Encyclopedia of Southern Italy – S

Stephen I, St.: Pope. (rMay 12, 254-Aug 2, 257).

Stephen “II”: Pope. (rMar 23-25, 752). Dying only 3 days after his election, he had not yet been consecrated as a bishop. Because of this, his inclusion in the official list of popes is ambiguous. He was recognized as a legitimate only during the 16th century. In 1961, he was removed again. This has cause a problem in determining the numbering of later popes using the name of Stephen.

Stephen II (III): Pope. (rMar 26, 752-Apr. 26, 757).

Stephen III (IV): Pope. (rAug 1, 767-Jan 24, 772).

Stephen IV (V): Pope. (rJune 12, 816-Jan 24, 817).

Stephen V (VI): Pope. (r885-Sept 14, 891).

Stephen VI (VII): Pope. (rMay 22, 896-Aug 897).

Stephen VII (VIII): Pope. (rDec 928-Feb 931).

Stephen VIII (IX): Pope. (rJuly 14-Oct 942).

Stephen IX (X): Pope. (rAug 2, 1057-Mar 29, 1058).

Stephen (Stefano): Bishop of Naples (AD 898). He was the son of Gregory III (Duke of Naples rAD 865-870), and the brother of Duke Sergius III (r870-877) and Athanasius II (Bishop and Duke of Naples 877-898). He succeeded Athanasius as Bishop in 898.

stereobate: the visible base of a building, normally part of an ancient Greek temple.

Sternatia (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 2,583 (2006e).

Stidda (“bright star”): a criminal federation of gangs in southern and eastern Sicily created in the 1990s by “men of honor” who had been expelled from the mafia. Based in Gela, its members are called stiddari or stiddaroli, and its gangs are known as “clans” rather than families. Although not as tightly organized as the mafia, it is dedicated to toppling and replacing the Cosa Nostra. The organization’s name derives from the 5-pointed star which is tattooed on the right hand of each initiate.

Stigliano (MT): A commune in the province of Matera. Population: 5,259 (2006e).

Stignano (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio di Calabria.

Stilo (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio di Calabria.

Stio (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Stornara (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 4,706 (2006e).

Stornarella (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 4,986 (2006e).

stornello: A variety of Sicilian folk song.

storia: A variety of southern Italian long song.

strategos (pl. strategoi): an ancient Greek general.

Streets of old Naples: Prior to the conquest of the Two Sicilies in 1860, the principal streets in Naples were known as Strade; after 1860, Vie. Cross-streets were designated as Vichi, while the narrow lanes which ascended hills were called Calate or Salite. Some of these last lanes were so steep that they required steps, and were called Gradoni.

Striano (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.

Stromboli: an island of the Isole Eolie (Lipari Islands).

Strongoli (KR): A commune in the province of Crotone. Population: 6,172 (2006e)

Strongyle: One of the seven principal islands of the Aeoliae Insulae (Aeolian Islands), off the N coast of Sicily. This volcanic island was identified as the home of Aeolus, mythical ruler of the winds, because its inhabitants could tell which way the wind was about to blow by looking at the smoke rising from the volcano.  Mod. Stromboli.

strina: A variety of Calabrian multi-part song.

stucco: a plaster made from water, lime, sand and powdered marble. It could be used as a medium to create moldings and other elaborate interior decoration.

Stupor Mundi: Literally “Wonder of the World”. A name given to Emperor Frederick II (b.1194; d.1250).

Sturno (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 3,219 (2006e).

Succivo (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population: 7,258 (2006e).

Suessa Aurunca (mod. Sessa Aurunca [CE]): A town of the ancient Aurunci located in northern Campania.

Suffragan: A diocese within an ecclesiastic province other than the Metropolitan.

Sulmo: Ancient name for Sulmona.

Sulmona (anc. Sulmo) (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 25,307 (2006e).

Sulmona-Valva, Diocese of: A diocese in the Ecclesiastical region of Abruzzo-Molise.