Encyclopedia of Southern Italy – T

Permanent Deacons: 1.

Parishes: 58.

Trivento (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

Troia (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 7,310 (2006e).

Troina (EN): A commune in the province of Enna. Population: 9,832 (2006e).

trompe l’oeil: a work of art designed to trick the viewer through perspective.

Tropea (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.

Tufara (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso.

Tufillo (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 515 (2006e).

Tufino (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.

Tufo (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 911 (2006e).

Tuglie (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 5,299 (2006e).

Turans: An Etruscan goddess equivalent to the Roman Venus.

Turi (BA): A commune in the province of Bari: Population: 11,339 (2006e).

Turrivalignani (PE): A commune in the province of Pescara.

Tursi (MT): A commune in the province of Matera. Population: 5,327 (2006e).

Tursi-Lagonegro, Diocese of: A diocese in the Ecclesiastical Region of Basilicata.


Metropolitan: Potenza-Muro Lucano-Marsico Nuovo.

Conference Region: Basilicata.

Area: 2,509 km˛/ mi˛

Total Population: 124,942.

Catholic Population:

Total Priests: 78 (Diocesan: 65; Religious: 13)

Permanent Deacons: 8.

Male Religious:

Female Religious:

Parishes: 71.


Tusa (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

Two Sicilies, Kingdom of the: The name Two Sicilies was used in the Middle Ages to mean the kingdoms of Sicily and of Naples. Alfonso V of Aragon, who in 1442 reunited the two kingdoms under his rule, styled himself king of the Two Sicilies. Under his successors the kingdoms were again separate, but the title was revived during Spanish domination (1504-1713) of both kingdoms and after the accession (1759) of a cadet branch of the Spanish line of Bourbon to Naples and Sicily. Ferdinand IV of Naples (Ferdinand III of Sicily) officially merged the two kingdoms in 1816 and called himself Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies. Both the Sicilians, who thus lost their autonomy, and the pope, who saw his theoretical suzerainty over the two kingdoms ignored, protested the change. A popular uprising (1820) instigated by the Carbonari forced Ferdinand to concede a constitution, but Austrian intervention (1821) after the Congress of Laibach restored his absolute power. The reactionary regimes of his successors Francis I, Ferdinand II, and Francis II finally ended when Sicily and Naples fell to the forces of Garibaldi in 1860. In 1861, Gaeta, Francis’s last fortress, surrendered to Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia, and the Two Sicilies became part of the kingdom of Italy.

                Through most of its history, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies maintained the same overall size. In area it was about 2/3 the size England. In 1843, it was estimated that the mainland portion of the kingdom was c31,600 square miles in size, or about 2,700 square miles larger than Ireland. Another source (The New American Cyclopaedia, 1860 ed. Vol IX) put the area of the kingdom at 41,521 square miles. In 1837, it had a population of over 8 million, of which 6 million inhabited the mainland (or Neapolitan) portion of the kingdom, and the remaining 2 million lived on Sicily and its neighboring smaller islands. Other sources from about the same period give somewhat different figures. Josiah Conder (A Dictionary of Geography, Ancient and Modern. 1834) gives the kingdom an area of 43,000 square miles and a population of 7,450,000.  Henry Howard Brownell (The Eastern, or Old World: Embracing Ancient and Modern Italy. 1862) describes the Two Sicilies as having an area of 42,131 square miles (Naples: 31,621 sq. miles; Sicily: 10,510 sq. miles) and a population of 8,904,472 (Naples: 6,612,892; Sicily: 2,291,580).

tyrannos (Eng. tyrant): an ancient Greek ruler who lacked hereditary rights to hold power.