Encyclopedia of Southern Italy – T

                The victory won at the Crimissus left Carthaginian Sicily helpless. Timoleon might have seen fit to continue marching west and sweep the Carthaginians from Sicily just as they had wished to do to the Greeks. But Timoleon was not interested in such projects. He knew that his own force was probably too small to have achieved a complete victory over the Carthaginians. And it would probably be only a matter of time before Carthage dispatching a new army to the island to try to regain its lost territory. He therefore concluded a new treaty with the Carthaginians. The river Halycus was fixed as the border between the two powers and Carthage was to give up its support of the petty Greek tyrants.

                Timoleon could now turn his attentions back to restoring Greek Sicily. He successfully drove Hicetas from Leontini and Mamercus from Catana, replacing their tyrannies with new constitutional democracies. Eventually, Greek Sicily was restored to peace and prosperity. When he was finally satisfied with the state of affairs, Timoleon voluntarily relinquished his powers and planned to spend the remainder of his years as a simple private citizen of Syracuse. Unfortunately, fate proved unkind to the great leader. Not long after his retirement, he was suffered complete blindness. In 337 BC, at the age of 57, he died. The people of Syracuse gave Timoleon a grand state funeral and buried him in a tomb in the city’s marketplace. The site was later embellished with a colonnade and a gymnasium was built nearby which was named the Timoleonteum in his honor.

Tione degli Abruzzi (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 353 (2006e).

Tiriolo (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 4,055 (2006e).

Tisandros: An athlete of ancient Naxos, in Sicily. He was victor in boxing at the Olympian Games in 572 BC, 568 BC, 564 BC and 560 BC.

Tisikrates: an athlete of ancient Kroton. He was victor in the Stadion at the Olympian Games in 496 BC and 492 BC.

Titianus: (fl. late 4th century AD). Roman administrator. He served as governor of Sicily (consularis Siciliae) in AD 398.

Tito (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

Titular Bishop: A bishop not assigned as the Ordinary of a diocese. Titular sees are historical dioceses no longer in existence.

Tocco Caudio (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 1,593 (2006e).

Tocco da Casauria (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

Todaro: a surname found in southern Italy. It derives from the Greek personal name Theodoros (Theodore).

Tofana of Palermo (or perhaps Teofania di Adamo): (d.1730). Poisoner. A native of Palermo, she was a member of the dreaded clandestine society known as the Secret Poisoners. While in Palermo, she trained other women in the art poisoning, including Hieronyma Spara, who later established a faction of the society in Rome. Tofara later moved the base of her movement to Naples. She created a unique liquid poison, known as Aqua della Tofana, which she sold in small glass phials inscribed with the words “Manna of St. Nicholas of Bari” and decorated with an image of that saint. Despite her long career, she managed to remain free from arrest until she had reached an advanced age. When she learned that the authorities were seeking her, she took refuge in a monastery. When discovered she was arrested and tortured. She finally confessed to having provided poison for at least 600 murders. Her Aqua della Tofana was a highly concentrated form of arsenic, virtually undetectable in the small dose it needed to be fatal.

ton, Neapolitan: a measure of weight used under the Two Sicilies. It was equal to 1,000 kilogrammes, or 2,205 lbs avoirdupois, 35 lbs lighter than the standard English ton.

Tollo (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 4,243 (2006e).

Tolve (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.