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Encyclopedia of Southern Italy – S

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Sabatini, Andrea: See Andrea da Salerno.

Sabatus fl.: An ancient river in Bruttium identified with the modern river Savuto, in the province of Cosenza. Scholars believe that its name derives from the Indo-European root *sap-/sab- (‘to taste, perceive’).

Sabelli: an Oscan-speaking people of ancient Italy. They were a loose group and seemed to have had little or no political unity. These Oscan-speaking tribes expanded over central Italy, and by the 5th cent. B.C. seem to have occupied ancient Campania and Lucania. The Samnites and Sabines were probably Sabelli.

Sabines (Sabini): an ancient Sabellian people of central Italy, related to the Samnites and Lucanians. The Sabine territory encompassed the southern part of Umbria and western Abruzzo. According to tradition, they were named for their mythical progenitor, the god Sabus (or Sabinus). The Sabines were notable for their military prowess and their social and moral severity.  They were among the earliest peoples to pose a serious threat to the fledgling Rome. The famous myth of the “Rape of the Sabine Women” was probably based on a ritual marriage of Roman men with Sabine women to seal a treaty between the two peoples. Over time, the Sabines were eventually absorbed into the Roman state, the last of them being defeated in 292 BC by the consul Curius Dentatus.

Sabinian, St.: Pope. (rSept 13, 604-Feb 22, 606).

Sacchini, Antonio Maria Gaspare: (b. 14 June 1730, Pozzuoli. d. 6 October 1786, Paris). Composer.

Sacco (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Sala Consilina (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Salandra (MT): A commune in the province of Matera. Population: 3,054 (2006e).

Salaparuta (TP): A commune in the province of Trapani.

Salapia: A city of ancient Apulia.

Salcito (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 694 (2006e).

Salemi (TP): A commune in the province of Trapani.

Salento (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Salerno, Province of: A province in Campania. Population: 1,089,737 (2007e).

Communes of Salerno Province

Commune

Area

(km˛)

Population

(2007e)

Population

(2006e)

Population

(2001 census)

Population

(1991 census)

Acerno

72.36

2906

2939

3,013

3,185

Agropoli

32.51

20307

20244

19,949

17,926

Albanella

39.84

6343

6396

6,317

6,225

Alfano

4.70

1146

1151

1,308

1,541

Altavilla Silentina

52.23

6771

6746

6,751

6,796

Amalfi

6.11

5434

5457

5,428

5,589

Angri

13.71

30978

30849

29,761

29,753

Aquara

32.39

1705

1726

1,799

1,958

Ascea

37.61

5646

5613

5,392

5,186

Atena Lucana

25.73

2300

2302

2,231

2,330

Atrani

0.20

963

952

965

1,029

Auletta

35.62

2415

2453

2,476

2,605

Baronissi

17.85

16294

16130

15,226

13,070

Battipaglia

56.46

50769

50868

50,359

47,139

Bellizzi

7.90

12911

12925

12,555

12,350

Bellosguardo

16.78

897

930

1,009

1,165

Bracigliano

14.03

5450

5398

5,230

5,105

Buccino

65.45

5508

5566

5,659

5,926

Buonabitacolo

15.36

2671

2655

2,581

2,825

Caggiano

35.27

2901

2926

3,011

3,173

Calvanico

14.86

1495

1478

1,365

1,241

Camerota

70.80

7187

7198

6,846

7,322

Campagna

135.39

15626

15627

15,311

13,466

Campora

28.97

527

538

563

721

Cannalonga

17.74

1134

1125

1,146

1,127

Capaccio

112.02

21265

21206

20,238

18,503

Casalbuono

34.41

4882

1234

1,303

1,553

Casaletto Spartano

70.12

1231

1544

1,680

1,905

Casal Velino

31.47

1518

4855

4,598

4,464

Caselle in Pittari

44.64

2009

2013

2,026

2,402

Castelcivita

57.28

13321

2024

2,152

2,426

Castellabate

36.54

2792

7904

7,775

7,414

Castelnuovo Cilento

18.13

1973

2403

2,253

2,158

Castelnuovo di Conza

13.98

7862

714

966

1,159

Castel San Giorgio

13.59

2433

13169

12,879

11,347

Castel San Lorenzo

14.08

682

2828

3,034

3,229

Castiglione del Genovesi

10.72

1283

1255

1,270

1,174

Cava de’ Tirreni

36.34

53314

53262

52,616

52,502

Celle di Bulgheria

31.53

1999

1995

2,061

2,240

Centola

47.21

4845

4875

4,828

4,805

Ceraso

45.95

2558

2556

2,510

3,055

Cetara

4.92

2392

2363

2,357

2,509

Cicerale

41.07

1299

1303

1,351

1,567

Colliano

54.04

3813

3809

3,830

3,997

Conca dei Marini

1.02

733

730

697

670

Controne

7.65

923

933

943

1,047

Contursi Terme

28.90

3266

3249

3,182

3,110

Corbara

6.63

2584

2572

2,455

2,420

Corleto Monforte

58.75

695

710

764

965

Cuccaro Vetere

17.59

591

586

622

695

Eboli

137.47

37173

37103

35,842

33,964

Felitto

41.14

1309

1308

1,393

1,578

Fisciano

31.48

13098

13009

12,275

11,421

Furore

1.70

827

822

810

779

Futani

14.85

1299

1316

1,280

1,484

Giffoni Sei Casali

34.39

4913

4785

4,172

3,608

Giffoni Valle Piana

87.87

11668

11539

10,992

10,460

Gioi

28.01

1416

1432

1,465

1,697

Giungano

11.53

1135

1122

1,116

1,063

Ispani

8.19

1009

1035

1,015

1,052

Laureana Cilento

13.66

1108

1110

1,093

1,105

Laurino

69.93

1837

1853

1,950

2,252

Laurito

19.92

910

911

943

1,066

Laviano

56.63

1523

1535

1,591

1,878

Lustra

15.04

1086

1106

1,115

1,189

Magliano Vetere

22.53

830

841

889

1,024

Maiori

16.42

5677

5723

5,740

5,735

Mercato San Severino

30.17

20953

20860

20,362

19,078

Minori

2.56

2926

2973

3,023

3,091

Moio della Civitella

16.90

1940

1926

1,823

1,802

Montano Antilia

33.38

2074

2102

2,191

2,664

Montecorice

21.88

1676

2515

2,474

2,440

Montecorvino Pugliano

28.68

2528

9152

7,811

4,404

Montecorvino Rovella

42.14

9368

12115

11,558

10,262

Monteforte Cilento

22.05

12234

613

625

694

Monte San Giacomo

51.45

601

1688

1,682

2,050

Montesano sulla Marcellana

109.26

6841

6896

7,220

7,720

Morigerati

21.64

731

738

780

877

Nocera Inferiore

20.78

46095

46305

46,540

49,053

Nocera Superiore

14.68

23953

23854

23,837

22,325

Novi Velia

34.62

2122

2113

2,052

2,015

Ogliastro Cilento

13.20

2274

2258

2,202

2,183

Olevano sul Tusciano

26.45

6740

6736

6,399

6,216

Oliveto Citra

31.41

3939

3959

4,005

3,948

Omignano

10.14

1537

1551

1,536

1,542

Orria

26.35

1255

1265

1,293

1,443

Ottati

53.24

747

769

809

998

Padula

66.44

5514

5577

5,403

5,623

Pagani

12.74

35543

35199

32,349

33,138

Palomonte

28.28

4065

4082

4,115

4,204

Pellezzano

13.86

10645

10579

10,202

9,171

Perdifumo

23.65

1802

1805

1,866

1,873

Perito

23.77

1037

1052

1,101

1,189

Pertosa

6.21

709

710

727

897

Petina

35.09

1212

1217

1,238

1,352

Piaggine

62.29

1575

1605

1,775

2,056

Pisciotta

30.34

2906

2946

3,038

3,324

Polla

47.06

5338

5384

5,347

5,635

Pollica

27.72

2547

2545

2,516

2,912

Pontecagnano Faiano

36.78

24210

24206

22,730

21,781

Positano

8.42

3938

3938

3,882

3,638

Postiglione

47.98

2307

2294

2,334

2,605

Praiano

2.66

2012

2003

1,915

1,883

Prignano Cilento

11.92

916

908

870

921

Ravello

7.99

2517

2489

2,508

2,422

Ricigliano

27.70

1280

1297

1,339

1,497

Roccadaspide

64.29

7438

7465

7,461

7,519

Roccagloriosa

42.32

1696

1710

1,734

2,167

Roccapiemonte

5.19

9164

9242

9,113

8,751

Rofrano

58.82

1800

1834

2,193

2,304

Romagnano al Monte

9.67

391

399

415

458

Roscigno

14.84

885

901

993

1,147

Rutino

9.68

887

898

920

986

Sacco

23.71

635

660

701

905

Sala Consilina

59.19

12672

12670

12,716

12,772

Salento

23.75

2005

2020

2,022

2,136

Salerno

58.96

132790

134820

138,188

148,932

Salvitelle

9.50

644

656

702

927

San Cipriano Picentino

17.41

6664

6592

5,978

4,883

San Giovanni a Piro

37.69

3852

3820

3,753

4,414

San Gregorio Magno

49.80

4551

4592

4,616

4,650

San Mango Piemonte

5.93

2527

2427

2,166

1,763

San Marzano sul Sarno

5.15

9839

9821

9,472

9,556

San Mauro Cilento

15.06

966

976

1,011

1,079

San Mauro la Bruca

18.94

719

731

768

939

San Pietro al Tanagro

15.27

1686

1716

1,640

1,686

San Rufo

31.59

1758

1772

1,853

1,919

Santa Marina

28.11

9841

3231

3,303

3,285

Sant’Angelo a Fasanella

32.42

3153

746

818

989

Sant’Arsenio

20.18

761

2715

2,752

3,099

Sant’Egidio del Monte Albino

6.24

2742

8632

8,394

8,188

Santomenna

8.80

8716

552

580

969

San Valentino Torio

9.01

542

9789

9,285

8,203

Sanza

127.05

2821

2839

3,006

3,071

Sapri

13.84

7049

7022

7,022

6,961

Sarno

39.95

31564

31687

31,059

31,509

Sassano

47.28

5139

5166

5,190

5,337

Scafati

19.69

50735

50745

47,082

40,710

Scala

13.06

1522

1493

1,488

1,455

Serramezzana

7.21

368

371

403

441

Serre

66.47

3827

3808

3,818

3,833

Sessa Cilento

18.01

1415

1407

1,466

1,628

Siano

8.47

10329

10312

10,104

9,265

Sicignano degli Alburni

80.57

3339

3359

3,466

4,018

Stella Cilento

14.36

824

828

850

908

Stio

24.45

1033

1014

1,088

1,169

Teggiano

61.59

8108

8011

8,241

8,582

Torchiara

8.29

1708

1659

1,525

1,360

Torraca

15.75

1245

1251

1,232

1,193

Torre Orsaia

23.72

2319

2338

2,392

2,718

Tortorella

49.65

562

572

603

717

Tramonti

24.73

4103

4077

3,935

3,918

Trentinara

23.36

1695

1694

1,769

1,781

Valle dell’Angelo

37.00

371

384

406

545

Vallo della Lucania

25.06

8878

8946

8,818

8,142

Valva

26.21

1827

1828

1,772

1,923

Vibonati

20.13

3135

3099

3,019

3,040

Vietri sul Mare

9.00

8525

8579

8,543

9,401

Total

4,923

1,089,737

1,090,934

1,073,643

1,066,601

Salerno (SA): A commune and provincial capital of the province of Salerno.

Salerno, School of Medicine at: (Lat: Schola Medica Salernitana; It. Scuola Medica Salernitana). One of the earliest (if not the first) true medical schools to be founded in medieval times. It played a very important role in the gathering and dissemination of medical knowledge to Europe from the 10th to the 13th Centuries, producing some of the finest physicians of that era. The schools drew medical students and scholars from throughout the Mediterranean world and beyond. In its capacity as a teaching hospital, it treated patients using medical techniques drawn from the Classical Greco-Roman world, as well as Saracen and Jewish teachings. Beyond medicine, the school also taught its students philosophy, theology, and law; all considered important to the molding of true physicians.

Salerno, Giuseppe (lo Zoppo di Gangi): fl. 1588-1630. A painter from Gangi (PA).

Salice Salentino (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 8,861 (2006e).

Salina: an island of the Isole Eolie (Lipari Islands).

Saline di Barletta: Earlier name, until 1879, for the town of Margherita di Savoia [FG].

Salle (PE): A commune in the province of Pescara.

Salve (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 4,599 (2006e).

Salvitelle (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Salvo di Antonio, Giovanni: fl. 1493-1525. Painter from Messina.

Salza Irpina (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 835 (2006e).

Sambuca de Sicilia (AG): A commune in the province of Agrigento. Population: 6,328 (2006e).

Sammichele di Bari (BA): A commune in the province of Bari: Population: 6,845 (2006e).

Samnio (Molise): A province in the former kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Naples). Its territory comprised part of ancient Samnium. The smallest of the Neapolitan provinces, it had an area of about 1,200 square miles and an estimated population of about 200,000 (est 1830). It was bounded by Abruzzo Citra, the Capitanata, Principato Ultra and the Terra di Lavoro.

Samnites: an ancient Italic people of south-central Italy. Their country, Samnium, was roughly equivalent to the modern regions of Abruzzo and Molise. Speaking a dialect of Oscan, they were a Sabellian people, probably an offshoot of the Sabines. The most important example of the Samnite tongue is the famous Tabula Agnonensis, a bronze tablet that carries an inscription engraved in the full Oscan alphabet. The Samnites were a loose confederation of agricultural tribes, lacking a centralized government. They were, nevertheless, capable of coordinated action and were able to effectively expanding their territory westward in the 4th century B.C. The Campani appealed for help to Rome, thus setting off an inevitable conflict between the two most powerful peoples in ancient Italy. The outcome of this conflict would decide not only the fate of Campania but the whole of Italy as well. The Samnites decision to expand had the long-term result in the Roman conquest of Italy and their subsequent conflict with the Carthaginians for Sicily. The conflict was divided into three principal episodes, the First, Second, and Third Samnite Wars (343-341 BC, 326-304 BC, and 298-290 BC). Although the Samnites continued to fight against Rome with Pyrrhus, Hannibal and later Marius in the Social War, they were crushed (82 B.C.) by Sulla before the gates of Rome; most of them were killed. Some survivors were sold into slavery, while most the rest were Romanized. Some Samnites, both free and slave, probably formed part of Spartacus’s army during the Third Servile War (73-71 BC).

Samnium (1): ancient country of central and S Italy, mostly in the S Apennines. It was E of Campania and Latium and NE of Apulia. It measured about 2,700 sq. miles in area.

Samnium (2) (Regio III): one of the eight provinces of Italy created by the Roman Emperor Augustus in the late 1st Century AD. It encompassed the area of the modern regions of Abruzzo and Molise. The province was governed by a praesides or corrector. The province encompassed all or parts of the territories belonging to the Sabini, Aequi, Marsi, Peligni, Vestini, and Marrucini.

Samo (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.

Sanarica (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 1,471 (2006e).

San Bartolomeo in Galdo (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 5,456 (2006e).

San Basile (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,208 (2006e).

San Benedetto dei Marsi (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 4,091 (2006e).

San Benedetto in Perillis (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 133 (2006e).

San Benedetto Ullano (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,650 (2006e).

San Biagio Platani (AG): A commune in the province of Agrigento. Population: 3,678 (2006e).

San Biase (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 244 (2006e).

San Buono (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 1,150 (2006e).

San Calogero (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.

San Cassiano (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 2,192 (2006e).

San Cataldo (CL): A commune in the province of Caltanissetta. Population: 23,149 (2006e).

San Cesario di Lecce (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 7,992 (2006e).

San Chirico Nuovo (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

San Chirico Raparo (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

San Cipirello (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.

San Cipriano d’Aversa (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  12,852 (2006e).

San Cipriano Picentino (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

San Cono (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 2,930 (2006e).

San Cosmo Albanese (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 659 (2006e).

San Costantino Albanese (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

San Costantino Calabro (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia

Sancto Officio (Holy Office): a term used in Sicilian and Spanish documents to refer to the Spanish Inquisition.

Sancus: an ancient Italian god of oaths, marriage, treaties, and hospitality. The Romans identified him with Apollo or Jupiter. He had also called Semo Sancus or Semo Sancus Dius Fidius.

San Demetrio Corone (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 4,592 (2006e).

San Demetrio ne’ Vestini (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 1,695 (2006e).

San Donaci (BR): A commune in the province of Brindisi. Population: 7,021 (2006e).

San Donato di Lecce (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 5,769 (2006e).

San Donato di Ninea (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,679 (2006e).

San Fele (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

San Felice a Cancello (CS): A commune in the province of Caserta.

San Felice del Molise (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso

San Ferdinando (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.

San Ferdinando di Puglia (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 14,452 (2006e). It is one of the three communes of the province of Foggia which will be transferred to the newly created province of Barletta-Andria-Trani in 2009.

San Felice a Cancello (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  17,246 (2006e).

San Felice del Molise (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 741 (2006e).

San Fili (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 2,742 (2006e).

San Filippo del Mela (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

San Floro (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 575 (2006e).

San Fratello (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

San Gennaro Vesuviano (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.

San Giacomo degli Schiavoni (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso.

San Giacomo degli Schiavoni (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 1,219 (2006e).

Sangineto (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,407 (2006e).

San Giorgio a Cremano (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.

San Giorgio Albanese (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,673 (2006e).

San Giorgio del Sannio (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 9,809 (2006e).

San Giorgio Jonico (TA): A commune in the province of Taranto.

San Giorgio la Molara (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 3,178 (2006e).

San Giorgio Lucano (MT): A commune in the province of Matera. Population: 1,429 (2006e).

San Giorgio Morgeto (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.

San Giovanni a Piro (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

San Giovanni di Gerace (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.

San Giovanni Gemini (AG): A commune in the province of Agrigento. Population: 8,080 (2006e).

San Giovanni in Fiore (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 18,379 (2006e).

San Giovanni in Galdo (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 684 (2006e).

San Giovanni La Punta (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 20,756 (2006e).

San Giovanni Lipioni (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 261 (2006e).

San Giovanni Rotondo (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 26,501 (2006e).

The first part of the name derives from that of St. John. The second part, however, comes from the Latin word rotundus (= “round”, “circular”) inspired by the ancient, circular-walled baptistery located there.

San Giovanni Teatino (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 10,771 (2006e).

San Giuliano del Sannio (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso.

San Giuliano di Puglia (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 1,147 (2006e).

San Giuseppe Jato (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo

San Giuseppe Vesuviano (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.

San Gregorio di Catania (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 10,930 (2006e).

San Gregorio d’Ippona (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.

San Gregorio Magno (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

San Gregorio Matese (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population: 1,017 (2006e).

San Leucio del Sannio (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 3,276 (2006e).

San Lorenzello (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 2,321 (2006e).

San Lorenzo (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.

San Lorenzo Bellizzi (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 867 (2006e).

San Lorenzo del Vallo (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 3,450 (2006e).

San Lorenzo Maggiore (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 2,244 (2006e).

San Lucido (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 5,905 (2006e).

San Lupo (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 870 (2006e).

San Mango d’Aquino (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 1,808 (2006e).

San Mango Piemonte (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

San Mango sul Calore (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 1,220 (2006e).

San Marcellino (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  12,423 (2006e).

San Marco Argentano (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 7,535 (2006e).

San Marco Argentano – Scalea, Diocese of:

Suffragans:

Metropolitan: Cosenza – Bisignano

Conference Region: Calabria.

Area: 1,142 km˛/ mi˛

Total Population: 111,481

Catholic Population:

Total Priests: 90 (Diocesan: 84; Religious: 6)

Permanent Deacons: 3.

Male Religious:

Female Religious:

Parishes: 64

History:

San Marco d’Alunzio (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

San Marco dei Cavoti (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 3,771 (2006e).

San Marco Evangelista (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  6,061 (2006e).

San Marco in Lamis (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 15,111 (2006e).

San Marco la Catola (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 1,354 (2006e).

San Martino d’Agri (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

San Martino di Finita (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,261 (2006e).

San Martino in Pensilis (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 4,841 (2006e).

San Martino Sannita (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 1,233 (2006e).

San Martino sulla Marrucina (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 1,010 (2006e).

San Martino Valle Caudina (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 4,693 (2006e).

San Marzano di San Giuseppe (TA): A commune in the province of Taranto – region: Puglia

San Marzano sul Sarno (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno

San Massimo (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 770 (2006e).

San Mauro Castelverde (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo – region: Sicilia

San Mauro Cilento (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno

San Mauro Forte (MT): A commune in the province of Matera. Population: 1,974 (2006e).

San Mauro La Bruca (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

San Mauro Marchesato (KR): A commune in the province of Crotone. Population: 2,326 (2006e)

San Michele di Ganzaria (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 4,201 (2006e).

San Michele di Serino (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 2,461 (2006e).

San Michele Salentino (BR): A commune in the province of Brindisi. Population: 6,260 (2006e).

San Nazzaro (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 872 (2006e).

San Nicola Arcella (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,482 (2006e).

San Nicola Baronia (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 855 (2006e).

San Nicola da Crissa (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.

San Nicola dell’Alto (formerly San Nicola dell’ Viola)(KR): A commune in the province of Crotone. Population: 1,023 (2006e)

San Nicola dell’ Viola)(KR): Former name for San Nicola dell’Alto (KR).

San Nicola la Strada (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  20,176 (2006e).

San Nicola Manfredi (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 3,394 (2006e).

San Pancrazio Salentino (BR): A commune in the province of Brindisi. Population: 10,471 (2006e).

San Paolo Albanese (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

San Paolo Bel Sito (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.

San Paolo di Civitate (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 5,955 (2006e).

San Pier Niceto (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

San Piero Patti (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

San Pietro a Maida (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 4,240 (2006e).

San Pietro al Tanagro (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

San Pietro Apostolo (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 1,878 (2006e).

San Pietro Avellana (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 613 (2006e).

San Pietro Clarenza (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 6,454 (2006e).

San Pietro di Caridŕ (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.

San Pietro in Amantea (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 591 (2006e).

San Pietro in Guarano (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 3,700 (2006e).

San Pietro in Lama (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 3,715 (2006e).

San Pietro Infine (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta.

San Pietro Sannitico (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  1,946 (2006e).

San Pietro Vernotico (BR): A commune in the province of Brindisi. Population: 14,735 (2006e).

San Pio delle Camere (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 583 (2006e).

San Polomatese (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 465 (2006e).

San Potito Sannitico (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta.

San Potito Ultra (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 1,497 (2006e).

San Prisco (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  11,468 (2006e).

San Procopio (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.

San Roberto (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.

San Rufo (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

San Salvatore di Fitalia (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

San Salvatore Telesino (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento.

San Salvo (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti.

San Sebastiano al Vesuvio (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.

San Severino Lucano (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

San Salvatore Telesino (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 3,940 (2006e).

San Salvo (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 18,047 (2006e).

San Sebastiano al Vesuvio (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.

San Severino Lucano (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

San Severo(FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 55,720 (2006e).

San Sossio Baronia (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 1,884 (2006e).

San Sostene (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 1,187 (2006e).

San Sosti (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 2,243 (2006e).

San Tammaro (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta.

San Teodoro (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

San Valentino in Abruzzo Citeriore (PE): A commune in the province of Pescara.

San Valentino Torio (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

San Vincenzo la Costa (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 2,097 (2006e).

San Vincenzo Valle Roveto (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 2,555 (2006e).

San Vitaliano (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.

San Vito Chietino (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 5,047 (2006e).

San Vito dei Normanni (BR): A commune in the province of Brindisi. Population: 19,817 (2006e).

San Vito lo Capo (TP): A commune in the province of Trapani.

San Vito sullo Ionio (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 1,914 (2006e).

Sanarica (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce.

Sangineto (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza.

Sangro, River (Anc. Sagrus): A river (length: 122 km) in southern Abruzzo. It rises on Monte Morrone del Diavolo, at an altitude of 1,441 m, and flows to the NE where it joins the river Aventino before emptying into the Adriatic Sea.

Sannicandro di Bari (BA): A commune in the province of Bari: Population: 9,669 (2006e).

Sannicandro Garganico (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 16,727 (2006e).

Sannicola (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 6,025 (2006e).

Sanseverino, Gaetano:(b. 1811, Naples; d. Nov. 16, 1865, Naples). Philosophy. Having received his education at the seminary at Nola, he served as a canon of the Cathedral of Naples. He became professor of logic and metaphysics in the seminary, substitute professor of ethics at the University of Naples, and scrittore in the National Library.

Sant’Agapito (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 1,357 (2006e).

Sant’Agata de Goti (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento.

Sant’Agata del Bianco (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.

Sant’Agata di Esaro (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 2,119 (2006e).

Sant’Agata di Militello (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

Sant’Agata di Puglia (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 2,227 (2006e).

Sant’Agata li Battiati (CT): A commune in the province of Catania.

Sant’Agnello (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli

Sant’Alessio in Aspromonte (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.

Sant’Alessio Siculo (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

Sant’Alfio (CT): A commune in the province of Catania.

Sant’Anastasia (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli – region: Campania

Sant’Andrea Apostolo dello Ionio (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro – region: Calabria

Sant’Andrea di Conza (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino – region: Campania

Sant’Angelo a Cupolo (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento.

Sant’Angelo a Fasanella (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Sant’Angelo a Scala (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino.

Sant’Angelo all’Esca (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino.

Sant’Angelo d’Alife (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta.

Sant’Angelo dei Lombardi (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino.

Sant’Angelo del Pesco (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 402 (2006e).

Sant’Angelo di Brolo (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

Sant’Angelo Le Fratte (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

Sant’Angelo Limosano (): A commune in the province of Campobasso.

Sant’Angelo Muxaro (AG): A commune in the province of Agrigento.

Sant’Antimo (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.

Sant’Antonio Abate (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.

Sant’Arcangelo (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

Sant’Arcangelo Trimonte (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento.

Sant’Arpino (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta.

Sant’Arsenio (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Santa Caterina Albanese (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,333 (2006e).

Santa Caterina dello Ionio (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 2,158 (2006e).

Santa Caterina Villarmosa (CL): A commune in the province of Caltanissetta. Population: 5,864 (2006e).

Santa Cesarea Terme (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 3,076 (2006e).

Santa Cristina d’Aspromonte (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.

Santa Cristina Gela (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.

Santa Croce Camerina (RG): A commune in the province of Ragusa.

Santa Croce del Sannio (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 1,026 (2006e).

Santa Croce di Magliano (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 4,849 (2006e).

Santa Domenica Talao (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,307 (2006e).

Santa Domenica Vittoria (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

Santa Elisabetta (AG): A commune in the province of Agrigento. Population: 2,840 (2006e).

Santa Flavia (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.

Santa Lucia del Mela (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

Santa Lucia di Serino (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 1,545 (2006e).

Santa Margherita di Belice (AG): A commune in the province of Agrigento. Population: 6,649 (2006e).

Santa Maria a Vico (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population: 13,943 (2006e).

Santa Maria Capua Vetere (CE): A commune in Caserta province. Population: 33,201 (2006e). It is situated on the site of ancient Capua.

Santa Maria del Cedro (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 5,039 (2006e).

Santa Maria del Molise (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 675 (2006e).

Santa Maria di Licodia (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 6,758 (2006e).

Santa Maria Imbaro (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 1,757 (2006e).

Santa Maria la Fossa (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  2,703 (2006e).

Santa Maria La Carita (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.

Santa Marina (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Santa Marina Salina (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

Santa Ninfa (TP): A commune in the province of Trapani.

Santa Paolina (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 1,445 (2006e).

Santa Severina (KR): A commune in the province of Crotone. Population: 2,282 (2006e).

Santa Sofia d’Epiro (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 3,012 (2006e).

Santa Tammaro (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population: 4,615 (2006e).

Santa Teresa di Riva (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

Santa Venerina (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 8,140 (2006e).

Sant’Agapito (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 1,357 (2006e).

Sant’Agata de Goti (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento.

Sant’Agata del Bianco (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.

Sant’Agata di Esaro (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 2,119 (2006e).

Sant’Agata di Militello (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

Sant’Agata di Puglia (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 2,227 (2006e).

Sant’Agata li Battiati (CT): A commune in the province of Catania.

Sant’Agnello (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli

Sant’Alessio in Aspromonte (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.

Sant’Alessio Siculo (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

Sant’Alfio (CT): A commune in the province of Catania.

Sant’Anastasia (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli – region: Campania

Sant’Andrea Apostolo dello Ionio (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro – region: Calabria

Sant’Andrea di Conza (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino – region: Campania

Sant’Angelo a Cupolo (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento.

Sant’Angelo a Fasanella (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Sant’Angelo a Scala (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino.

Sant’Angelo all’Esca (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino.

Sant’Angelo d’Alife (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta.

Sant’Angelo dei Lombardi (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino.

Sant’Angelo del Pesco (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 402 (2006e).

Sant’Angelo di Brolo (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

Sant’Angelo Le Fratte (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

Sant’Angelo Limosano (): A commune in the province of Campobasso.

Sant’Angelo Muxaro (AG): A commune in the province of Agrigento.

Sant’Antimo (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.

Sant’Antonio Abate (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.

Sant’Arcangelo (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

Sant’Arcangelo Trimonte (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento.

Sant’Arpino (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta.

Sant’Arsenio (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Sante Marie (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 1,304 (2006e).

Sant’Egidio alla Vibrata (TE): A commune in the province of Teramo.

Sant’Egidio del Monte Albino (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Sant’Elena Sannita (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 283 (2006e).

Sant’Elia a Pianisi (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 2,133 (2006e).

Santeramo (BA): A commune in the province of Bari.

Sant’Eufemia a Maiella (PE): A commune in the province of Pescara.

Sant’Eufemia d’Aspromonte (): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.

Sant’Eusanio del Sangro (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 2,392 (2006e).

Sant’Eusanio Forconese (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 416 (2006e).

Sant’Ilario dello Ionio (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.

Santomenna (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Sant’Omero (TE): A commune in the province of Teramo.

Sant’Onofrio (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.

Santo Stefano del Sole (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 2,132 (2006e).

Santo Stefano di Camastra (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

Santo Stefano di Rogliano (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,515 (2006e).

Santo Stefano di Sessanio (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 114 (2006e).

Santo Stefano in Aspromonte (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria

Santo Stefano Quisquina (AG): A commune in the province of Agrigento. Population: 5,233 (2006e).

Sanza (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Saponara (SA): A commune in the province of Messina.

Sapri (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Saracen: the term derives either from the Greek sarakenoi or the Arabic sharqiyyin (easterners). In medieval times the term was broadly applied to all Muslim Arabs, but particularly to those of Sicily and southern Italy.

Saracen Tower: (It. Torre Saracena). A type of watch tower built along the coasts during the Middle Ages. As their name implies, they were used to keep watch for approaching Saracens and other pirates.

Saracena (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 4,225 (2006e).

Sarausa: Sicilian dialect form for Siracusa (Syracuse).

Sarconi (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

Sarno (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno

Sassano (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Sassinoro (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 632 (2006e).

Sasso di Castalda (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

Satres: An Etruscan god, equivalent to the Roman Saturn.

Satriano (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 3,191 (2006e).

Satriano di Lucania (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

Sava (TA): A commune in the province of Taranto.

Savasta, Antonio: (b. 22 August 1873, Catania. d. 2 December 1959, Naples). Composer. His works include opera, orchestral pieces, and chamber music.

Savelli (KR): A commune in the province of Crotone. Population: 1,497 (2006e).

Saviano (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.

Savignano Irpino (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 1,271 (2006e).

Savoca (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

Savoia, Leone: (b. 1814, at Messina; d. 1885). Architect.

Savoia di Lucania (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

Savone, River: (anc. Savo or Safo). A river in the province of Caserta in northern Campania.

sbirro (pl. sbirri): a term of derision used for police by mafiosi in Sicily.

scacciapensieri (= “care-chaser”): A mouth harp used in both the far northern Alpine regions of Italy and in Sicily.

Scafa (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Scafati (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Scala (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Scala Coeli (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,290 (2006e).

Scalea (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 10,143 (2006e).

Scaletta Zanclea (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

Scampitella (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 1,369 (2006e).

Scandale (KR): A commune in the province of Crotone. Population: 3,168 (2006e).

Scanno (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 2,073 (2006e).

Scanzano Jonico (MT): A commune in the province of Matera. Population: 6,962 (2006e).

Scapoli (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 908 (2006e).

Scarlatti, Alessandro: (b. 2 May 1660, Palermo. d. 22 October 1725, Naples). Composer. During his career he created over 600 composed pieces; over 115 operas, oratorios, masses, cantatas (including solos), madrigals, concerti grossi, harpsichord and chamber pieces. He was the father of Domenico Scarlatti.

Scarlatti, Domenico: (b. 26 October 1685, Naples. d. 23 July 1757, Madrid). Composer. Having received his earliest musical instruction from his father, Alessandro Scarlatti, he moved first to Rome and then to Portugal. There he became a teacher to one of the royal princesses. He accompanied her (c1729) to Madrid when she married the King of Spain. His works include over 500 sonatas for the harpsichord, church music, and operas.

Scerni (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 3,604 (2006e).

Schiavi di Abruzzo (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 1,199 (2006e).

Sciacca (AG): A commune in the province of Agrigento. Population: 40,868 (2006e).

Sciara (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.

Sciarrino, Salvatore: (b. April 4, 1947, Palermo). Composer.

Sciascia, Leonardo: (b. 1921, Racalmuto [AG]; d. 1989). Novelist.

Scicli (RG): A commune in the province of Ragusa.

Scido (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.

Scigliano (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,462 (2006e).

Scilla (anc. Scyllaeum, Scylla, Skulla): A promontory on the coast of Calabria at the N entrance to the Straits of Messina. Ancient tradition makes it the home of the mythical monster Scylla. It sits opposite to Charybdis on the Sicilian side of the Strait.

Scilla (anc. Scyllaeum) (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria. It is named for the promontory on which it is located.

Scilla, Agostino: (b. 1629, at Messina; d. 1700). Painter.

Scilla, Luigi Ruffo: (b. Aug. 25, 1750, at S. Onofrio; d. Nov. 17, 1832, at Naples). Ecclesiastic. Ordained a priest in 1780, he served as Apostolic Nuncio to Austria in 1793. He was elevated to cardinal in 1801. He served as archbishop of Naples from 1802 to 1832.

Scillato (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo

Scipione di Guido: fl. 1587-1904. A sculptor and engraver from Naples.

Scisciano (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.

Sciuti, Giuseppe: (b. 1834, at Zafferana Etnea (CT); d. 1911). Painter.

Sclafani Bagni (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.

Scontrone (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 601 (2006e).

Scoppito (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 2,857 (2006e).

Scordia (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 17,202 (2006e).

Scorrano (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 6,887 (2006e).

Scurcola Marsicana (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 2,669 (2006e).

Scydrus: An ancient town of Bruttium. Its exact location is unknown but was located along the Tyrrhenian coast of the modern province of Cosenza. It was founded by Greeks from Sybaris.

Scylla (Grk: Skylla): A mythological monster which lived in a cave on the mainland side of the Straits of Messina. According to some classical writers, Scylla was originally was a beautiful nymph, daughter of Crataeis. Beloved by the sea-god Glaukos, she incurred the jealousy of the witch Circe who turned her into a horrible monster which barked like a dog. Earlier writers, however, claim that she was born a monster. Most sources describe Scylla as having 12 feet and a fearsome head at the end of each of her 6 long necks. The mouth of each head had 3 rows of sharp teeth. Others say she had only 3 heads or the heads of six different animals. Although best known for her attack of Odysseus and his men in Homer’s Odyssey, she appears occasionally in other stories. When Hercules was passing nearby, herding the cattle of Geryon back to Greece, Scylla stole some of the oxen. For this she was slain by the hero, but later was restored to life by the sea-god Phorcys. Virgil (Aeneid vi.286) stated that there were several Scyllae, who resided in the underworld.

                Scylla’s parentage varies in different sources. Her father is claimed to be Phorcys, Poseidon, Triton, or Typhoeus. Her mother is most commonly identified as Crataeis, but some sources claim she is it Trienos, Hecate, Lamia, or Echidna.

                Scylla’s name is related to the Greek words skyllaros (= hermit crab), skylax (= dog, dog-shark) and skyllô (= “to rend”).

Scymnus (Skymnos): (b. Tarentum; fl. late 4th century BC). Juggler. A member of Alexander the Great’s court, he was one of the performers at the mass-marriage ceremony at Susa in 324 BC.

Sea, Sicilian: See Sea of Sicily.

Sea Salt, Sicilian (Italian Sea Salt, Sale Marino or Trapani sea salt): a type of sea salt harvested along the coast of Sicily. Sea water is collected into ponds where it is allowed to evaporate in the sun, leaving behind the salt. This raw salt is then crushed, processed, and packaged for sale. This sea salt consists of several minerals including iodine, fluorine, magnesium, and potassium, and has lower sodium content than traditional table salts. These sea salts are utilized in a wide variety of different regional Italian cuisines.

Secinaro (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 441 (2006e).

Secli’ (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 1,945 (2006e).

Secret Poisoners, Society of: A secret society of supposed ancient origins known to have existed in Italy during the 16th and 17th centuries. Its members were feared throughout Europe for their abilities to create and utilize unique poisons. One of its best-known members was Tofana, a woman from Palermo, who created the deadly liquid poison known as Aqua della Tofara. During the pontificate of Alexander VII, a faction of the society was known to be active in Rome. Its members consisted of a group of young women under the leadership of an old Sicilian woman named Hieronyma Spara, who had been a pupil of Tofana. They came under suspicion of murder when the husbands of the women all died suddenly under mysterious circumstances. The authorities arrested the women who, under tortured confessed to poisoning their husbands. Spara and four others were publicly executed.

                It is possible that Locusta, the woman who supplied the Roman empress Agrippina with the poison to murder her husband Claudius, was also a member of this society of poisoners. She also provided the poison which the Emperor Nero used to kill Britannicus, Claudius’s son. Locusta’s poisons of choice seem to have been cyanide and belladonna. She was finally executed in January AD 55 by Nero’s successor Galba.

Segesta (Acesta, Aegesta, Segeste): An ancient city of NW Sicily, situated to the SE of Eryx. Traditionally called a Trojan colony (its name deriving from its supposed founder, Aegestus), it was the longstanding and bitter rival of Selinus. Athens undertook (415-413 B.C.) the disastrous expedition against Syracuse as an ally of Segesta in troubles growing out of a quarrel with Selinus. After this failure, Segesta got the help of Carthage, and Selinus was sacked (409). Thereafter Segesta was a Carthaginian dependency with some interruptions until the First Punic War, when it surrendered to the Romans. Segesta was the setting for a story concerning Aemilius Censorinaus and a bronze horse, which was appears derive from the earlier tale of Perillus and his brazen bull. The city went into a decline in the 1st cent. B.C. from which it never recovered. Amid its ruins is a fine temple to Ceres.

                The Romans called the city “Segeste” because Segesta was too similar to the Latin word aegesta or egesta (= discharge, excrement).

According to mythology, the original city, Aegesta, was founded by Aegestus, a Trojan, who had been sent by the Greek hero Philoctetes from the area near Croton on the Italian mainland, where Philoctetes himself had settled after the fall of Troy. Soon after Aegesta had been founded, Aeneas arrived with his fleet of Trojan refugees and named two nearby rivers Scamander and Simois in memory of a pair of streams in his Troad homeland. One version of the myth names Aeneas as the actual founder of the city. In this little-known tale, Aeneas founds both Aegesta and another city, Elyma, so-named for the Trojan Elymus, a companion of Aegestus. Aegestus and Elymus were able to reach Sicily before the arrival of Aeneas in three ships which they had previously captured from Achilles before the fall of Troy.

Sele (anc. Silarus), River: A waterway which flows through Campania into the Gulf of Salerno. Its main tributaries are the Tanagro and the Calore Lucano.

Selinus: ancient city of southwestern Sicily. It was founded (628? B.C.) by Dorian Greeks from Megara Hyblaea. The constant rival of neighboring Segesta, Selinus got Syracuse to interfere in a quarrel, which led to the unsuccessful Athenian expedition in Sicily (415-413 B.C.). Segesta invoked the aid of the Carthaginians, who sacked Selinus in 409 B.C. The city was rebuilt, but it did not prosper and was finally destroyed by Carthage in 250 B.C. The ruins of the five Doric temples on the Acropolis of Selinus have been excavated, revealing some of the finest examples of archaic Greek sculpture and architecture.

Sella di Conza: A pass (alt. 730 m) in the southern Apennine Mountains which is generally used to mark the division between the Campanian and Lucanian Apennines. It forms part of the border between Campania (province of Avellino) and Basilicata (province of Potenza). Part of the route of the modern Strada Statale 7 Via Appia (SS 7), and the ancient Via Appia (Appian Way) runs through the pass.

Sellia (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 551 (2006e).

Sellia Marina (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 6,004 (2006e).

Selvans: Etruscan nature god. He was adopted by the Romans as Silvanus.

Sempronii: An important family of ancient Rome. It was originally of Etruscan origins.

Senerchia (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 893 (2006e).

Sepino (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 2,097 (2006e).

Sergi: a noble Neapolitan family, descended from the Counts of Cumae (Cuma). They became a dynasty of autonomous dukes who ruled Naples from AD 840 to 1139.

Sergius I, St.: Pope. (rDec 15, 687-Sept 8, 701).

Sergius (Sergio) I: Count or Duke of Castrum di Cuma (Cumae) and Duke of Naples (rAD 840-865). The founder of the Sergi dynasty of Naples, he was the son of Marinus and Euprassia, and the father of Duke Gregory III of Naples. Originally the comes (Count) or dux (Duke) of Cumae, then under the control of Naples, he was elected by the Neapolitans to be their Duke in AD 840. Sergius was seen as the only hope of keeping the Lombards from seizing control of Naples since the Byzantine Empire seemed unable to do so. Sergius used diplomacy as much as military force to defy the Lombard threat. He even called on the Saracens in Sicily for help. In return for Saracen mercenary soldiers, Sergius was willing to provide Neapolitan ships to aid the Saracens at Bari in 841 and Messina in 842. Sergius recognized that the Saracens, however, could not be trusted from launching their own attacks on Naples and there remained the possibility that the Byzantine Empire might attempt to reimpose its authority. To guard against this, he created alliances with the Papacy and with the Franks. He joined Naples in a league of neighboring Christian states (Sorrento, Amalfi, and Gaeta) against the Saracens in 846. The allies drove the Saracens from the island of Ponza and rescued Rome. A few years later, in 849, he commanded the allied fleets of Naples, Gaeta, and the Papacy in the defeat of the Saracens at Ostia.

                Sergius also acted as an intermediary for the western Emperors Lothair I and Louis II. In 847, he succeeded in arranging a peace between the Lombard princes Siconulf of Salerno and Radelchis I of Benevento.

                In 859, Sergius sought to put an end to the threat posed by Lando I, the Lombard ruler of Capua and sent a force to attempt to sack New Capua. The Neapolitan army, led by Sergius’s sons Gregory and Caesar, was defeated.

In 850, Sergius established his son, Gregory III, as co-duke, thus founding the Sergi dynasty, which would rule Naples until 1137. Another of his sons, Caesar, earned a reputation as a notable admiral, distinguishing himself in several battles against the Saracens. Sergius’s third son, Athanasius, became bishop of Naples, an imperial familiaris, and a papal legate and intimate of the Roman curia. The youngest son, Stephen, became the bishop of Sorrento.

Sergius (Sergio) I: Ruler of Amalfi (r958-966).

Sergius II: Pope. (rJan 844-Jan 7, 847).

Sergius (Sergio) II: (d. AD 877). Duke of Naples (AD 870-877). In 877, he was overthrown and blinded, and died soon afterwards. He was the son of Gregory III and father of Gregory IV.

Sergius (Sergio) II: Ruler of Amalfi (r1007-1028).

Sergius III: Pope. (rJan 29, 904-Apr 14, 911).

Sergius (Sergio) III: (d. AD 999). Duke of Naples (rAD 977-999). He was the son of Marino II and was the father of Giovanni (John) IV.

Sergius (Sergio) III: Ruler of Amalfi (r1038-1039).

Sergius IV: Pope. (rJuly 31, 1009-May 12, 1012).

Serino (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 7,379 (2006e).

Serlo (Serlon) I: a son of Tancred de Hauteville, and brother of William “Iron-Arm.” He is believed to have remained in Normandy, where he inherited the family’s estates. He is known to have had a son, also named Serlo or Serlon, who did leave Normandy for Italy.

Serlo (Serlon) II: (d. 1072). Norman adventurer. Son of Serlo I, he left Normandy to join his relatives in southern Italy where he participated in their campaigns. In 1961, he assisted his uncle Roger I in the capture of Messina. He also fought with distinction at Cerami in 1063. He would probably played a role in the new Norman state in Sicily but was killed in battle against the Saracens near Nicosia.

Serpotta, Gaspare: (d. 1669). A sculptor and stuccoist from Palermo.

Serpotta, Giacomo: (b. 1656, in Palermo; d.1732). A sculptor and stuccoist.

Serpotta, Giovanni Maria: (fl. 18th century; d. 1719). A sculptor from Palermo.

Serpotta, Giuseppe: (b. 1653, at Palermo; d. 1719). A sculptor.

Serpotta, Proscopio: (b. 1679, at Palermo; d. 1755). A sculptor.

Serracapriola (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 4,079 (2006e).

Serra d’Aiello (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 800 (2006e).

Serra San Bruno (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.

Serradifalco (CL): A commune in the province of Caltanissetta. Population: 6,374 (2006e).

Serramezzana (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Serramonacesca (PE): A commune in the province of Pescara.

Serra Pedace (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,041 (2006e).

Serrara Fontana (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.

Serrastretta (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 3,414 (2006e).

Serrata (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Di Calabria.

Serre (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Sersale (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 5,006 (2006e).

Servile Wars: A term given in Roman history attached to three major slave uprisings which broke out in Sicily and southern Italy in the Second and First Centuries BC. The agricultural slaves were exploited by their owners, who had extreme powers and were never averse to using them. The first of the Servile Wars was fought in Sicily from 134 to 132 B.C. (or from 135 to 133 B.C.); the second, more serious, also occurred in Sicily from 104 to 101 B.C. (or from 105 to 102 B.C.). The third took place in Campania and was led by the gladiator Spartacus. He and his men gained control over most of S Italy in 73 B.C. and were finally put down with great cruelty by Crassus and Pompey in 71 B.C.

Sessa Aurunca (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  22,900 (2006e).

Sessa Cilento (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Sessano del Molise (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 851(2006e).

Sesto Campano (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 2,505 (2006e).

Sethlan (or Sethlans): Etruscan god of fire and blacksmiths. He was similar to thr Greek Hephaestus and the Roman Vulcan.

Settingiano (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 2,578 (2006e).

Seven Great Houses of the Kingdom: The seven most powerful and influential families of the Regno were the Acquaviva, Sanseverino, D’Aquino, Ruffo, Del Balzo, Piccolomini and Celano.

Severinus: Pope. (rOct 638-Aug 2, 640).

Sfogliatelle (=little sheets): a traditional Neapolitan breakfast. It consists of “little sheets” of flaky pastry shaped as clams and stuffed with ricotta, semolina, orange peel, vanilla and cinnamon.

Sgraffito: a decorative technique in which a layer of plaster is scratched to form a pattern or design. It became very popular in Italy during the 16th Century.

Shakka: Arabic name for the Sicilian city of Sciacca.

Siano (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Sican (Sikan): Ancient ethnic group in central Sicily.

Sicania: an ancient name for Sicily, derived from that of the Sicans.

Sicels (Sikels, Siculi): Ancient ethnic group in eastern Sicily, after whom Sicily is named. They are believed to have crossed into Sicily several centures after the Sicans. Some researchers connect them with the Shakalsha or Sheklesh, a people who had emigrated from ancient Anatolia, perhaps Phrygia, and who numbered amomg the Sea-Peoples.

Sicignano degli Alburni (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Sicilia Citeriore: “Sicily on this side.” A name used for the kingdom of Naples, i.e. the mainland portion of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.

Sicilia Ulteriore: “Sicily on the other side.” A name used for the kingdom of Sicily, i.e. the insular portion of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.

Sicilian: A dialect group centered on the island of Sicily. Also known as Calabro-Sicilian, it had 4,680,715 speakers in 1976.Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Italo-Dalmatian. Dialects: Western Sicilian (Palermo, Trapani, Central-Western Agrigentino), Central Metafonetica, Southeast Metafonetica, Eastern Nonmetafonetica, Messinese, Isole Eolie, Pantesco, Southern Calabro. It is distinct enough from Standard Italian to be considered a separate language. Pugliese and Southern Calabrese are reported to be dialects of Sicilian. Some linguists would prefer that it be classified as Southern Romance instead of Italo-Western.

Sicilian foot of Archimedes: A unit of length measurement used in ancient Greek Sicily. It was the equivalent of 0.73 of an English foot.

Sicilian Vespers: The name given the rebellion staged by the Sicilians against the Angevin French domination of Sicily; the rebellion broke out at Palermo at the start of Vespers on Easter Monday, Mar. 30, 1282. The revolt quickly spread over the island; nearly all the French in Sicily were massacred. Although basically a move for Sicilian independence, the insurrection was instigated as part of a widespread conspiracy against the Angevin ruler of Naples and Sicily, King Charles I, who dreamed of establishing an Angevin empire in the East. Byzantine Emperor Michael VIII financed the plot, hoping to preoccupy Charles and thus avert the Angevin’s imminent invasion of the Byzantine Empire. John of Procida, a loyal supporter of the Hohenstaufen, and King Peter III of Aragon, who claimed rule of the island as the husband of Constance, heiress of the Hohenstaufen claim there, also joined the intrigue. Peter accepted the throne offered by the Sicilians, and a 20-year war for possession of Sicily followed between the Angevin kings of Naples and the Aragonese kings of Sicily. The uprising secured Sicilian independence for more than a century, with the house of Aragon keeping Sicily and the Angevin dynasty holding the S Italian mainland kingdom of Naples. The two territories were finally reunited (1442) under Alfonso V of Aragon.

Sicily: The island’s name derives from that of its ancient inhabitants, the Sicani and Siceli. The meaning of the sic– root of these names in unknown.

Sicily/Sicilia:

Location: A region in southern Italy. Sicily is that largest region in area of Italy.

Name: The name derives from that of the Sikels, an ancient people who had settled on the island prior to the arrival of the Phoenicians and Greeks.

Capital: Palermo.

Area: 25,707 km˛ (mi˛) (the 6th largest island of Europe and the 44th largest island in the world). It has a length of 180 miles and a maximux breadth of 130.

Number of Provinces: 9 (Agrigento; Caltanissetta; Catania; Enna; Messina; Palermo; Ragusa; Syracuse/Siracusa; Trapani.).

Number of Communes (Municipalities): 390.

Population: 5,016,861 (2007)

Population Density:  195.2/km˛ (2007).

Demographics (figures per 1000 inhabitants)

2000

2001

2002

Births

10.5

10.4

10.3

Deaths

9.2

9.0

9.3

Marriages

5.4

5.2

5.4

History:

Historical Population: 2,960,000 (1850); 3,529,266 (1901); 4,906,878 (1981); 4,966,386 (1991); 4,968,991 (2001); 5,017,212 (2006e).

Landscape:

Terrain:

Sicily, Communes of:

Province of Agrigento:

Agrigento, Alessandria della Rocca, Aragona, Bivona, Burgio, Calamonaci, Caltabellotta, Camastra, Cammarata, Campobello di Licata, Canicattě, Casteltermini, Castrofilippo, Cattolica Eraclea, Cianciana, Comitini, Favara, Grotte, Joppolo Giancaxio, Licata, Lucca Sicula, Menfi, Montallegro, Montevago, Naro, Palma di Montechiaro, Pelagie, Porto Empedocle, Racalmuto, Raffadali, Ravanusa, Realmonte, Ribera, Sambuca di Sicilia, San Biagio Platani, San Giovanni Gemini, Santa Elisabetta, Santa Margherita di Belice, Sant’Angelo Muxaro, Santo Stefano Quisquina, Sciacca, Siculiana, Villafranca Sicula.

Province of Caltanissetta:

Acquaviva Platani, Bompensiere, Butera, Caltanissetta, Campofranco, Delia, Gela, Marianopoli, Mazzarino, Milena, Montedoro, Mussomeli, Niscemi, Resuttano, Riesi, San Cataldo, Santa Caterina Villarmosa, Serradifalco, Sommatino, Sutera, Vallelunga Pratameno, Villalba.

Province of Catania:

Aci Bonaccorsi, Aci Castello, Aci Catena, Acireale, Aci Sant’Antonio, Adrano, Belpasso, Biancavilla, Bronte, Calatabiano, Caltagirone, Camporotondo Etneo, Castel di Judica, Castiglione di Sicilia, Catania, Fiumefreddo di Sicilia, Giarre, Grammichele, Gravina di Catania, Licodia Eubea, Linguaglossa, Maletto, Maniace, Mascali, Mascalucia, Mazzarrone, Militello In Val di Catania, Milo, Mineo, Mirabella Imbaccari, Misterbianco, Motta Sant’Anastasia, Nicolosi, Palagonia, Paternň, Pedara, Piedimonte Etneo, Raddusa, Ragalna, Ramacca, Randazzo, Riposto, San Cono, San Giovanni la Punta, San Gregorio di Catania, San Michele di Ganzaria, San Pietro Clarenza, Sant’Agata Li Battiati, Sant’Alfio, Santa Maria di Licodia, Santa Venerina, Scordia, Trecastagni, Tremestieri Etneo, Valverde, Viagrande, Vizzini, Zafferana Etnea.

Province of Enna:

Agira, Aidone, Assoro, Barrafranca, Calascibetta, Catenanuova, Centuripe, Cerami, Enna, Gagliano Castelferrato, Leonforte, Nicosia, Nissoria, Piazza Armerina, Pietraperzia, Regalbuto, Sperlinga, Troina, Valguarnera Caropepe, Villarosa.

Province of Messina:

Acquedolci, Alcara Li Fusi, Alě, Alě Terme, Antillo, Barcellona Pozzo di Gotto, Basicň, Brolo, Capizzi, Capo d’Orlando, Capri Leone, Caronia, Casalvecchio Siculo, Castel di Lucio, Castell’Umberto, Castelmola, Castroreale, Cesarň, Condrň, Falcone, Ficarra, Fiumedinisi, Floresta, Fondachelli Fantina, Forza d’Agrň, Francavilla di Sicilia, Frazzanň, Furci Siculo, Furnari, Gaggi, Galati Mamertino, Gallodoro, Giardini Naxos, Gioiosa Marea, Graniti, Gualtieri Sicaminň, Itala, Leni, Letojanni, Librizzi, Limina, Lipari, Longi, Malfa, Malvagna, Mandanici, Mazzarrŕ Sant’Andrea, Merě, Messina, Milazzo, Militello Rosmarino, Mirto, Mistretta, Mojo Alcantara, Monforte San Giorgio, Mongiuffi Melia, Montagnareale, Montalbano Elicona, Motta Camastra, Motta d’Affermo, Naso, Nizza di Sicilia, Novara di Sicilia, Oliveri, Pace del Mela, Pagliara, Patti, Pettineo, Piraino, Raccuja, Reitano, Roccafiorita, Roccalumera, Roccavaldina, Roccella Valdemone, Rodě Milici, Rometta, San Filippo del Mela, San Fratello, San Marco d’Alunzio, San Pier Niceto, San Piero Patti, San Salvatore di Fitalia, Santa Domenica Vittoria, Sant’Agata di Militello, Sant’Alessio Siculo, Santa Lucia del Mela, Santa Marina Salina, Sant’Angelo di Brolo, Santa Teresa di Riva, San Teodoro, Santo Stefano di Camastra, Saponara, Savoca, Scaletta Zanclea, Sinagra, Spadafora, Taormina, Terme Vigliatore, Torregrotta, Torrenova, Tortorici, Tripi, Tusa, Ucria, Valdina, Venetico, Villafranca Tirrena.

Province of Palermo:

Alia, Alimena, Aliminusa, Altavilla Milicia, Altofonte, Bagheria, Balestrate, Baucina, Belmonte Mezzagno, Bisacquino, Blufi, Bolognetta, Bompietro, Borgetto, Caccamo, Caltavuturo, Campofelice di Fitalia, Campofelice di Roccella, Campofiorito, Camporeale, Capaci, Carini, Castelbuono, Casteldaccia, Castellana Sicula, Castronuovo di Sicilia, Cefalŕ Diana, Cefalů, Cerda, Chiusa Sclafani, Ciminna, Cinisi, Collesano, Contessa Entellina, Corleone, Ficarazzi, Gangi, Geraci Siculo, Giardinello, Giuliana, Godrano, Gratteri, Isnello, Isola delle Femmine, Lascari, Lercara Friddi, Marineo, Mezzojuso, Misilmeri, Monreale, Montelepre, Montemaggiore Belsito, Palazzo Adriano, Palermo, Partinico, Petralia Soprana, Petralia Sottana, Piana degli Albanesi, Polizzi Generosa, Pollina, Prizzi, Roccamena, Roccapalumba, San Cipirello, San Giuseppe Jato, San Mauro Castelverde, Santa Cristina Gela, Santa Flavia, Sciara, Scillato, Sclafani Bagni, Termini Imerese, Terrasini, Torretta, Trabia, Trappeto, Ustica, Valledolmo, Ventimiglia di Sicilia, Vicari, Villabate, Villafrati.

Province of Ragusa:

Acate, Chiaramonte Gulfi, Comiso, Giarratana, Ispica, Modica, Monterosso Almo, Pozzallo, Ragusa, Santa Croce Camerina, Scicli, Vittoria.

Province of Siracusa:

Augusta, Avola, Buccheri, Buscemi, Canicattini Bagni, Carlentini, Cassaro, Ferla, Floridia, Francofonte, Lentini, Melilli, Noto, Pachino, Palazzolo Acreide, Portopalo di Capo Passero, Priolo Gargallo, Rosolini, Siracusa, Solarino, Sortino.

Province of Trapani:

Alcamo, Buseto Palizzolo, Calatafimi, Campobello di Mazara, Castellammare del Golfo, Castelvetrano, Custonaci, Erice, Favignana, Gibellina, Marsala, Mazara del Vallo, Paceco, Pantelleria, Partanna, Petrosino, Poggioreale, Salaparuta, Salemi, Santa Ninfa, San Vito Lo Capo, Trapani, Valderice, Vita.

Sicily, Kingdom of: The insular portion of the former kingdom of the Two Sicilies. It was separated from the mainland by the Strait of Messina. It encompassed the whole of the triangular inland of Sicily in addition to several smaller nearby islands. The surface area measured about 12,500 square miles. It had a population of 1,713,945 in 1817.

                It was divided into seven intendancies:

                Palermo (population in 1817: 465,231)

                Trapani (145,712)

                Girgenti (288,877)

                Caltanissetta (155,225)

                Syracuse (Siragoza) (192,710)

                Catania (289,406)

                Messina (236,784)

Sicily, Sea (or Strait) of (It. Canale di Sicilia, Stretto di Sicilia): Sometimes called the Sicilian Sea Strait, it is a branch of the central Mediterranean Sea situated between Tunisia (to the S) and Sicily (to the N). It encompasses several islands including the Italian Pantelleria, Lampedusa, and Linosa, together called the Pelagie Islands, and Malta, Gozo, and Comiso (the Republic of Malta). The channel between Sicily and Malta is also sometimes referred to as the Strait (or Sea) of Malta.

Sicily, Strait of: See Sea of Sicily.

Sicone: Bishop of Capua (r ?-943).

Siculiana (AG): A commune in the province of Agrigento. Population: 4,716 (2006e).

Siderno (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria

Sikania: A place referred to by Odysseus in Homer’s Odyssey (xxiv.307). It may be a reference to Sicily.

Sikelia: an ancient Greek term for Sicily.

Sikelos: an ancient Greek term for the native people of Sicily.

Sikilřy: a medieval Norse name for the island of Sicily.

Sila silva: Ancient name for the massif of Sila in Calabria. Its name appears to derive from an Oscan word related to the Latin silva (=wood), referring its thickly wooded slopes.

Silvanus: an ancient Roman/Italic fertility god who watched over forests, groves and wild fields, as well as herds and cattle. He was often associated with Faunus. In keeping with his connection to nature, his principal attributes were a pruning knife and a pine bough. In order to placate Silvanus, an annual ritual was performed offering him the first fruits of the harvest, meat and wine. Because Silvanus was also associated with male sexual power, women were forbidden to attend his rituals.

Silverius, St.: Pope. (rJune 1, 536-Nov 11, 537).

Silvester I, St.: Pope. (rJan 31, 314-Dec 31, 335).

Silvester II: Pope. (rApr. 2, 999-May 12, 1003).

Silvester III: Pope. (r1045). His election has been questioned and he is now usually considered an antipope. He was deposed by the Council of Sutri.

Silvi Marina (TE): A commune in the province of Teramo.

Simbario (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.

Simeri Crichi (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 4,142 (2006e).

Simmaco, S.: Bishop of Capua (r422-440).

Simon: Count of Sicily (r1101-1105).

Simone d’Aversa: fl. 14th-15th centuries. A metal smith from Sicily.

Simplicius, St.: Pope. (rMar 3, 468-Mar 10, 483).

Sinagra (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

Sinatra, Vincenzo: fl. 1742-1779. An architect from Noto (SR).

Sinito, S.: Bishop of Capua (rAD 66-80).

Sinopoli (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio di Calabria.

Sinuessa (Sonuessa, Sinoessa) (mod. Torre San Limato di Cellole [CE]). A town of the ancient Aurunci located in northern Campania.

Siqlliya: Arabic name for Sicily.

Siracusa, Province of: A province of Sicily. Population: 398,948 (2007e).

Communes of Siracusa Province

Commune

Area

(km˛)

Population

(2007e)

Population

(2006e)

Population

(2001 census)

Population

(1991 census)

Augusta

109.33

33957

33939

33,820

34,189

Avola

74.26

31620

31653

31,289

31,322

Buccheri

57.43

2187

2200

2,320

2,755

Buscemi

51.57

1154

1165

1,200

1,292

Canicattini Bagni

15.11

7341

7389

7,519

7,535

Carlentini

158.02

17322

17285

16,879

16,946

Cassaro

19.40

859

859

909

989

Ferla

24.77

2659

2675

2,760

3,029

Floridia

26.22

21864

21729

20,675

19,726

Francofonte

73.95

12494

12543

12,949

14,815

Lentini

215.84

24182

24356

24,748

27,764

Melilli

136.08

12764

12631

12,216

11,656

Noto

551.12

23473

23391

23,065

21,704

Pachino

50.47

21478

21518

21,324

21,394

Palazzolo Acreide

86.32

9040

9027

9,109

9,097

Portopalo di Capo Passero

14.87

3644

3634

3,500

3,211

Priolo Gargallo

57.59

12062

12001

11,785

11,466

Rosolini

76.15

21170

21055

20,152

20,686

Siracusa

204.08

123324

122972

123,657

125,941

Solarino

13.01

7365

7313

7,199

7,252

Sortino

93.21

8989

8995

9,092

9,245

Total

2,109

398,948

398,330

396,167

402,014

Siracusa (SR): A commune and provincial capital of the province of Siracusa.

Siragusa, Federico: fl. 18th century. A sculptor from Trapani.

Sirako: Original Greek name for Siracusa (Syracuse). The name derives from the word for swamp, referring to marshlands which were once located nearby.

Sirens: mythical creatures with the heads of women and the bodies of birds. In ancient Greek and Roman mythology, the Sirens inhabited small, rocky islands where they sang sweet songs to passing ships, hoping to lure sailors to their doom. Odysseus survived their trap by stuffing the ears of his men with wax so they could not hear the Sirens’ song. Curious to hear them, he ordered his men to lash him to the ship’s mast and not release him until they had passed the Sirens. Another group of heroes, the Argonauts succeeded in avoiding the lure of the Sirens by having Orpheus, one of their crew, sing and play his lyre so loud that the Sirens could not be heard. Ancient sources differ on the number of Sirens, Homer mentioning only two, but other writers like Ovid and Libanius, saying that there were three or four of them.

Siricius, St.: Pope. (rDec 11, 384-Nov 26, 399).

Sirignano (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 2,719 (2006e).

sirocco: a hot, dry wind which blows off the North African deserts over the Mediterranean Sea to Sicily and Italy. It is often cited as the reason for what foreigners considered widespread indolence and lethargy of southern Italians.

Sisinnius: Pope. (rJan 15-Feb 4, 708).

Sixtus I, St.: Pope. (r115/116-125).

Sixtus II, St.: Pope. (rAug 30/31, 257-Aug 6, 258).

Sixtus III, St.: Pope. (rJuly 31, 432-Mar/Aug 440).

Sixtus IV: Pope. (rAug. 9, 1471-Aug 12, 1484).

Sixtus V: Pope. (rApr 24, 1585-Aug 27, 1590).

Slavery in ancient Italy and Sicily (Roman Era): It has been estimated that during the time of Augustus (r 31 BC-AD 14) about a third of Italy’s population consisted of slaves. Slavery in ancient Italy was widespread during Roman times. According to one estimate, in 225 BC, the population of Italy (excluding Cisalpine Gaul in the north) numbered about 3,000,000 free inhabitants and about 2,000,000 slaves. Another estimate (which includes Cisalpine Gaul) puts the numbers at about 3,000,000 slaves out of a total population of c7,500,000. It has been suggested that between 225 BC to the end of the reign of Augustus (AD 14), the population of Roman Italy doubled in size. The free population remained relatively stable in number, but changed considerably in its composition. At the beginning of the period, the free population consisted mostly of the old native Italian stock. By its end, the bulk of free “Romans”; were either foreign-born freedmen or their descendants. The members of this group were mostly skilled and/or literate men who had been able to buy their freedom. We can get an idea of the extent of this group through literary and epigraphic sources. By far, the greatest increase in population came from hordes of agricultural slaves. Contrary to the free-born and freedmen, the vast majority of this group were no more than nameless “ghosts.” Lacking the necessary skills and literacy to obtain their freedom, they toiled their lives away on the wretched latifundi, huge farms or ranches where there was little hope of escape or freedom. Because no records survive concerning these slaves, it is impossible to estimate their exact numbers with any hope of accuracy. When the agricultural slaves do make their brief appearances in history, it is usually in connection with a violent revolt. During the Third Servile War (73-71 BC), that led by the famous Spartacus, it was said that his army numbered about 150,000 at its height. Most, though not all, of the members of this slave army came from the latifundi. This number, however, cannot be used to estimate the slave population. Most of the rebel slaves would have come from a relatively small number of ranches. Most of the latifundi would have been unaffected by the revolt. Likewise, a large percentage of Spartacus’s army was not servile at all but, rather were poor, landless, free-born Italians who had different motivations for joining the revolt. The slaves were seeking freedom and a way to return to their native homes. The free-born rebels were spurred on by the possibility of loot and revenge against the Romans. There were considerable numbers of Italics (Samnites, Campanians, Lucanians, Bruttii) who had lost their homes and livelihoods as a result of the Roman victory in the Social War (91-88 BC).While the majority of slaves on the latifundi were likely to be foreign-born, there would have been a considerable number of Italian slaves as well. Unwanted children, especially those born to free, but destitute, families were exposed to the elements soon after their birth. Although cruel by today’s standards, exposure was a widespread and necessary practice in the ancient world. Crop yields were at best erratic. Droughts and crop failures meant starvation and well as epidemics. In order for some to stay alive, others, especially infants, had to be sacrificed. By tradition and law, anyone who came upon one of these exposed babies could claim it as a slave, whether it had been born to free parents or not. There were also a considerable number of free Italians who sold themselves into slavery because of crippling debt. By the 1st Century BC, as the Republic was giving way to the chaos of civil war, the majority of “Roman” citizens would have been freedmen or servile in ancestry. The shop-keepers and artisans addressed by Marc Antony as “friends, Romans, and countrymen” in the Roman Forum would have actually had little in common with that great Roman noble. Another factor which blurred the social lines between the slave and free populations of Italy was in the act of manumission itself. Although slaves could “marry” one another after a fashion, the law did not recognize these bonds as legal. Thus, although slaves were manumitted, their spouses and offspring did not automatically gain their own freedom. It was usually up to the freedman to earn enough money to purchase their families if possible. Also, if an offspring were born to free/slave couple, it would automatically become a slave. People could only consider themselves freeborn if both of their parents were free at the time of birth. Contrary to what some might think, Roman masters were not particularly pleased to have their slaves produce offspring. While this may have added wealth to the master, it also created an additional economic burden. A certain amounts of basics had to be purchased for the maintainance of every slave. A master might expect a return on this expense through the labor of a slave old enough to work. With an infant, however, there was not only the direct expense of sheltering and feeding it for years, but also the loss time expended by the mother to provide care. Economically, it was far less costly to buy a slave old enough to work than to breed them domestically. Despite economic and legal obstacles, however, slaves, especially those in urban settings, tended to create their own families on an increasing basis. This was especially true among the wealthier, skilled slaves. Thus, while the modern racist claim that the southern Italian population descends from the slaves brought to Italy in ancient times, it neglects to add that the slaves in question were often the better educated and well-skilled. There still remained other social obstacles for a freedman wishing for his own family. Freedmen could not marry outside of their class and there were relatively few women who were manumitted in comparison to men. The fortunate few who did create families also had to deal with the economic burden of raising children. Surviving evidence indicates that freedman families were normally small, with only one of two children.

Smikrinas: An athlete of ancient Taras. He was victor in the stadion at the Olympian Games in 352 BC.

Smiriglio, Mariano: (b. 1561, in Palermo; d. 1636). Architect and painter.

Social War or Marsic War: [Lat. socii=allies], 91 B.C.-88 B.C., struggle brought on by demands of the Italian allies for the privileges of Roman citizenship. The allies had fought on the side of Rome and had helped establish Roman hegemony, but they did not have the rights of the Romans. Most Romans were greatly averse to sharing the citizenship, but Marcus Livius Drusus in 91 B.C. proposed laws granting it to the allies. He was murdered, and a coalition of the allies, chief among them the Marsi, arose in desperation, waged war against Rome, and planned an Italian federation. Led by Quintus Pompaedius Silo and Caius Papius Mutilus, they gained some success but could not overcome the power of Rome. The revolt died down only after Lucius Julius Caesar secured passage of a law (90 B.C.) granting citizenship to allies who had not joined the revolt and to those who laid down their arms immediately. The allies were divided, and the revolt ceased. Citizenship was soon given to all of them.

Sogliano Cavour (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 4,146 (2006e).

Solarino (SR): A commune in the province of Siracusa.

Soleto (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 5,551 (2006e).

Solimena, Francesco: (b. 1657, at Canale [AV]; d. 1747). Architect and painter.

Solofra (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 12,061 (2006e).

Solopaca (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 4,104 (2006e).

Somma Vesuviana (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.

Sommatino (CL): A commune in the province of Caltanissetta. Population: 7,471 (2006e).

Sorbo San Basile (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 941 (2006e).

Sorbo Serpico (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 567 (2006e).

Sporianello (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.

Soriano Calabro (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.

Sorrento(NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.

Sortino (SR): A commune in the province of Sirausa.

Sosistratos: Ruler of Akragas (r280 BC).

Soter, St.: Pope. (r c166-174/175).

Sottintendente: A provincial official in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. The equivalent of a lieutenant governor, the Sottintendente, administered one of the 38 districts (distretti) into which the Regno was divided. The Sottintendente resided in the principal town of his district and acted as the assistant to the Intendente (provincial governor).

Soverato (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 9,750 (2006e).

Soveria Mannelli (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 3,284 (2006e).

Soveria Simeri (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 1,642 (2006e).

Sozzi, Olivio: (b. 1690, at Palermo; d. 1765). Painter.

Spada, Mario: fl. 1694. An architect from Ragusa in Sicily.

Spadafora (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

Spadafora, Antonio: fl. 1585-1594. Painter from Palermo.

Spadafora, Giuseppe: fl. 16th century. An architect and sculptor from Palermo.

Spadetta, Almerindo: (d. April, 1894, Naples). Librettist.

Spadola (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.

Spara, Hieronyma (La Spara): (b. Sicily; fl. 2nd half of the 17th century). Poisoner. A student of the infamous Tofana of Palermo, she established a faction of the Secret Poisoners society in Rome during the time of Pope Alexander VII. Her group consisted of several young women who successfully murdered their husbands using the dreaded Aqua Tofana poison.

Sparanise (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  7,422 (2006e).

Specchia (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 5,003 (2006e).

Sperlinga (EN): A commune in the province of Enna. Population: 923 (2006e).

Sperone (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 3,475 (2006e).

Spezzano Albanese (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 7,182 (2006e).

Spezzano della Sila (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 4,736 (2006e).

Spezzano Piccolo (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 2,095 (2006e).

Spilinga (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.

Spina, Rosario: fl. 19th century. A painter from Acireale (CT).

Spinazzola (BA): A commune in the province of Bari: Population: 7,165 (2006e). It will become a part of the new province of Barletta-Andria-Trani when it becomes official in 2009.

Spinelli, Giuseppe: (b. Feb. 1, 1694, in Naples; d. Apr. 12, 1763, in Ostia). Ecclesiatic. Ordained a priest in 1724, he was elevated to cardinal in 1735. He served as archbishop of Naples from 1734 to 1754.

Spinete (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 1,425 (2006e).

Spinoso (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

Spoleto, Duchy of: A medieval Lombard state founded by Duke Faroald in cAD 570. Part of Abruzzo was included in its territory.

Spoltore (PE): A commune in the province of Pescara.

Spongano (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 3,832 (2006e).

Squillace (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 3,384 (2006e).

Squinzano (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 15,040 (2006e).

Staiti (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio di Calabria.

Staletti (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 2,391 (2006e).

Statia: Ancient Roman gens or clan. Of Samnite or Lucanian origins, most of its influential members were centered in southern Italy. One of its early members, T. Statius, served as tribune of the plebs in Rome in 475 BC. The first member of the gens to hold a consulship was L. Statius Murcus who received the honor in AD 142.

Statilia: An ancient Lucanian family which became a Roman gens or clan. They began to figure in Roman affairs during the last years of the Republic, with the most influential members bearing the surname of Taurus. T. Statilius Taurus became a consul in AD 37.

Statilius, Marius: (fl. late 3rd Century BC). Lucanian commander. In 216 BC, as a commander (prefect) of a troop of Lucanian cavalry in the Roman army, he fought against Hannibal.

Statilius, Stenius (or Statius): (fl. AD 1st part of the 3rd Century BC). A Lucanian leader who attacked Greek Thurii. As a consequence, in 285 BC, the Roman tribune of plebs, C. Aelius, issued a condemnation of Statilius. In thanks for this the people of Thurii awarded Aelius a statue and a golden crown.

Statilius Taurus: (fl. late 1st Century BC). Roman military commander and statesman (Consul 26 BC). Having served as consul suffectus in 37 BC, he served in Sicily in the following year against Sextus Pompey. He commanded Antony’s fleet which sailed from Tarentum and later secured Africa for Octavian. His son, T. Statilius Taurus, served as consul in AD 11.

Statte (TA): A commune in the province of Taranto.

Statius: (d. 43 BC). Samnite leader. Executed by order of the Second Triumvirate, he is probably identified with C. Papirius Mutilus, one of the principal Italian leaders in the Social War.

Statius “the Elder”, Publius Papinius: (b. c AD 50, in Neapolis; d, bef. AD 90). Poet.

Statius “the Younger”, Publius Papinius: (b.). Poet.

Statius Gellius: (fl. late 4th Century BC). Samnite general. In 305 BC, he was defeated and captured by the Romans.

Statius Metius: (fl. late 3rd Century BC). Italian military leader. In 214 BC, during the Second Punic War, he was an officer in Hannibal’s army. He commanded the garrison of 2,000 Campanians and 700 Carthaginians in defense of Casilinum. There is no record of his fate after the capture of that city by the Romans.

Stefanaconi (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.

Stefano: (fl. late 8th Century). Ecclesiastic. He was a cardinal and Bishop of Capua (r786-?).

Stefano: (d. 1025). Ecclesiastic. He served as Bishop of Caiazzo and Abbot of S. Salvatore in Capua.

Stefano di Martino: fl. 1475-1495. Sculptor from Palermo.

stele: a slab or inscription.

Stella Cilento (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Stephen I, St.: Pope. (rMay 12, 254-Aug 2, 257).

Stephen “II”: Pope. (rMar 23-25, 752). Dying only 3 days after his election, he had not yet been consecrated as a bishop. Because of this, his inclusion in the official list of popes is ambiguous. He was recognized as a legitimate only during the 16th century. In 1961, he was removed again. This has cause a problem in determining the numbering of later popes using the name of Stephen.

Stephen II (III): Pope. (rMar 26, 752-Apr. 26, 757).

Stephen III (IV): Pope. (rAug 1, 767-Jan 24, 772).

Stephen IV (V): Pope. (rJune 12, 816-Jan 24, 817).

Stephen V (VI): Pope. (r885-Sept 14, 891).

Stephen VI (VII): Pope. (rMay 22, 896-Aug 897).

Stephen VII (VIII): Pope. (rDec 928-Feb 931).

Stephen VIII (IX): Pope. (rJuly 14-Oct 942).

Stephen IX (X): Pope. (rAug 2, 1057-Mar 29, 1058).

Stephen (Stefano): Bishop of Naples (AD 898). He was the son of Gregory III (Duke of Naples rAD 865-870), and the brother of Duke Sergius III (r870-877) and Athanasius II (Bishop and Duke of Naples 877-898). He succeeded Athanasius as Bishop in 898.

stereobate: the visible base of a building, normally part of an ancient Greek temple.

Sternatia (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 2,583 (2006e).

Stidda (“bright star”): a criminal federation of gangs in southern and eastern Sicily created in the 1990s by “men of honor” who had been expelled from the mafia. Based in Gela, its members are called stiddari or stiddaroli, and its gangs are known as “clans” rather than families. Although not as tightly organized as the mafia, it is dedicated to toppling and replacing the Cosa Nostra. The organization’s name derives from the 5-pointed star which is tattooed on the right hand of each initiate.

Stigliano (MT): A commune in the province of Matera. Population: 5,259 (2006e).

Stignano (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio di Calabria.

Stilo (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio di Calabria.

Stio (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Stornara (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 4,706 (2006e).

Stornarella (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 4,986 (2006e).

stornello: A variety of Sicilian folk song.

storia: A variety of southern Italian long song.

strategos (pl. strategoi): an ancient Greek general.

Streets of old Naples: Prior to the conquest of the Two Sicilies in 1860, the principal streets in Naples were known as Strade; after 1860, Vie. Cross-streets were designated as Vichi, while the narrow lanes which ascended hills were called Calate or Salite. Some of these last lanes were so steep that they required steps, and were called Gradoni.

Striano (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.

Stromboli: an island of the Isole Eolie (Lipari Islands).

Strongoli (KR): A commune in the province of Crotone. Population: 6,172 (2006e)

Strongyle: One of the seven principal islands of the Aeoliae Insulae (Aeolian Islands), off the N coast of Sicily. This volcanic island was identified as the home of Aeolus, mythical ruler of the winds, because its inhabitants could tell which way the wind was about to blow by looking at the smoke rising from the volcano.  Mod. Stromboli.

strina: A variety of Calabrian multi-part song.

stucco: a plaster made from water, lime, sand and powdered marble. It could be used as a medium to create moldings and other elaborate interior decoration.

Stupor Mundi: Literally “Wonder of the World”. A name given to Emperor Frederick II (b.1194; d.1250).

Sturno (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 3,219 (2006e).

Succivo (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population: 7,258 (2006e).

Suessa Aurunca (mod. Sessa Aurunca [CE]): A town of the ancient Aurunci located in northern Campania.

Suffragan: A diocese within an ecclesiastic province other than the Metropolitan.

Sulmo: Ancient name for Sulmona.

Sulmona (anc. Sulmo) (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 25,307 (2006e).

Sulmona-Valva, Diocese of: A diocese in the Ecclesiastical region of Abruzzo-Molise.

Suffragans:

Metropolitan: L’Aquila.

Conference Region: Abruzzo-Molise.

Area 1,814 km˛/ mi˛):

Total Population: 83,909

Catholic Population:

Total Priests: 76 (Diocesan: 54; Religious: 22)

Permanent Deacons: 1.

Male Religious:

Female Religious:

Parishes: 76.

History:

Summonte (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 1,606 (2006e).

Supersano (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 4,469 (2006e).

Surano (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 1,755 (2006e).

Surbo (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 13,842 (2006e).

surulina: A variety of bagpipe from Basilicata.

Sutera (CL): A commune in the province of Caltanissetta. Population: 1,621 (2006e).

Swabian Period: Royal dynasty from Swabia in Germany, ruling Sicily 1194-1265.

Sybaris: ancient city of Magna Graecia, S Italy, in Bruttium, on the Gulf of Tarentum (now Taranto). It was founded in 720 B.C. by Achaeans and people from Argolis, the Troezenians. It became a wealthy Greek city, and its inhabitants were reputed to live voluptuous lives, hence the word sybaritic. The Troezenians, ejected by the Achaeans, obtained the help of neighboring Croton and destroyed the city in 510 B.C. Thurii was supposedly built on the site.

Sylvia, St.: (d. AD 592). Mother of Pope St. Gregory I “the Great” (rAD 590-604). She is the patron saint of the city of Messina and of the Camaldolite Order. Feast Day: Nov. 3.

Symaethis (Gtk Symaithis): a Naiad nymph of the river Symaethos in Sicily. By the nature-god Pan-Faunus, she became the mother of the unfortunate shepherd boy Acis (see which).

Symaethus (Grk Symaithos): an ancient river-god in eastern Sicily mentioned by Ovid in his Metamorphosis. The headwaters of his river rose in the Nerodes Mountains in the NE part of the island. Its waters flowed around the foot of Aitna (Mt. Etna) and emptied into the Mediterranean Sea to the south of Katane (mod. Catania).

Symilos: an athlete of ancient Neapolis (Naples). He was victor in the Stadion at the Olympian Games in 248 BC.

Symmachos: an athlete of ancient Messene in Sicily. He was victor in the Stadion at the Olympian Games in 428 BC and 424 BC.

Symmachus, St.: Pope. (rNov 22, 498-July 19, 514).

Syracuse: The name is believed to derive from a non-Greek (perhaps Phoenician) verb serah (= to feel ill). This may reflect the fact that the original site of the city was located near a swamp.

                Ancient Syracuse was so great in size and population at its height that each of its four quarters (Ortygia, Achradina, Tyche, and Neapolis) rivaled the size of other cities.

                The city’s vast wealth derived in part from its exports which included cheese, tallow, grain, textiles, and ceramics.

Timeline of Rulers of Syracuse

Gelon I (son of Deinomenes, brother of Hieron I and Thrasybulus)

485 – 478 BC

Hieron I (son of Deinomenes, brother of Gelon I and Thrasybulus)

478 – 467 BC

Thrasybulus (son of Deinomenes, brother of Gelon I & Hieron I)

467 – 466 BC

Republic

466 – 415 BC

Hermocrates

415 – 410 BC

Diocles

410 – 407 BC

Daphnaeus

407 – 406 BC

Dionysius I

406 – 367 BC

Dionysius II (first reign)

367 – 357 BC

Dion

357 – 354 BC

Callippus

354 – 352 BC

Hipparinus

352 – 350 BC

Nysaeus

350 – 346 BC

Dionysius II (restored)

346 – 345 BC

Hicetas I

345 – 343 BC

Timoleon

343 – 337 BC

Sosistratus I

337 – 322 BC

Agathocles

322 – 289 BC

Hicetas II

289 – 280 BC

Thoenon

280 – 279 BC

Sosistratus II

279-278 BC

Pyrrhus I (King of Epirus)

278 – 276 BC

Hieron II

276 – 215 BC

Hieronymus

215 – 214 BC

Deinomenes

214 – 213 BC

Hepicydes

213 – 212 BC

Conquered by Rome and merged with the province of Sicily

212 BC

Syracusia: A famous ship designed in c240 BC by Archimedes and built by Archias of Corinth for King Hieron II of Syracuse. Believed to have been 55 meters (180.4 feet) in length, it would have been the largest transport vessel ever built in antiquity. The Syracusia proved to be too large to be practical for the Syracusan ruler because its great size may it impossible to fit even the great harbor of Syracuse. Hieron finally gave the ship to his ally Ptolemy III of Egypt who renamed it the Alexandria.

                The ship was a marvel even by today’s standards, built from pine and fir taken mostly from the slopes of Mt. Etna, and some secondary wood from mainland Italy. Cordage was brought from Spain, and hemp and pitch came from the Rhone valley in Gaul. In all, the equivalent of 60 conventional trireme ships went into the construction of the Syracusia. The labor of 300 shipwrights was engaged to create the ship. The planks of the ship’s hull were covered with plates of lead, and each plank was held together with brass nails. Propulsion for the ship was provided by 20 banks of oars.

                The Syracusia contained eating salons, with enough room in each for 4 to 15 couches. There was a galley, a gymnasium, walkways, gardens, a library, baths, and even a shrine dedicated to Venus. The library had walls lined with well-made bookcases and a sundial on the roof. The ship had one of Archimedes’ water-lifting screws as a bilge pump. The ship had room for 142 passengers and 400 soldiers.