, duke of Gaeta, takes over the regency in opposition to his own mother Emilia. Locust swamps afflict Calabria and Benevento in May and June. 1016 Pandulf IV “the Wolf of the Abruzzi” becomes co-prince of Capua. Byzantine Catapan of Italy Basil Argyros Mesardonites dies (or 1017). The Saracens destroy the town of Luna in Tuscany. Pope Benedict VIII intercepts the raiders and drives them out of Tuscany. The Saracens retreat south and lay siege to Salerno. The siege was broken by a band of Norman pilgrims who had arrived at Salerno on their return journey from Jerusalem. 1017 Norman mercenaries join Lombards in rebellion against the Byzantines in Apulia. (May) Leo Tornikios Kontoleon (aka Andronicus Turnichio) becomes Byzantine Catapan of Apulia/Italy. A Byzantine army under general Leo Passianos meets a Lombard force under Melus at Arenula, on the river Fortore in June. Sources are contradictory about whether this battle ended in a draw or a Lombard victory. Catapan Tornikios then takes personal command of the Byzantine forces. A second battle is fought near Civita, near Cosenza, which probably ended in a Lombard victory, though some sources say otherwise. It was during this battle that general Leo Passianos was slain. A third battle was fought at Vaccaricia, in northern Apulia, which ended in a decisive Lombard victory. Because of his failure against the Lombard rebels, Catapan Leo Tornikios Kontoleon is recalled to Constantinople in September. (Dec) Emperor Basil II appoints Basil Boioannes (Basil III Bugiano) as Catapan of Apulia. 1018 In response to a request by Catapan Basil Boioannes for reinforcements, a unit of the elite Varangian Guard is sent to Italy. Byzantines under Catapan Basil Boioannes defeat Lombard mercenaries and their Norman allies at the river Ofanto near Cannae. The Lombard leader Melus is forced to retreat back into papal territory. He is never able to renew the rebellion and eventually settles at the court of Emperor Henry II at Bamberg. Several of the Normans, after having suffered heavy losses in the battle, enter Byzantine service while others hire themselves out as mercenaries to various Lombard lords. Basil Boioannes founds Troia in Apulia on the site of ancient Aecae. He garrisons this stronghold with Norman mercenaries in the Byzantine army. (alt. date: 1019). Boioannes founds other towns in Apulia at this time, including Torremaggiore [FG]. Basil Boioannes continues his campaign and eventually restores Byzantine control over most of the southern Italian mainland. Only the Lombard duchy of Benevento, a vassal of the Papacy, successfully resists. 1019 Ja’far al-Kalbi, the Kalbid Emir of Sicily, dies. He is succeeded by al-Akhal (to 1037). 1020 Melus of Bari dies at Bamberg. Emperor Henry II gives him a state funeral. Pope Benedict VIII goes to Bamberg to appeal for help from the Holy Roman Emperor, Henry II, against the new rising Byzantine power in southern Italy. Byzantines under Basil Boiannes, supported by Prince Pandulf IV of Capua, capture the stronghold of the Lombard rebel Dattus on the river Garigliano. On June 15, Dattus, who was the brother-in-law of Melus, is executed. He is sewn into a sack with a monkey, a rooster and a snake and thrown into the sea. (alt. date: 1021). The Knights Hospitaller are established at Jerusalem. 1022 The German ruler Henry II marches into southern Italy and captures Capua and Benevento. He then attacks the new Byzantine stronghold at Troia but fails to defeat the Norman garrison there. After failing to capture the city, Henry withdraws to the north. Basil Boiannes grants special privileges to Troia in reward for its loyalty. (June) Teobaldo becomes abbot of Monte Cassino. Emperor Henry II drives Pandulf IV from Capua, and makes Pandulf V of Teano the new prince there. 1024 (Apr 9) Pope Benedict VIII dies. He is succeeded on April 19 by John XIX. (July 13) Holy Roman Emperor Henry II dies. He was canonized as a saint in 1146. Conrad II, who is elected as the new king of the Germans and crowned on September 8, begins the Salian (Franconian) dynasty. 1025 Basil Boiannes and Byzantine Emperor Basil II “the Bulgar-Slayer (Boulgaroktonos)” prepare an expedition to attack the Saracens in Sicily. In April, a Byzantine force under the eunuch Orestes is sent to Sicily in advance of the main Byzantine army but Basil II becomes ill and dies before the expedition sets out. The new emperor, Constantine VIII, cancels the enterprise. Basil Boiannes turns his attention to helping his ally Pandulf IV, who had earlier been driven from Capua. Catapan Basil Boiannes reorganizes the Catapanate of Apulia/Italy. Basil Boiannes grants the request of Archbishop Byzantius (Bisanzio) of Bari to return the see of Bari to the control of the pope. Byzantius obtains the privilege from the pope to consecrate his suffragans. Ioannes, archbishop of Bari, dies and is succeeded by Byzantius. Benedictine monastery of Trinità dell’ Cava is built of Monte Finestra, near the town of Cava in Campania, by Prince Guaimar IV of Salerno. (Dec 15) Byzantine emperor Basil II dies. He is succeeded by his younger brother Constantine VIII. 1026 (May) Catapan Basil Boiannes forces Pandulf V of Teano to capitulate at Capua, granting him safe conduct to Naples. Pandulf IV is then restored as prince of Capua. Conrad II is crowned King of Italy at Milan. 1027 (Mar 26, Easter) Pope John XIX crowns Conrad II as Holy Roman Emperor. Guaimar III dies. He is succeeded by his son Guaimar IV as prince of Salerno. Pandulf IV, prince of Capua, seizes control of the duchy of Naples (to 1030). Catepan Basil Boiannes restores the city of Reggio, apparently after a raid by Saracen pirates. Basil Boiannes is recalled to Constantinople. He is replaced as Catapan of Apulia/Italy by Christopher (Christophoros) Burgaris. (alt. date: 1028). Obbiano is captured by the Saracens. Bari repeals a Saracen attack. 1028 (Nov 15) Byzantine Emperor Constantine VIII dies. He is succeeded by his daughter Zoe and her husband Romanos III Argyros. (c) Andronicus (Andronikos) arrives in Italy. Manso II and his mother Maria seize control of Amalfi. Sergius II and John II flee to Constantinople. Heavy rains fall throughout Italy. 1029 Pandulf receives Aversa as a fief, which becomes the first Norman state in southern Italy. John II returns from Constantinople to Amalfi and regains power there as duke of Amalfi. Byzantine general (koitonites) Orestes is defeated by the Saracens in Sicily. (June) Prince Guaimar IV of Salerno dies. (July) Pothos Argyrus arrives in Italy with an army to replace Christopher (Christophoros) Burgaris as Byzantine Catapan of Apulia/Italy. Soon after his arrival, Pothos Argyrus is defeated in battle at Bari by Saracen raiders under Rayca. Argyrus the Elder returns from exile to Apulia. Saracens under Rayca and Zaffari lay siege to Obbiano. The people of the town successfully negotiate an agreement with the Saracens to depart. Saracens raid the coast of Apulia. Two Jews are burned at the stake at Bari for smashing a cross. Death of Ioannes of Monopoli. 1030 Pandulf IV, prince of Capua, is driven from Naples. Sergius IV is restored to power. Rainulf I Drengot becomes the first count of Aversa, the first Norman stronghold in southern Italy. Normans destroy the abbey of Monte Cassino. Saracen castle at Caltagirone [CT] is attacked and captured by Ligurian mercenaries in the service of the Byzantine general George Maniakes. The troops settle there, remaining even after the restoration of Saracen power to the area. The modern population still speaks a dialect bearing Ligurian traces. 1031 John II, duke of Amalfi, names his son, Sergius III, as co-duke and successor. John II, duke of Amalfi, receives the title of Patrician (patricius) from the Byzantine Emperor Romanos III Argyros. (June 11) Byzantines under Catapan Pothos Argyrus are defeated by the Saracens at Cassano allo Ionio (CS). (July 3) Catapan Pothos Argyrus is slain by the Saracens. Roger I, future Great Count of Sicily, is born in Normandy. 1032 Michael I Protospatharius (Protospata with Ykiakon) becomes Byzantine Catapan of Apulia. (Oct) John XIX dies. He is succeeded by his young nephew Benedict IX. Angered at the help given to his enemy Sergius II of Naples by Duke John V of Gaeta, Pandulf IV of Capua attacks and captures Gaeta. He assumes the titles of consul and duke, as Pandulf I. Pandulf VI (later Pandulf VI of Capua) becomes co-duke of Gaeta. John V successfully escapes and maintains a precarious control over part of his domain. He is never able to retake Gaeta and, upon his death in c1040, old Docibilian dynasty comes to an end. A Saracen squadron raids along the Illyrian coast of the Adriatic Sea. Although they burn Kerkyra, they suffer heavy losses in battle and a subsequent storm. 1033 Constantine II Opos becomes Catapan of Apulia/Italy. He arrives in Italy in April and reaches Bari on May 1. 1034 (Apr 11) Byzantine Emperor Romanos III dies. Sources claim that he was assassinated by order of his wife Zoe either by poisoning or drowning in his bath. Others speculate that he was the victim of tuberculosis. On the same day as Romanos’s death, Zoe marries her chamberlain who becomes Michael IV. John II, duke of Amalfi, is overthrown again by his brother and mother, Manso II and Maria. Argyus the Elder of Bari dies at Constantinople. Byzantius, archbishop of Bari, divides his see. 1035 (c) William and Drogo Hauteville arrive in southern Italy. (Jan) Byzantius, archbishop of Bari, dies at Constantinople. He is succeeded by Nicolo (or Romuald protospatharios). (Apr) Romuald, the new archbishop of Bari, and his brother Petros, are summoned to Constantinople. Soon after his arrival Romuald dies. Civil war rages in Sicily between the emir Apolaphar Mouchoumet and his brother Apochaps. Apochaps has the support of Oumer, the Saracen ruler in Africa, who is promised territory on the island. The emir has the support of the Roman Leon Opos who commands a force of Lombard mercenaries. This Lombard force is able to best the African mercenaries and hold them in check. (May) Saracen raiders from North Africa and Sicily enter the Aegean and begin raiding in the Cyclades Islands and in the coastal regions of Thrakesion. They are surprised by a Byzantine fleet commanded by Constantine Chage. In the ensuing battle, the Saracens suffer a major defeat and are nearly wiped out. Most of the remainder is taken prisoner. Many of these captives are thrown into the sea, while 500 at sent in chains to Emperor Michael IV. Following the Byzantine victory over the Saracens in the Aegean, Georgios Probatas is sent to negotiate a new peace agreement with Apolaphar Mouchoumet, the emir of Sicily. The negotiations are successful and Georgios returns to Constantinople with one of Apolaphar Mouchoumet’s sons, apparently as a hostage. As part of the new agreement with the Sicilian emir Apolaphar Mouchoumet, George Manaiaces is sent to command Byzantine forces in southern Italy. He holds the post of strategos autokrator (supremme commander) while Stephanos, brother of the Emperor Michael IV, serves as commander of the fleet. George Maniaces launchs an invasion of Sicily in support of Apolaphar Mouchoumet, in his civil war with Apochaps. The Byzantine forces, however, are too few to be effective and are nearly wiped out by the army of Apochaps’ African ally Oumer. Construction begins on the Cathedral of San Sabino in Bari. It is completed in 1171. (Alt. date: 1034). 1036 John V becomes duke of Naples. (June) Basilio becomes abbot of Monte Cassino. 1037 The civil war in Sicily ends when emir Apolaphar Mouchoumet and his brother Apochaps reconcile their differences. The emir’s Italian ally Leo Opos withdraws from Sicily with his Lombard forces. Upon this departure, Oumer, Apochap’s African ally, is now free to despoil Sicily without opposition. (Jan 27) Eruption of Vesuvius. Al-Akhal, Kalbid emir of Sicily, dies. 1038 Byzantines under George Maniaces launch an invasion of Saracen Sicily. The Byzantine army is supplemented by 500 Norman (often referred to as Franks) mercenaries, commanded by Arduin. (Alt. date: 1037). The Saracen emir of Sicily Apolaphar Mouchoumet and his brother Apochaps join forces to oppose George Maniaces. George Maniaces defeats the united Saracen forces of Apolaphar Mouchoumet and Apochaps at Remata. The Saracen army, including 50,000 troops from African, suffers major losses. With the defeat of the African Saracens in Sicily, George Maniaces is able restore imperial rule over much of eastern Sicily. Byzantines under George Maniaces capture Syracuse. He has the relics of St. Lucy transferred to Constantinople. Michael II Spondyles becomes Catapan of Apulia/Italy. Guaimar IV, prince of Salerno becomes prince of Capua. Landulf VI becomes co-prince of Benevento. (June) Richerio becomes abbot of Monte Cassino. John II again drives Manso II and Maria out of Amalfi and is restored as duke. He has Manso blinded and exiled to the island of Sirene. John reconciles with his mother, Maria, and allows her to remain as his co-ruler. 1039 (Feb) Nicephorus II Doukeianos (called Dulchiano) arrives at Bari as the new Catapan of Apulia/Italy. (June 4) Holy Roman Emperor Conrad II dies. He is succeeded as king of Germany by his eldest son Henry III. (Apr) Guaimar IV, prince of Salerno, becomes duke of Amalfi. John and his son, Sergius III, flee to Constantinople. Gaeta, Naples and Amalfi acknowledge the lordship of Guaimar IV, prince of Salerno. 1040 Guaimar IV of Salerno appoints the blinded Manso II as co-duke of Amalfi. Manso acknowledges Guaimar as his suzerain. (Jan 9) Catapan Nicephorus II Doukeianos is killed at Ascoli. (June) Guaimar IV, prince of Salerno, becomes duke of Gaeta. Michael III Doukeianos (Duichiano the Young) becomes Catapan of Apulia/Italy. Byzantine Catapan Michael III Doukeianos offers the Lombard Arduin control of Melfi with the title of topoterites (deputy commander). Hasan as-Samsam becomes Kalbid emir of Sicily (to 1053). Oumer, the Saracen ruler of Africa and formerly an ally of the rebel Apochaps, returns to Sicily was a large army. Oumer, the African leader, escapes from the battle and George Maniaces orders general Stephanos (brother-in-law of the Emperor) to guard the Sicilian coast to prevent Oumer’s escape. Oumer, however, eludes the Byzantines in a small boat and returns to Africa. Maniaces blames Stephanos for this and personally beats him on his head, calling him a coward and traitor. Stephanos begins to plot against Maniaces over this incident. 1041 (Dec 10) Byzantine Emperor Michael IV dies of illness. His nephew Michael V is raised to the status of Byzantine co-ruler by his adoptive mother Empress Zoe. Arduin, Lombard topoterites of Melfi, betrays his oath of loyalty to the Byzantines. With a force of Norman mercenaries, he marches to support Argyrus, the new Lombard rebel leader in Apulia. Norman mercenaries support a new Lombard uprising against the Byzantines in Apulia. Normans seize Melfi from the Byzantines. Rebels defeat Byzantines at Olivento and Montepeloso. (Mar 16) A Byzantine army under Catapan Michael III Doukeianos meets the Norman force under Arduin on the river Olivento, near Venosa in Apulia. Michael unsuccessfully attempts to negotiate with the Normans and is forced to fight. The two armies joined in battle, on May 4, at Montemaggiore, near Cannae. The result was a Norman victory during which many Byzantines, including part of the elite Varangian Guard, were drowned while retreating across the Ofanto. After this defeat, Catapan Michael was transferred to Sicily. After September, Exaugustus Boiannes (Exaugusto Bugiano), son of Basil Boiannes, arrives in Italy as the new Byzantine Catapan of Apulia/Italy. The only troops that Boiannes has at his disposal to face the Normans and Lombards are a contingent of Varangians. Nevertheless, he attempts to move against the rebels at Melfi. (Sept 3) Exaugustus Boiannes is defeated by the Normans near Melfi and is taken prisoner. The Normans turned him over to Atenulf, the Lombard Prince of Benevento. Rainulf Drengot, the Norman count of Aversa, becomes duke of Gaeta, as a vassal of Guaimar IV of Salerno. 1042 (Apr 18) Byzantine Emperor Michael V unsuccessfully attempts to depose Empress Zoe. The following day, a revolt drives Michael V from the throne. Zoe now becomes principal empress and associates her sister Theodora as co-ruler. Michael V flees and becomes a monk but is apprehended by Zoe’s agents who blind and castrate him. He dies on August 24. (June 11) Byzantine Empress Zoe marries Constantine IX and raises him to share the throne. (Feb) The Byzantine pay a large ransom to free Exaugustus Boiannes from captivity. The Lombard leader Atenulf embezzles the treasure, abandons the Lombard rebels and flees into Byzantine territory. Argyrus is selected to replace Atenulf as the leader of the anti-Byzantine rebellion in Apulia. (Feb) Exaugustus Boiannes is freed from captivity but is not restored to his command as Catapan. (Feb) Synodianos is appointed by Emperor Michael V as Catapan in Apulia. Synodianos begins to gather an army with which he plans to retake those cities that had been lost to the empire in Apulia. In April, prior to beginning his campaign, he was recalled to Constantinople by Empress Zoe following death of Emperor Michael V. Byzantine invasion of Sicily under Maniaces fails. George II Maniaces becomes Catapan of Apulia. He is soon replaced by Arduin. (July) George Maniaces is appointed Catapan of Apulia/Italy. His political and personal enemy Romanus Sclerus, convinces the new emperor Constantine IX to recall him to Constantinople. Maniaces knows that the recall will lead to his arrest and probable execution. He decides to revolt against Constantine IX and proclaims himself emperor. He easily wins the support of the Byzantine and Varangian troops under his command in Italy. (Sept) Pardos is sent to Italy as the new Catapan of Apulia/Italy to replace the rebel George Maniaces. He is supported by Nicholas, Archbishop of Bari, and the protospatharius Tubachi. Pardo and Tubachi are soon arrested at Otranto and executed by order of Maniaces. Sipontum (Siponto) in Apulia becomes the seat of a Norman county. Sergius V becomes duke of Naples. Plague spreads through Italy, France and Greece. 1043 George Maniaces crosses from Italy into Greece. He marches towards Constantinople but is blocked by imperial forces near Thessalonika where he falls in battle. William “Iron Arm” Hauteville is declared Count of Apulia and Calabria (Comes Apuliae et Calabriae) at Matera by the Normans, and becomes a vassal to Guaimar IV of Salerno. As such, William becomes leader of the anti-Byzantine revolt in southern Italy. (alt. date 1042). Normans take Matera. Theodore III Cano (Basil Theodorocanus) becomes Catapan of Apulia. Dispute arises over the lands of Monte Cassino between Rainulf Drengot of Aversa, Guaimar IV of Salerno, and Pandulf IV of Capua. 1044 (Sept) Pope Benedict IX is bribed to abdicate. Guaimar IV and William “Iron-Arm” launch a raid on Byzantine Calabria. 1045 (Jan) Silvester III becomes pope. In April, Silvester is deposed and Benedict IX returns to the papal throne. A few weeks later, in May, Benedict resigns, selling the papal throne to his godfather John Gratian for over 1,450 lb of gold. Gratian assumes the papacy as Gregory VI. Benedict soon changes his mind and attempts to retake the papal throne. He recaptures Rome but Gregory refuses to give up his claim to the papacy. The situation becomes even more confusing as the deposed Silvester III also claims to be the legitimate pope. Asclettin Drengot, nephew of Rainulf Drengot, succeeds his uncle as count of Aversa and duke of Gaeta. He is soon replaced by his cousin Rainulf II Trincanocte. Atenulf I, Lombard count of Aquino, seizes the duchy of Gaeta. Eustathios Palatinos (Eustachio Palatino) and Constantine III Chagea become co-Catapans of Apulia/Italy (or early 1046). 1046 (Dec) Henry III intervenes in an attempt to resolve the papal crisis. He convenes the Council of Sutri at which Benedict IX and Silvester III are declared to be deposed. On December 20, Gregory VI is accused of simony by the council and agrees to resign from the papacy. Silvester III also accepts the ruling but Benedict IX remains defiant. (Dec 25) Clement II is consecrated as the new pope. That same day, Clement crowns Henry III and his wife Agnes as Holy Roman Emperor and Empress. William “Iron Arm” dies and is succeeded as Count of Apulia and Calabria by his brother Drogo. (c) The Norman count Peter enlarges and fortifies Andria [BA] raising it to the status of a true city. Byzantine Catapan Eustathios Palatinos is defeated near Taranto by the Normans under Drogo Hauteville. John II Rafayl becomes Catapan of Apulia. 1047 (Oct 9) Pope Clement II dies from poison. In November, Benedict IX returns and seizes control of the Lateran Palace. Holy Roman Emperor Henry III arrives in Italy and Drogo becomes his vassal. Emperor Henry III awards Benevento to Humphrey of Hauteville. Robert Guiscard, brother of Drogo, arrives in southern Italy. Pandulf IV is again restored as prince of Capua. Manso II names his son Sergius III as co-duke of Amalfi. 1048 (Jan) Emperor Henry III names Damasus II as the rightful successor to Pope Clement II. Accompanied by imperial troops, Damasus marches to Rome and, on July 16, Benedict IX is driven out for the final time. Damasus entered Rome on the following day and took possession of the papal throne. Benedict’s ultimate fate is uncertain and the year of his death is listed as occurring in 1055, 1056, 1065, or 1085. (Aug 9) Only a few weeks after arriving in Rome Pope Damasus II dies, a victim of either malaria or poison. Normans under Humphrey of Hauteville defeat the Byzantines at Tricarico in Lucania. Robert Guiscard is given control over the castle of Scribla in Calabria. Herman succeeds his father Rainulf II Trincanocte as count of Aversa. Drought and cold weather throughout Italy lead to a new famine. 1049 (Feb 12) Leo IX becomes pope. He holds a synod at Melfi where he attempts to curb the growing Norman power. Pope Leo IX sends Humbertus to Sicily to become the first archbishop of Palermo. He is, however, prevented from taking his seat when the Norman refuse to allow him to land. Richard I replaces his cousin Herman as count of Aversa. Bayulo becomes Catapan of Apulia. Possible eruption of Vesuvius. 1050 Byzantine empress Zoe dies. Constantine IX is now sole ruler. Pandulf VI becomes prince of Capua. A popular uprising at Benevento drives co-princes Pandulf III and Landulf VI from power. (c) Construction begins on the cathedral at Teano (completed in 1116). 1051 (Aug 10) Drogo is assassinated and succeeded by his brother Humphrey as Count of Apulia and Calabria. (alt. date 1050). Pope Leo IX attempts to form an alliance against the Normans. The city of Benevento becomes papal territory. 1052 (June 3) Guaimar IV of Salerno is assassinated by Amalfitans. Humphrey defeats the usurpers and makes Guaimar’s son, Gisulf II, Prince of Salerno. John II regains power in Amalfi. Sicone becomes Catapan of Apulia. 1053 Pope Leo IX goes to war against the Normans. Under the command of Geoffrey, duke of Lorraine, and Rodolf (Rudolph), prince of Benevento, the papal army of c6,000 Italian Lombards and German Swabians, invades Norman territory. On June 18, they are defeated at Civitate del Fortore, near Foggia, by a Norman force of about 3,500 under the command of Humphrey d’Hauteville, Count of Apulia, Count Richard of Aversa, and Humphrey’s younger brother, Robert Guiscard. Leo IX is taken prisoner and brought to Benevento where he remained for about 9 months. During the period of his captivity Leo is treated with respect by his captor, Richard of Aversa. Leo is released after agreeing to recognize the Italian conquests made by the Normans. Normans formally cede their claim to Benevento to the papacy. Rudolf is appointed as rector. Kalbid dynasty in Saracen Sicily ends causing disorder on the island. Diocese of Aversa is established. 1054 The Great Schism between the Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox churches becomes permanent. (Apr 19) Pope Leo IX dies. The people of Benevento defy the new papal rector and invite the co-princes Pandulf III and Landulf VI back as rulers. Geoffrey, Mauger, and William Hauteville arrive in southern Italy. Normans continue expansion into Apulia. Scinuro becomes Catapan of Apulia. 1055 (Jan 11) Byzantine Emperor Constantine IX dies. Theodora becomes the reigning Empress. (Apr 13) Pope Victor II becomes pope. (Dec) Pietro I becomes abbot of Monte Cassino. Humphrey grants William lands formerly controlled by Salerno. William becomes “William of the Principate.” Pandulf III and Landulf VI, co-princes of Benevento, are confirmed in power at Benevento as vassals of the papacy. 1056 (Aug 31) Byzantine Empress Theodora dies. She is succeeded by Michael VI Bringas. (Oct 5) Holy Roman Emperor Henry III dies. His 6 year old son, Henry IV, becomes King of the Germans, under the regency of his mother Agnes. Pandulf IV becomes co-prince of Benevento. 1057 Byzantine Emperor Michael VI is deposed by a conspiracy of nobles which, on June 8, chooses Isaac I Komnenos as emperor. The two factions continue to contest the throne until, on August 31, Patriarch Michael Keroularios convinces Michael VI to resign. Michael is allowed to retire to private life and dies two years later. Humphrey dies and is succeeded by his brother Robert Guiscard as Count of Apulia and Calabria. Roger, brother of Robert Guiscard, arrives in southern Italy. He joins Robert on campaign in Calabria. (May 23) Federico di Lorena becomes abbot of Monte Cassino. (July 28) Pope Victor II dies and is succeeded on August 2 by Stephen IX (X), who begins to form a new alliance against the Normans. Landulf VIII becomes prince of Capua. Diocese of Lecce is established. 1058 Pope Stephen IX bans the use of the local Beneventan chant at Benevento and Monte Cassino. Beneventan chant was a liturgical rite and plainchant which developed at Benevento in the 7th and 8th Centuries. Its distinct nature, which set it apart from the better-known Gregorian chant, show connections to the earlier Ambrosian Chant (with its roots in the music of the late Roman Empire), as well as influences of the Lombards. (Mar 29) Pope Stephen IX dies. Rival popes are elected to contest the papal throne. The antipope Benedict X is initially chosen as successor but his election is contested. A new pope, Nicholas II is chosen in December and crowned early in 1059. (June?) Desiderius becomes abbot of Monte Cassino. The Norman Richard, count of Aversa, overthrows the Lombard Landulf VIII and seizes control of Capua. He unites Aversa with Capua. He assumes the title of prince of Capua. Richard I Drengot is the nephew of Rainulf Drengot, the Norman mercenary who became the first count of Aversa. Richard I of Capua and his son Jordan capture Gaeta. Roger and William rebel against their brother Robert Guiscard. Robert Guiscard divorces his first wife, Alberada because she considered too close a relation. Her sister Gaitelgrima had earlier married Robert’s half-brother Drogo. 1059 (Jan 24) Nicholas II is crowned pope. (Nov 22) Byzantine emperor Isaac I Komnenos resigns and enters a monastery. He is succeeded by Constantine X Ducas. Normans under Richard of Capua march on Rome where they install Nicholas II as Pope. Robert Guiscard reconciles with his brothers Roger and William. He continues to seize more lands in Calabria.Normans capture Gerace in Calabria.   Melfi becomes the Norman capital of the duchy of Apulia. Pope Nicholas II holds a synod at Melfi and invests Richard as Prince of Capua, and Robert Guiscard as Count of Apulia and Calabria. Robert is also invested with Sicily despite the fact that the island is under the control of the Saracens. The abbey church of SS. Trinità at Venosa is consecrated by Pope Nicholas II. Maurus, the earliest-known bishop of Ascoli, attends the consecration of the Church of St. Angelo at Volturno. Earliest mention of a diocese established at Cassano allo Ionio (CS). 1060 Robert Guiscard marries Sichelgaita, daughter of Guaimar IV, Lombard Prince of Salerno. Some sources place this marriage in 1058. Robert Guiscard and Roger continue to campaign against the Byzantines in southern Italy. They capture Brindisi and Reggio. Roger leads a force of 60 Norman knights across the Straits of Messina from Reggio to raid Sicily. (May) Normans under Robert Guiscard capture Taranto from the Byzantines. In October the Byzantines retake the city. Miriarca becomes Catapan of Apulia. Byzantines launch a counter-attack against the Normans. They advance to Melfi and lay siege to that city. Eustachio becomes the first archbishop of Brindisi. Constantinus Afer (Africanus), from Carthage, arrives in Salerno and then Monte Cassino. A notable scholar skilled in several languages, he translates the Greek pseudo-Galen and Hippocrates, and adapts the Arabic Ali ibn Abbas and Abu Jafar Ahmed. 1061 (July 19 or 27) Pope Nicholas II dies. He is succeeded, on October 1, by Alexander II (Anselmo da Baggio). Byzantines withdraw from Melfi. Marulo becomes Catapan of Apulia. Robert Guiscard captures Acerenza in Lucania. Robert Guiscard and Roger, leading 440 knights, invade Sicily initially as allies for one of the warring Saracen emirs. They seize control of Messina. Roger marries Judith, daughter of William of Evreus, at Mileto. 1062 Robert Guiscard and Roger quarrel over division of the new conquests. Richard I of Capua and his son Jordan capture Gaeta for a second time. Giordano (Jordan) I becomes Prince of Aversa. Atenulf II, infant son of Atenulf I, succeeds his father as count of Aquino and duke of Gaeta, under the regency of his mother Maria. Sirianus and Pulchiano become co-Catapans of Apulia. Andrea becomes archbishop of Bari. Zirid Saracens in Tunisia send reinforcements to Sicily. They besiege Roger and Judith as Troina. Normans defeat the Saracens outside of Enna but fail to take control of the city. 1063 Roger breaks the Saracens siege at Troina. He defeats the Saracens at Cerami (Ceramium). Roger is confirmed in his conquests in Sicily by Pope Alexander II. Pisans make an unsuccessful attempt to capture Palermo from the Saracens. 1064 Robert Guiscard leads a new Norman army into Sicily. He joins Roger in an unsuccessful siege of Palermo. Norman barons in Apulia revolt against Robert Guiscard. William I of Montreuil, the Norman step-father of Atenulf II, assumes the title of duke of Gaeta for himself. William is quickly driven from power by Lando, count of Traietto, who captures the duchy. Apochara becomes Catapan of Apulia. Church council held at Bari is presided over by Arnoldo, Vicar of Pope Alexander II. 1065 Dannibaldo becomes duke of Gaeta. Alcheris becomes bishop of Palermo. 1066 Barons’ revolt against Robert Guiscard continues in Apulia. Byzantine army under Abdul Kare enters Apulia. Cyriacus becomes Catapan of Apulia. The Cathedral of Amalfi is constructed. 1067 (May 22) Byzantine Emperor Constantine dies. His widow, Eudocia Makrembolitissa, and brother, the Caesar John Doukas, became regents to Constantine’s sons, Michael VII Doukas and Konstantios Doukas. The new Byzantine government cuts off support to the rebel barons in Apulia. Mabrica becomes Catapan of Apulia. Geoffrey Ridell becomes duke of Gaeta as a vassal to Richard I, prince of Capua. He is soon driven out of the city by a popular revolt but maintains control over the rest of the duchy. He spends the remainder of his reign centered at his castle at Pontecorvo. 1068 (Jan 1) Eudocia Makrembolitissa, widow of Constantine X, marries general Romanos Diogenes. He becomes senior Byzantine emperor as Romanos IV. Andronikos Doukas, son of Constantine X, is raised to co-emperor. Robert Guiscard crushes the last of the rebels in Apulia. He lays siege to Byzantine-held Bari. Otranto surrenders to Robert Guiscard. Roger defeats the Zirid Saracens at Menzel el Amir (Misilmeri), leading to their withdrawal from Sicily. Diocese of Sorrento is raised to the status of a Metropolitan Archdiocese. 1069 Sergius III is restored as duke of Amalfi. Stephen Paterano becomes Catapan of Apulia. He is soon replaced by Argyrus of Joannica. 1070 Normans erect a new castle on the site of the acropolis of ancient Vibo Valentia in Calabria. Normans take Brindisi from the Byzantines. Menardus, the earliest-known bishop of Ariano, erects a marble baptistery in his cathedral. 1071 (Apr 15/16) Bari capitulates to Robert Guiscard. Byzantine power ends in Italy. Robert Guiscard leads an army and fleet to Sicily, where he begins a new siege of Palermo. Pope Alexander III consecrates the church at Monte Cassino. 1072 (Jan 10) Palermo surrenders to the Normans. The attack is helped by the treachery of Christians among the city’s defenders. New revolt of Norman barons begins in Apulia. Normans capture Mazara in western Sicily. 1073 (Apr 21) Pope Alexander II dies. He is succeeded on April 22 by St. Gregory VII. Possible eruption of Vesuvius. Robert Guiscard defeats the last of the rebels in Apulia. He falls gravely ill but recovers. Robert Guiscard is chosen as protector of Amalfi. John III succeeded his father Sergius III as duke of Amalfi. 1074 Robert Guiscard concludes a treaty with the Byzantine Emperor Michael. The alliance is strengthened by an agreement for Robert’s daughter Helen to marry Michael’s son. Pope St. Gregory VII attempts to create a new alliance against the Normans. (Feb 7) Battle of Montesarchio. Pandulf IV, pronce of Benevento, is defeated and killed by the Normans. Diocese of Manfredonia is raised to the status of a Metropolitan Archdiocese. A Saracen army from Tunisia lands at Nicotera, Sicily, to attempt to defeat the Normans. 1075 Roger Guiscard concludes an alliance with the Zirid Saracens. This opens new trade relations with the North African Saracen states. Normans capture Adrano (CT). 1076 Conflict arises between the papacy and the Holy Roman Empire.  On February 14, Pope St. Gregory VII excommunicates Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV. (Dec 13) Normans under Robert Guiscard and Richard I of Capua capture the city of Salerno. Normans occupy the Cilento area of southern Campania. Normans begin construction on the castle of Aci Castello (CT). It is completed in 1081. 1077 (Jan 28) Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV, after meeting as a penitent with Pope Gregory VII at Canossa, has his sentence of excommunication lifted. Robert Guiscard and Richard of Capua form an alliance. First documentary evidence for a bishop of Anglona. Norman church at Altavilla Milicia, near Palermo, is built. 1078 (Mar 31) Byzantine Emperor Michael VII abdicates and enters a monastery. He is succeeded by Nikephoros III. Gisulf II, last Lombard Prince of Salerno, surrenders to Robert Guiscard. With the fall of the Principality of Salerno, all of the former Lombard states in southern Italy have been absorbed by the growing Norman power. Robert Guiscard makes the city of Salerno the capital of his duchy of Apulia, Calabria, and Sicily. Robert Guiscard seizes Benevento and becomes prince. New barons’ revolt against Robert Guiscard. Richard of Capua dies. Jordan I becomes prince of Capua. 1079 Roger captures Taormina. Severely cold weather in the principality of Salerno causes rivers to freeze over. The weather results in an outbreak of illness and economic hardship. 1080 Henry IV moves against Pope St. Gregory VII. Gregory seeks help from Robert Guiscard against the Emperor. (June 29) Treaty of Ceprano. The pope meets with Robert at Ceprano where he confirms the grants made by Nicholas II, and extends them to the conquests made since then. Cathedral of Acerenza founded by Archbishop Arnando. Cathedral of Salerno is founded by Robert Guiscard. He scavanges the abandoned site of Paestum for treasures to decorate the new cathedral. List of bishops begins for the diocese of Frigento. Saracens attack Rome. 1081 Robert Guiscard returns Benevento to the papacy. (May) Robert Guiscard and his son Bohemond invade Byzantine Illyria (Albania). They occupy the island of Corfu. Byzantine emperor Nikephoros III is deposed and retires to a monastery where he dies soon afterwards.. Alexius I Comnenus seizes power in Constantinople and marches against the Normans in Illyria. (Oct 18) Normans under Robert Guiscard defeat the Byzantines under Alexius I Comnenus at Durazzo (Dyrrhachium) and advance into Macedonia. Richard II becomes Prince of Aversa. 1082 Emperor Henry IV invades Italy and besieges Pope Gregory VII in Rome. New barons’ revolt in Apulia forces Robert Guiscard to return to Italy. He leaves the Norman army in Illyria under the command of Bohemond. Sergius VI becomes duke of Naples. Desiderius becomes the earliest bishop of Lacedonia whose name has survived. Normans built a castle at Sperlinga, near Enna, in S central Sicily. 1083 (June) Pope St. Gregory VII is besieged in the Castel Sant’Angelo in Rome. Normans under Bohemond lay siege to Larissa. They are forced to retreat as Alexius Comnenus advances with a Byzantine army. Robert Guiscard crushes the baronial revolt in Apulia. Epidemic at the monastery at Cava (mod. Cava de’ Tirreni [SA]) in Campania. The malady causes a fever and mumps, with infestations of lice.  The illness claims the lives of 9 brothers, 2 oblates, and 4 lay servants. 1084 Henry IV places his own candidate, Clement III, on the papal throne who, in turn, crowns him as Emperor on March 31. Robert Guiscard leads a Norman force to Rome to rescue Pope Gregory VII from Emperor Henry IV. The Normans proceed to sack the city upon their arrival. Gregory VII leaves Rome with Robert Guiscard and goes into exile at Salerno. Robert Guiscard inflicts a major defeat on the Venetian fleet. Reginald, son of Geoffrey Ridell, succeeds his father as duke of Gaeta. Robert Guiscard returns to take command of Norman forces in Illyia. Famine in Italy claims many lives. Cathedral of S. Matteo is built at Salerno by Robert Guiscard. The building material was taken from the ruins of Paestum, and include 28 columns used to encompass the church’s atrium. 1085 (May 25) Pope St. Gregory VII dies in exile in Salerno. He is interred there in the cathedral of S. Matteo. (July 15) Robert Guiscard dies at Durazzo in Illyria. When Robert’s son, Roger Borsa, succeeds him as Count of Apulia and Calabria, Bohemond revolts. With the death of Robert Guiscard, Roger I becomes the principal Norman leader in southern Italy. Normans withdraw from Corfu. Normans under Roger I and his son Jordan lay siege to Syracuse. Calabria is invaded by the Saracens under ben Arwet. 1086 (May 24) Victor III is elected as pope, but does not go to Rome to be consecrated. Originally named Dauferius, he was the son of Prince Landulf V of Benevento, and was the candidate of Prince Jordan I of Capua. Roger defeats the Saracens in a naval battle off Syracuse. He then captures the city. The Saracen leader, ben Arwet falls in battle. Normans capture Qalat al Nissa from the Saracens. Normans take Enna from the Saracens. 1087 (May 9) Victor III is finally consecrated at pope in Rome. He then immediately withdraws from the city and goes the Monte Cassino. After being convinced to return to Rome but finds himself caught up in a factional conflict with antipope Clement III. (Aug) Pope Victor III calls a synod at Benevento which excommunicates the antipope Clement III. At this meeting lay investiture is also banned and a call is made for a crusade against the Saracens in Africa. Before the synod is completed, Victor III becomes serious ill. He goes to Monte Cassino and dies on September 16. (Sept) Oderisio I becomes abbot of Monte Cassino. Normans under Roger I capture Kerkent, which they rename Girgenti (mod. Agrigento). Normans capture Qas’r Ianni which they rename Castrogiovanni (mod. Enna). Basilica of San Nicola is founded at Bari. It was built specifically to house the relics of St. Nicholas of Myra, stolen by Barian sailors in Anatolia. The arrived at Bari on May 9. (alt date 1097). (Sept) Earthquake strikes Apulia. 1088 (Mar 12) Urban II becomes pope. (Mar) Gisulf (formerly Prince Gisulf II of Salerno) becomes duke of Amalfi for a very short time. Bohemond II Guiscard becomes prince of Taranto. Cathedral at Otranto is built. 1089 Pope Urban II holds a synod at Melfi. Bohemond and Roger Borsa agree to divide Apulia. Bohemond becomes Prince of Taranto. (Apr 20) Robert Guiscard takes Amalfi. Pope Urban II consecrates the Basilica of San Nicola at Bari. Judith, wife of Count Roger I, dies. Roger I marries Adelaide del Vasto. Elia becomes archbishop of Bari. 1090 Normans capture Butera and Noto, completing the conquest of Sicily. (alt date: 1091). 1091 Jordan I of Capua dies. Richard II becomes prince of Capua. Lando IV deposes Richard II and becomes prince of Capua. Upon the death of Jordan I of Capua, Gaeta rebels. Landulf becomes duke of Gaeta. Count Roger I captures Malta from the Saracens. Roger imposes new taxation on the Saracen population of the island but allow them to remain under the control of their own rulers..(alt. date: 1090). 1092 Lando IV seizes control of Capua and claims to title of prince in opposition to Richard II. 1093 Diocese of Mazara del Vallo is established. Pope Urban II holds a council at Troia in Apulia. 1094 Count Roger I helps his nephew Roger to put down the rebellion of Grantmesnil at Castrovillari. 1095 Pope Urban II convenes the Council of Clermont where the First Crusade is preached. Peter the Hermit preaches the First Crusade at Bari. 1096 A popular revolt drives the Normans out of Amalfi. The rebels elect the sebastos Marinus Sebastus, a member the ducal Sergi family of Naples and the Capuano family of Amalfi, as duke of Amalfi. 1097 Bohemond joins to First Crusade. Roger Borsa takes control of Capua. John VI becomes duke of Naples. 1098 Pope Urban II convenes the Council of Bari. Urban unsuccessfully attempts to resolve the differences between the Greek and Latin churches over the filioque controversy. Pope Urban II promises Roger I that he would send no papal legates to Sicily without Roger’s consent. (May) Richard II besieges Capua for 40 days and retakes the city. He is restored as prince of Capua. 1099 (July 29) Pope Urban II dies. He is succeeded on August 14 by Paschal II. Bronze doors created in Constantinople are installed at the cathedral of S. Matteo at Salerno. 1100 Marinus Sebastus is deposed as duke of Amalfi. Amalfi is permanently annexed by the Normans. Avellino becomes the fief of Riccardo dell’Aquila. Cathedral of Nicastro [CZ] is restored. Built on the site of an ancient temple, the earlier cathedral had been pillaged by an earlier Saracen attack. 12th Century Dioceses established in the 12th Century: Patti. Diocese of Messina is raised is status to a Metropolitan Archdiocese. Territorial Abbacy of Montevergine is established. 1101 (June 22) Roger I dies at Mileto, Calabria. He is succeeded as Great Count of Sicily by his eldest son Simon. (c) The earliest European dietary book is produced as the medical school at Salerno. 1102 Famine causes many deaths in and around Benevento. 1103 William II Blosseville becomes duke of Gaeta. 1104 (Dec) Henry V deposes his father Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor. Henry IV is imprisoned but manages to escape and raise an army against his son. 1105 William II Blosseville is exiled and replaced by Richard II (aka Richard I of Aquila) as duke of Gaeta. (Jan-Feb) Heavy snowfall in southern Italy. (Dec) Ottone becomes abbot of Monte Cassino. 1106 (Mar 2) Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV defeats his son Henry V but soon becomes ill and dies on August 7. Robert I becomes prince of Capua and Aversa. 1107 (Nov) Bruno becomes abbot of Monte Cassino. 1108 Vine crops fail in Italy. 1109 Papal council is held at Melfi. 1110 Henry V invades Italy. 1111 (Feb 11) Henry V is crowned as Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Paschal II. The ceremony ends in disarray as the pope and emperor exchange demands. When Paschal and 16 cardinals are arrested by imperial soldiers, a battle ensues in which Henry V is wounded. Robert I, Prince of Capua, sends 300 Normans to attempt to rescue Pope Paschal II from Emperor Henry V. This force is intercepted by the emperor’s supporter Ptolemy I, count of Tusculum, at Ferentino, who forces them to retreat. (Feb 22) Roger Borsa, duke of Apulia, dies. He is suceeded by his eldest son William II. (Mar 3) Bohemund I, prince of Taranto and Antioch, dies. He is succeeded by his son Bohemund II. (Oct) Gerardo becomes abbot of Monte Cassino. Richard II, duke of Gaeta, dies. Andrew becomes duke of Gaeta. 1113 Jonathan becomes duke of Gaeta. Gualterius becomes the first archbishop to be successfully seated at Palermo. Pope Paschal II officially recognizes the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulcher of Jerusalem. 1114 Cathedral of S. Maria Assunta at Benevento is rebuilt. 1115 Pope Paschal II holds a council at Troia in Apulia. 1117 (Jan 3) Earthquake in northern Italy kills 30,000. Archbishop Riso (Risone) of Bari is assassinated. This begins a period of increasing unrest that will result in an open civil war between the Lombards and Normans in Bari. St. Nicola (Niccolo) Politi is born at Adrano [CT]. Roger II of Sicily marries Elvira, daughter of King Alfonso VI of Castile. Elvira’s mother, Queen Isabel, is believed to have originally been a Muslim woman named Zaida. Zaida, who took the name Isabel upon her conversion to Christianity, had originally been Alfonso mistress, and was the daughter of Muhammad Ibn Abbad Al Mutamid, the last Muslim ruler of Seville. Thus, many of Roger II’s children and their descendents had close connections with the Saracen Abbasid dynasty. 1118 (Jan 21) Pope Paschal II dies. He is succeeded, on January 24, by Gelasius II. Gelasius, originally named Giovanni Coniulo, is a native of Gaeta. Emperor Henry V refuses to recognize Gelasius and appoints his own pope, Gregory VIII. From this clash will ultimately arise the conflict between the Guelfs and Ghibellines which will dominate much of Italy’s religious and secular politics through the Renaissance. (Mar 9) Gelasius II, having fled from Rome to Gaeta, is ordained a priest. The next day he is raised to the status of a bishop. He convenes a council at Capua where decrees of excommunication are issued upon Emperor Henry V and antipope Gregory VIII. (July) Pope Gelasius II returns to Rome with a troop of Norman guards. He in soon attacked by imperial supporters and forced to flee again, this time going to France. (Aug 15) Byzantine Emperor Alexius I Comnenus dies. He is succeeded by his son John II Comnenus. Construction begins of the Church of La Martorane at Palermo. Built in the shape of a Greek Cross by Roger’s admiral, George of Antioch, it was half-Gothic and half-Saracenic in style. (completed 1119). 1119 (Jan 24) Pope Gelasius II dies in exile at Cluny. He is succeeded, on February 2, by Calixtus II. Calixtus is crowned in France on Feb. 9. Constance of France, princess of Taranto, is imprisoned at Giovanazzo by Grimoald and Alexander, Count of Conversano. Benedictine Sanctuary is founded on Monte Vergine on the site of an ancient temple of the goddess Cybele. Romanesque cathedral built at Troja. 1120 Roger II grants a diploma to a family of paper-makers on the island of Sicily. According to some sources, the invention and manufacture of cotton linen paper occurred in Sicily where the plant was common. Other sources deny that this grant ever took place or that cotton linen paper was even used at this time. There is some evidence that cotton linen paper was invented by the ancient Greeks who brought it to Sicily where it thrived for centuries throughout the Byzantine and Saracen eras. This theory, however, is contested by other scholars who contend that the Saracens brought the art of cotton linen paper-making to Sicily during their era of rule on the island. Richard III becomes prince of Capua and Aversa, but is soon replaced by Giordano (Jordan) II. Sergius VII becomes duke of Naples. Richard III becomes duke of Gaeta. Constance of France, princess of Taranto, is freed from prison through the intervention of Pope Calixtus II. Pope Calixtus II holds a council at Troia in Apulia. (May) Intensely hot temperatures in Naples. (May 25) Earthquake at Rocca d’Evandro (CE) in Campania. Earthquake at Larino (CB) in Molise. 1121 The Lombard Grimoald Alferanites is elected as rebel leader Bari in opposition to the Norman William II, duke of Apulia. Grimoald assumes the title of dominus or dominator of Bari (barensium dominator). Jonathan, duke of Gaeta, dies. He is succeeded by his brother Richard III. Diocese of Catanzaro is established. 1122 (May) Grimoald Alferanites, the Lombard rebel leader of Bari, concludes an alliance with the Republic of Venice. Pope Calixtus II issues a papal bull establishing the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulcher of Jerusalem as a lay religious community designated to guard the Basilica of the Holy Sepulcher and Jerusalem from Saracen attack. Uprising of Saracens on Malta. 1123 (Jan) Oderisio II becomes abbot of Monte Cassino. (June) First documentary evidence naming Grimoald Alferanites as prince of Bari. Roger II captures the island of Pantelleria from the Saracens. Roger II fails to capture al-Mahdiyya in Tunisia. 1124 (Dec 13) Pope Calixtus II dies. He is succeeded on December 21 by Honorius II. List of bishops begins for the diocese of Avellino. 1125 (May 23) Holy Roman Emperor Henry V dies. He is succeeded as King of Germany by Lothair III. (June 7) Earthquake at Syracuse, Sicily. (Oct 11) Earthquake strikes the Abruzzi. 1126 (May) Nicola I becomes abbot of Monte Cassino. 1127 Conrad III is elected anti-king of Germany in opposition to Lothair III. Roger II of Sicily becomes Duke of Apulia. Coalition of Norman nobles is formed against Roger II of Sicily. Roger II reconquers Malta from the Saracens and annexes it to Sicily. Unlike his father, he establishes full Norman control over the island. (July 12) Senioretto becomes abbot of Monte Cassino. (Oct) Grimoald Alferanites, the Lombard prince of Bari, declares his support for Roger II as Duke of Apulia and Calabria. (Dec 30) Robert II becomes prince of Capua and Aversa. 1128 (Aug 22) Pope Honorius II crowns Roger II as Duke of Apulia. 1129 Apulian nobles, including Prince Grimoald Alferanites of Bari, rise in revolt after Roger II is confirmed as Duke of Apulia and Calabria by Pope Honorius II. George of Antioch, admiral of Roger II, blockades Bari with a fleet of 60 ships. Bari is besieged from Spring until August. When Prince Grimoald Alferanites surrenders he is pardoned by Roger and confirmed in his claim as prince of Bari. Rebel barons swear fealty to Roger II and his sons, Roger III and Tancred at Melfi. Construction begins on the Gothic Palatine Chapel in the Palazzo Reale of Palermo (completed 1132). 1130 (Feb 13) Pope Honorius II dies. He is succeeded on February 14 by Innocent II. (Feb 23) Anacletus II is crowned as antipope in opposition to Innocent II. Roger II supports Anacletus while Holy Roman Emperor Lothair III supports Innocent II. (Sept 27) Anacletus II issues a papal bull declaring Roger II as King of Sicily. Roger II annexes Ischia to Sicily. (Dec 25) Roger II is crowned King of Sicily at Palermo. The crown is placed on Roger’s head by his chief vassal Robert II, Prince of Capua. One of Roger II’s motivations for desiring the title of king was to raise his status higher than those of other nobles in southern Italy (eg. Prince of Bari, Prince of Capua, etc.). The beginning of the Regno.