Encyclopedia of Southern Italy – M

M

Macchia d’Isernia (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 948 (2006e).

Macchia Valfortore (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 693 (2006e).

Macchiagodena (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 1,928 (2006e).

Macerata Campania (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population: 10,437 (2006e).

Maddaloni (CE): a commune in Campania located 15 miles NE of Naples. Population: 38,420 (2006e).

Madonie Mountains (anc. Nerbodes): a range of mountains in NE Sicily.

Mafalda (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso.

Maffa, Vincio: (fl. early 16th Century). Ecclesiastic. He was elected Bishop of Caiazzo in 1507, and served as theologian at the Lateran Council in 1512.

Mafia: an infamous criminal organization centered on the island of Sicily.

Mafioso (pl. mafiosi): member of the mafia.

Magisano (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 1,275 (2006e).

Magliano de’ Marsi (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 3,810 (2006e).

Magliano Vetere (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Maglie (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 15,195 (2006e).

Magna Graecia: [Lat. =Great Greece], Greek colonies of S Italy. The Greek overseas expansion of the 8th cent. B.C. led to the foundation of several towns and cities that became the centers of a new, thriving Greek culture on Italian soil. These Greek colonies were established mostly on both coasts of the southern Italian peninsula from the Bay of Naples and the Gulf of Taranto southward. Unlike Greek Sicily, the power and wealth of Magna Graecia began to decline by 500 B.C., due in large part to the wide-spread presence of malaria in the region as well as to endless warfare among the colonies. Only Tarentum (now Taranto) and Cumae managed to remain relatively secure for any extended period. Despite the political and social difficulties that existed in Magna Graecia, two important philosophical schools developed there during the 6th cent. B.C.; that of Parmenides at Elea and that of Pythagoras at Kroton. The Greeks of Magna Graecia, especially those at Cumae in Campania, served as conduits through which Greek civilization spread to the Etruscans of Capua and the Romans. The following are the chief cities of Magna Graecia (those colonized from Greece, except Thurii and Elea, go back to the 8th or early 7th cent. B.C.; those colonized locally are perhaps a century younger): on the east coast from north to south, Taras (Tarentum) (colonized from Sparta), Metapontum (from Achaea), Heraclea (from Tarentum), Siris (from Colophon), Sybaris (from Achaea), Thurii (from Athens, replacing Sybaris), Kroton (Croton, Crotona) (from Achaea), Caulonia (from Croton), Epizephyrian Locris (from Locris); on the west coast from north to south, Kyme (Cumae) (from Chalcis), Neapolis (mod. Naples; from Cumae), Poseidonia (Paestum) (from Sybaris), Elea (Velia) (from Phocaea in Ionia), Laos (from Sybaris), Hipponium (from Epizephyrian Locris), and Rhegium (now Reggio de Calabria; from Chalcis).

magna regia curia: the highest court in the judicial system in the medieval kingdom of Sicily.

Maia Maietas: The Roman version of the Italic goddess of Spring. She is also identified with the goddesses Fauna, Bona Dea, and Ops.

Maida (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 4,358 (2006e).

Maiella: An important massif in the Abruzzian Apennines. Its highest summit is Monte Amaro (alt. 9,130 ft; 2,795 meters).

Maiera’ (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,296 (2006e).

Maierato (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.

Maio of Bari: (d. Nov. 10, 1160). A Lombard from Bari, he rose to become the Admiral (or more properly ammiratus ammiratorum = Emir of Emirs) of Sicily under the Norman kings. He became Chancellor of Sicily in 1150 or 1151, and was appointed Admiral by William I in 1154. He ousted Thomas Brun of England from the office of kaid or magister of the royal Diwan.

Maiori (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Maiuri, Amedeo: (born: Jan. 7, 1886, Veroli [FR]; died: Apr. 7, 1963, Naples). Archaeologist. He is best-known for his work at Pompeii. From 1914 to 1924, he directed the Italian archaeological mission in Greece, and was especially active on Rhodes. He headed up several excavations and the building of a museum on the island. In 1924, he became the chief archaeologist at Pompeii, serving there as director until 1961. Focusing his efforts below the destruction layer, he was responsible for revealing the famous House of the Surgeon and the Casa d”Efebo. He also carried out excavations at other nearby sites like Herculaneum. In May 1932, he rediscovered the legendary Cave of the Sibyl near Cumae. From 1937 to 1948 he excavated on Capri, where he unearthed Tiberius’s Damecuta Villa, as well as the Villa Jovis.

Majorano, Gaetano: See Caffarelli.

Malapetzes: (fl. AD 1064). Byzantine commander of Otranto. He commanded a garrison consisting of Russian and Varangian mercenaries and successfully defended the city from Norman attack. Unfortunately, he neglected to demolish an ancient, splendid house belonging to his niece which abutted the interior of the city wall. The commander of the the attacking Normans, probably Count Geoffrey of Taranto, learned about the house and its unmarried occupant. Secretly sending rich gifts to the woman he promised to marry her if she would help him gain access to the city. She agreed to help and lowered ropes from the roof of her house over the city wall. Thus, the Normans were able to enter Otranto and capture the city. Malapetzes was able to escape by fleeing in a ship, but left his wife and children behind. There is no record of their fate.

Maletto (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 4,040 (2006e).

Maleventum: An ancient name for Benevento [BN].

Malfa (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

Malfalda (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 1,304 (2006e).

Malito (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 865 (2006e).

Malta (anc. Melita): An island nation situated about 58 miles S of Sicily. Area: 98 square miles.

Malta, Sea of: See Sea of Sicily.

Malvagna (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

Malvito (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,897 (2006e).

Mamatele (mamaliti, mamatili): a light northwest wind of Sicily.

Mamertine: A notable wine produced in ancient times in the NE portion of Sicily. According to Strabo, it was the equal of the best of Italian wines. It was widely exported to Rome, Africa and beyond.

Mamertines (Lat. Mamertini):

Mammola (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.

mamutones: masked performers who take part in processions in the Sicilian town of Mamoiada.

Mandamento (pl. mandamenti): a mafia “district.” It normally consists of three mafia families with adjoining territories. Its head, called a capomandamento, usually sits on the governing Commission.

Mandanici (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

Mandatoriccio (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 2,976 (2006e).

Mandocello: a large size mandolin. It is turned as a cello in CGDA.

Mandola: an Italian lute. Its original form was bowl backed but modern versions are often flat backed like a cittern and have 8 strings.

Mandolin: a small Italian lute with 8 (sometimes 12) strings and a flat back like a cittern.

Manduria (TA): A commune in the province of Taranto.

Manfred: King of Sicily (r1258-1266). Following his death, his body was interred near the bridge at Benevento, not far from where he fell in battle. His remains were dug up soon after by order of an archbishop of Cosenza, either Cardinal Bartolommeo Pignatelli or his successor, Tommaso d’Agni.

Manfredonia (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 57,390 (2006e).

Mango, Leonard de: (d. Feb. 19, 1843 at Bisceglie (BA); d. Istanbul). Painter. Having a natural talent for drawing, he received the patronage of a wealthy family of Bari, who financed his training at the Academy of Fine Arts of Naples. He studied there for eight years under the tutelage of some of the finest painters of that time. Upon graduation, he traveled to Istanbul, the capital of the Ottoman Empire. He remained there, employed as an Orientalist painter for the next 50 years.

Mangone (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,766 (2006e).

Mania: Etruscan guardian of the underworld and companion of Mantus.

Maniace (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 3,627 (2006e).

manna opt: a sweet pale yellow or white juice made from the bark of the manna ash tree, found chiefly in Calabria and Sicily and used as a natural laxative.

Manocalzati (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 3,213 (2006e).

Manoppello (PE): A commune in the province of Pescara.

Manso (Mansone) I: Ruler of Amalfi (r966-1004).

Manso (Manone) II: Ruler of Amalfi (r1034-1038).

Mantus: Etruscan god of the underworld and companion of Mania. The northern Italian city of Mantua derives its name from his.

Marano di Napoli (NA): A town in Campania situated 6 miles NW of Naples. Population: 58,996 (2006e).

Marano Marchesato (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 2,948 (2006e).

Marano Principato (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 2,667 (2006e).

Maratea (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

Marcedusa (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 496 (2006e).

Marcellinara (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 2,170 (2006e).

Marcellinus, St.: Pope. (rAD 296-304).

Marcellus I, St.: Pope. (rAD 308-309).

Marcellus II: Pope. (rApr. 9-Apr 30/ May 1, 1555).

Marchesi (de Castrone), Salvatore: (b. Jan 15, 1822, Palermo; d. Feb 20, 1908, Paris). Baritone, singing teacher. He taught at the Die Wiener Musikhochschule in Vienna, Austria from 1859 to 1875.

Marcianise (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population: 40,149 (2006e).

Marcus (Mark), St.: Pope. (r Jan 18-Oct 7, 336).

Maresca, Nicola (Duca di Serracapriola): (b. 1798). Statesman. He served as Minister Secretary of State/President of the Council of Ministers (Ministro Segretari di Stato –  Presidente del Consiglio di Ministri) in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in 1848.

Marettimo (anc. Hiera; Maritima): the westernmost of the principal islands of the Isole Egadi, off the west coast of Sicily. Its highest point is Monte Falcone (2,224 feet).

Margherita di Savoia (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 12,720 (2006e). It is one of the three communes of the province of Foggia which will be transferred to the newly created province of Barletta-Andria-Trani in 2009. Prior to 1879 it was called Saline di Barletta and was renamed to honor the queen of Italy.

Maria: See Mary, Queen of Sicily (r1377-1401).

Maria Carolina (Marie Caroline): Queen of Naples and Sicily (r. 1768-1812). The wife of Ferdinand I, King of the Two Sicilies, her strong will made her the de facto ruler of the Regno for much of her husband’s reign. Strongly devoted to strengthening her native Austria’s influence in southern Italy, she attempted to block that of England. Through diplomacy, however, the British succeeded in having her deposed from power and sent back to Austria.

Marianopoli (CL): A commune in the province of Caltanissetta. Population: 2,150 (2006e).

Marie Caroline: See Maria Carolina, Queen of Naples and Sicily (r. 1768-1812).

Mariglianella (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.

Marigliano (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.

Marina di Gioiosa Ionica (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.

Marineo (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.

Marino I: Duke of Naples (rAD 919-928). He was the probable son of Giovanni (John) II and probable father of Giovanni (John) III and St. Athanasius I.

Marino II: (d. AD 977) Duke of Naples (AD 963-977). He was the son of Giovanni (John) III and Teodora, and the father of Sergius (Sergio) III.

Marinus: (fl. AD 9th Century). A Greek noble and Count of Castrum di Cuma (Cumae). By his wife Euprassia, he was the father of Sergius (Sergio) I (Duke of Naples AD 840-865).

Marinus I: Pope. (rDec 16, 882-May 15, 884).

Marinus II: Pope. (rOct. 30 942-May 946).

Maritima: an ancient name for the island of Marettimo, in the Isole Egadi group off western Sicily.

Maropati (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.

Marrone, Patrizio: (b. 2 January 1961, Naples). Composer.

Marrucini: An ancient people who once inhabited parts of Abruzzo. Related to, and possibly descended from the Marsi, their chief town was Teate (mod. Chieti).

Marsa Ali: Arabic name for Marsala (TP).

Marsala (anc. Lilybaeum; Arab. Marsa Ali) (TP): A commune in the province of Trapani. The modern name derived from the Arabic Mirsa-Ilahi (= Port of God).

Marsala: a class of white wines which developed in western Sicily, named for the port city of Marsala, its principal center of production.

Marsi: An ancient people who inhabited parts of Abruzzo. Related to the Sabines, mythology claimed that they were descended from Marsus, a son of the sorceress Circe, or from Marsyas, a Phrygian. They were the first of the Italic people to rebel against the Romans in 91 BC during the Social War. Among their chief towns were Marrubium and Alba Fucentia. They had strong beliefs in magic which have survived among their descendants to the present day.

Marsico Nuovo (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

Marsicovetere (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

Martano (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 9,588 (2006e).

Martignano (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 1,784 (2006e).

Martin I, St.: Pope. (rJuly 649-Sept 16, 655).

Martin I “the Younger”: King of Sicily (Trinacria) (r1395-1409).

Martin II “the Elder”: King of Sicily (Trinacria) (r1409-1410).

Martin IV: Pope. (rFeb 22, 1281-March 28, 1285). He was actually the third pope to use the name Martin but is called Martin IV because of a mistake by the chroniclers in identifying the two earlier popes, Marinus I and Marinus II, as “Martins”.

Martin V: Pope. (rNov 11, 1417-Feb 20, 1431).

Martina Franca (TA): A commune in the province of Taranto.

Martinsicuro (TE): A commune in the province of Teramo.

Martirano (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 988 (2006e).

Martirano Lombardo (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 1,289 (2006e).

Martone (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.

Martucci, Giuseppe: (b. 6 Jan. 1656, Capua. d. 1 June 1909, Naples). Composer.

Maruggio (TA): A commune in the province of Taranto.

Marvuglia, Venanzio: (b. 1729, Palermo; d. 1814). Architect. He worked in and around Palermo.

Mary (Maria): Queen of Sicily (r1377-1401).

Marzano Appio (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population: 2,505 (2006e).

Marzano di Nola (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 1,702 (2006e).

Marzi (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 985 (2006e).

Mascali (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 12,385 (2006e).

Mascalucia (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 26,590 (2006e).

Maschito (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

Masone di Bari: Grand Chancellor under King Roger II of Sicily.

Massa d’Albe (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 1,567 (2006e).

Massa di Somma (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.

Massa Lubrense (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.

Massafra (TA): A town in Puglia situated 11 miles NW of Taranto. Population: 31,343 (2006e).

Massa-Lubrense (NA): A town in Campania located 19 miles S of Naples. Population: 13,429 (2006e).

massaria: a farm.

Massicus mons: (mod. Monte Mássico). A mountain located in northern Campania mentioned by Pliny, Virgil and Florentius.

Matera, Province of: A province in the region of Basilicata.

Matera (MT): a commune and provincial capital of the province of Matera. Population: 59,407 (2006e).

Matera-Irsina, Archdiocese of: An archdiocese in the Ecclesiastical Region of Basilicata.

Suffragans:

Metropolitan: Potenza-Muro Lucano-Marsico Nuovo.

Conference Region: Basilicata.

Area: 2,020 km²/ mi²

Total Population: 143,664.

Catholic Population:

Total Priests: 86 (Diocesan: 67; Religious: 19)

Permanent Deacons: 1

Male Religious:

Female Religious:

Parishes: 52.

History:

Mathilde de Hauteville: (b. 1063; d. 1094). Daughter of Count Roger I and Eremburge de Mortain, she married Robert, Count of Eu, before 1092.

Matino (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 11,620 (2006e).

Matrice (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 1,079 (2006e).

Mattanza, La: a traditional large scale capture and slaughter of tuna fish off the coast of Sicily.

Mattinata (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 6,461 (2006e).

Maximus of Aquila, St.: (d. AD 250). Christian martyr. A deacon at Aquila (L’Aquila) in the Abruzzi, he was arrested by the Roman authorities who attempted to convince him to renounce Christianity. When he refused he was thrown to his death off of a cliff. He is the patron saint of L’Aquila.

Mazara del Vallo (formerly Mazzara) (TP): A town in western Sicily located in a coastal plain about 26 miles S. of Trapani. Population: 51,425 (2006e).

Mazzarino (CL): A commune in Sicily located 15 miles SE of Caltanissetta. Population: 12,280 (2006e).

Mazzaroppi, Marco: (b. c1570, San Germano (mod. Cassino) [FR]; d. 1620) Painter. His principal works decorated the Monastery of Montecassino until its destruction during World War II.

Mazzarra Sant’Andrea (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

Mazzarrone (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 3,719 (2006e).

Mazzeo: a surname found in southern Italy. It derives from Mazzeo, a derivation of the name Matteo (=Matthew).

Measures used in Southern Italy, Historical:

Ancient Greek:

Area

square plethron 

=100 × 100 feet; = 0.0875 ha. (Attic); =0.095 ha (Parthenon); = 0.1027 ha. (Olympic)

square cubit

= 0.197 sq. meters (Attic); 0.231 sq. meters (Olympic).

square foot

= 29.57 sq. cm (Attic); = 30.8 sq. cm (Parthenon); = 32.05 sq. cm (Olympic)

Length

parasange

= 30 stadia; = 5,328-5,760 meters. This was considered the average distance a person could walk in about one hour.

stadion

(pl. stadia)

= 6 plethra; = 600 feet; = 9600 fingers; = 177.6 meters

schoinion (rope)

=52.5 meters.

plethron

(pl. plethra)

= 100 feet; =1600 fingers; = 29.57 meters

pêchys (cubit)

= 24 fingers = 44.36 cm (Attic) or 48.08 cm (Olympic)

pous (foot)

= 16 fingers; = 29.57 cm;

daktylos (finger)

= 1.85 cm

Dry Volume

medimnos

= 6 hekteis; = 48 choinikes; = 192 kotylai; = 52.176 liters.

(Some sources value 1 medimnos = 54 liters)

artabê

a measure of uncertain value. It is estimated to have been equal to either 30 or 40 choinikes.

hekteus

(pl. hekteis )

= 8 choinikes; = 322 kotylai; = 8.696 liters

choinix

(pl. choinikes)

= 4 kotylai; = 1.087 liters.

kotylê

(pl. kotylai)

= 0.272 liters

Liquid Volume

metrêtês

= 4 kophinoi; = 12 choes; = 144 kotylai; = 37.4 (or 40.32) liters

kophinos

(pl. kophinoi)

= 3 choes; = 36 kotylai; = 9.35 (or 10.08) liters

chous

(pl. choes)

= 12 kotylai; = 3.12 (or 3.36) liters

kotylê

(pl. kotylai)

= 0.26 (or 0.28) liters

Weight

talent-weight

= 60 mnai; = 6000 drachm-weights; = 27.47 kg

mna

(pl. mnai)

= 100 drachm-weights; = 457.8 gr.

drachm-weight(holkê)

= 4.578 gr

talent-weight

= 60 mnai; = 6300 coin-drachms; = 27.47 kg

mna

(pl. mnai)

= 105 coin-drachms; = 457.8 gr

coin drachm

= 4.36 gr

Ancient Roman:

Area

centuria

= 100 heredia; = 200 iugera; = 400 actûs; = 50.365 ha

heredium

(pl. heredia)

= 2 iugera; = 4 actûs; = 0.5036 ha

iugerum

(pl. iugera)

= 2 actûs; = 0.2518 ha

actus

(pl. actûs )

= 0.1259 ha

Length

mile

(milia passuum)

= 8 stades; = 1000 paces; =5000 feet; = 1.48 km.

stadium

(pl. stadia)

= 125 paces; = 625 feet; = 185 meters

pace

(pl. passus)

= 5 feet; = 1.48 meters

foot

(pl. pes)

= 29.57 cm

Dry Volume

modius

(pl. modii)

=16 sextarii, = 8.736 liters.

sextarius

(pl. sextarii)

=0.546 liters

Liquid Volume

culleus

(pl.)

= 20 amphorae; =160 congii; = 960 sextarii; =517.11 liters

amphora

(pl. amphorae)

=8 congii; = 48 sextarii; =25.86 liters

congius

(pl. congii)

= 6 sextarii; =3.23 liters

sextarius

(pl. sextarii)

= 0.54 liters

Weight

pound (libra, as)

=12 ounces; = 327.45 (or 322.56) gr.

ounce (uncia)

=  27.29 (or 26.88?) gr.

Medieval:

Area

Length

Dry Volume

Salma (pl. salme)

In 14th century Sicily, the salma was found in 2 different standards. The salma of western Sicily, often called the salma generale because it was more commonly used, was equal to 0.128 bushels (275 liters). That is. 1 bushel of grain was equal to 7.8 salme. In eastern Sicily, a larger salma was used. This unit was 20% larger than it’s western counterpart (= 0.154 bushels = 330 liters). The salma derived from an estimation of the minimum amount of grain needed to feed a single individual for a year.

Liquid Volume

Weight

Early Modern

Area

Length

Canna (Messina)

2.3111 yards

Dry Volume

Carro (Naples)

56.3258 bushels

Salma (Sicily)

7.8 bushels

Salma (Grosso)

(Sicily)

10 bushels

Tomolo (Naples)

1.5646 bushels

Liquid Volume

Almude (Sicily)

4.896 gallons

Barile (Naples)

11.5732 gallons

Botta (Naples)

128.879 gallons

Botta (Messina)

108 gallons

Carro (Naples)

257.757 gallons

Salma (Naples)

40.2726 gallons

Salma (Naples)

(oil)

42.1667 gallons

Salma (Sicily)

(wine)

22 gallons

Weight

Medix tuticus: title of a chief magistrate in the various ancient confederations of Oscan-speaking peoples.

Megellos: Co-Ruler of Akragas (fl. late 4th Century BC) with Pharistos.

Meinardo of Poitiers: (fl late 11th Century). Ecclesiastic. He was the earliest known bishop of Ariano di Puglia (fl. 1070).

Melanophila: a silica mineral occurring in the form of colorless cubic crystals. It receives its name (melano= black; phila=loving) because it turns black when heated. It is occurs in the sulfur found near Agrigento, Sicily.

Melendugno (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 9,667 (2006e).

Melfi (PZ): A town in Basilicata. Population: 17,182 (2006e).

Melicuccà (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.

Melicucco (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.

Melilli (SR): A commune in the province of Siracusa.

Melissa (KR): A commune in the province of Crotone. Population: 3,290 (2006e)

Melissano (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 7,488 (2006e).

Melito di Napoli (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.

Melito di Porto Salvo (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.

Melito Irpino (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 1,987 (2006e).

Melizzano (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 1,872 (2006e).

Melpignano (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 2,234 (2006e).

Mendicino (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 8,757 (2006e).

Menfi (AG): A commune in the province of Agrigento. Population: 12,914 (2006e).

Menrva: Etruscan goddess. She was the counterpart of the Greek goddess Athena. She sprung full-grown from the head of the god Tinia, and was part of a triad of gods with Tinia and Uni. The Romans adopted her as their own goddess Minerva.

Mephitis: An ancient Italic goddess who was invoked for protection from poisonous fumes. Her temples were often found near sulfurous lakes like Amsancti Lacus in Campania.

Mercadante, Saverio Rafaele: (b. September 16 or 17, 1795 at Altamura (BA); d.December 17, 1870 at Naples). Composer. Having studied music at Naples, he was encouraged by Rossini to develop his skills in composition of opera. In the course of his career he worked in many of Europe’s great cities including Naples, Rome, Vienna, Madrid, Cadiz, Lisbon, Paris, and Milan. He composed 58 operas.

Mercato San Severino (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Mercogliano (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 12,414 (2006e).

Meri (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

Merlo: A surname found in southern Italy. It derives from merlo (= blackbird), which originated in the Latin merula.

Mesagne (BR): A commune in the province of Brindisi. Population: 28,117 (2006e).

Mesma: A city of ancient Bruttium.

Mesoraca (KR): A commune in the province of Crotone. Population: 6,842 (2006e).

Messana (mod. Messina [ME]): An ancient name for Messina. It was commonly used by the Romans and appears to have been the Doric pronunciation of the city’s name. Most Greeks preferred the name Messene.

Messapia (1): An ancient Greek name for Apulia (Puglia).

Messapia (2): An ancient town in Apulia. It was situated between Uria and Brundisium. The modern Mesagne (BR).

Messapus: A legendary Greek hero from Boeotia. It was said that Messapia was named for him.

Messene(mod. Messina [ME]): An ancient name for Messina.

Messina, Province of: A province in Sicily. Population: 653,861 (2007e).

Communes of Messina Province

Commune

Area

(km²)

Population

(2007e)

Population

(2006e)

Population

(2001 census)

Population

(1991 census)

Acquedolci

12.96

5485

5459

5,373

5,122

Alcara li Fusi

62.36

2277

2308

2,473

3,079

Alì

16.69

870

881

933

1,050

Alì Terme

6.15

2574

2585

2,569

2,425

Antillo

43.40

1049

1056

1,128

1,279

Barcellona Pozzo di Gotto

58.89

41014

41129

41,258

40,544

Basicò

11.98

703

713

746

904

Brolo

7.86

5628

5589

5,495

5,072

Capizzi

69.90

3428

3448

3,564

3,797

Capo d’Orlando

14.56

13024

12951

12,710

11,948

Capri Leone

6.60

4380

4320

4,016

3,459

Caronia

226.55

3555

3549

3,589

4,116

Casalvecchio Siculo

33.37

1032

1043

1,152

1,447

Castel di Lucio

28.37

1436

1459

1,561

1,751

Castell’Umberto

11.47

3418

3450

3,564

3,915

Castelmola

16.40

1088

1103

1,092

1,123

Castroreale

54.74

2748

2767

2,910

3,126

Cesarò

215.75

2621

2671

2,815

3,280

Condrò

5.19

489

498

523

519

Falcone

9.32

2914

2946

2,858

2,856

Ficarra

18.62

1683

1724

1,803

2,020

Fiumedinisi

35.99

1585

1599

1,679

1,912

Floresta

31.09

569

577

637

923

Fondachelli-Fantina

42.00

1157

1159

1,235

1,643

Forza d’Agrò

11.18

902

905

864

948

Francavilla di Sicilia

82.11

4210

4218

4,347

5,096

Frazzanò

6.86

847

860

959

1,203

Furci Siculo

17.86

3290

3304

3,285

3,321

Furnari

13.48

3510

3494

3,394

3,457

Gaggi

7.34

2870

2845

2,693

2,384

Galati Mamertino

39.06

2984

3012

3,127

3,419

Gallodoro

6.90

387

395

409

474

Giardini-Naxos

5.44

9301

9378

9,152

8,640

Gioiosa Marea

26.31

7198

7228

7,245

6,867

Graniti

9.96

1541

1543

1,587

1,621

Gualtieri Sicaminò

14.36

1898

1910

2,018

2,357

Itala

10.36

1681

1662

1,692

1,813

Leni

8.56

669

676

641

682

Letojanni

6.78

2673

2664

2,480

2,283

Librizzi

23.35

1835

1859

1,908

2,161

Limina

9.81

927

958

1,006

1,141

Lipari

88.61

10894

10809

10,554

10,382

Longi

42.12

1620

1599

1,653

1,784

Malfa

8.89

872

870

851

871

Malvagna

6.90

863

878

973

1,190

Mandanici

11.65

662

673

761

843

Mazzarrà Sant’Andrea

6.60

1615

1637

1,755

1,918

Merì

1.87

2255

2198

2,186

1,984

Messina

211.23

245159

246323

252,026

231,693

Milazzo

24.23

32590

32586

32,108

31,541

Militello Rosmarino

29.67

1356

1384

1,445

1,552

Mirto

9.43

1072

1081

1,104

1,244

Mistretta

126.76

5252

5325

5,541

6,195

Moio Alcantara

8.39

784

798

805

889

Monforte San Giorgio

32.33

2993

3000

3,088

3,226

Mongiuffi Melia

24.29

727

722

783

975

Montagnareale

16.23

1731

1734

1,787

1,841

Montalbano Elicona

67.43

2600

2631

2,838

3,477

Motta Camastra

25.29

846

856

867

965

Motta d’Affermo

14.61

902

900

954

1,158

Naso

36.60

4250

4333

4,512

4,741

Nizza di Sicilia

13.18

3667

3618

3,586

3,539

Novara di Sicilia

48.78

1557

1558

1,731

2,197

Oliveri

10.29

2097

2082

2,099

2,083

Pace del Mela

12.10

6172

6170

6,117

5,471

Pagliara

14.57

1223

1222

1,237

1,428

Patti

50.18

13391

13361

13,108

12,959

Pettineo

30.45

1477

1491

1,547

1,689

Piraino

17.20

3883

3867

3,803

3,734

Raccuja

25.06

1254

1269

1,389

1,692

Reitano

13.93

885

893

951

1,062

Roccafiorita

1.14

237

255

254

266

Roccalumera

8.77

4134

4135

4,029

4,050

Roccavaldina

6.53

1189

1173

1,172

1,259

Roccella Valdemone

40.98

780

804

841

990

Rodì Milici

36.16

2306

2316

2,335

2,334

Rometta

32.50

6536

6545

6,307

6,113

San Filippo del Mela

9.81

7159

7119

6,952

6,606

San Fratello

67.07

4243

4307

4,561

5,055

San Marco d’Alunzio

26.11

2098

2120

2,202

2,396

San Pier Niceto

36.29

2992

3052

3,085

3,122

San Piero Patti

41.63

3259

3318

3,511

3,938

San Salvatore di Fitalia

14.89

1526

1545

1,679

1,954

Santa Domenica Vittoria

19.98

1123

1137

1,173

1,246

Sant’Agata di Militello

33.52

13053

13037

12,876

12,796

Sant’Alessio Siculo

6.17

1368

1358

1,346

1,352

Santa Lucia del Mela

82.93

4757

4737

4,701

4,858

Santa Marina Salina

8.65

836

822

808

848

Sant’Angelo di Brolo

30.22

3506

3589

3,856

4,376

Santa Teresa di Riva

8.13

9049

9057

8,925

7,824

San Teodoro

13.90

1497

1516

1,578

1,689

Santo Stefano di Camastra

21.88

4490

4510

4,653

5,194

Saponara

26.02

4035

4036

4,131

3,945

Savoca

8.80

1719

1668

1,675

1,518

Scaletta Zanclea

5.05

2435

2486

2,578

2,677

Sinagra

23.92

2840

2861

3,041

3,173

Spadafora

10.30

5263

5291

5,234

5,119

Taormina

13.16

11026

10967

10,780

10,120

Terme Vigliatore

13.40

6771

6753

6,561

5,941

Torregrotta

4.22

7,075

6940

6,542

6,052

Torrenova

12.98

3940

3887

3,691

3,414

Tortorici

70.16

7061

7114

7,535

8,484

Tripi

54.37

968

991

1,044

1,225

Tusa

40.98

3199

3224

3,358

3,630

Ucria

26.19

1221

1240

1,370

1,646

Valdina

2.75

1255

1250

1,209

1,292

Venetico

4.38

3778

3798

3,691

3,497

Villafranca Tirrena

14.34

9038

8919

8,517

7,372

Total

3,247.08

653,861

655,640

662,450

646,871

Messina (ME): A commune and provincial capital of the province of Messina.

Messina–Lipari–Santa Lucia del Mela, Metropolitan Archdiocese of: A Metropolitan archdiocese in the ecclesiastical region of Sicilia.

Suffragans: Nicosia, Patti.

Metropolitan:

Conference Region: .

Area:  km²/ mi²):

Total Population: .

Catholic Population:

Total Priests:  (Diocesan: ; Religious: )

Permanent Deacons:

Male Religious:

Female Religious:

Parishes:.

History:

Messina, Francesco: (b. 1900, Linguaglossa, Catania. d. 1995, Milan). Sculptor. Principal Works: Boxer (Bronze): 1929.Alice (Bronze): 1946.Il Pugilatore (Marble).

Meta (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.

Metabon: A settlement of the ancient Oenotrians in southern Lucania. Its site was occupied by the later Greek city of Metapontum.

Metapontum: ancient city of Magna Graecia, on the Gulf of Taranto, SE Italy. Settled by Greeks, c.7th cent. B.C., it flourished and gave refuge to Pythagoreans expelled from Croton. Pythagoras taught and died there. There are remains of a Doric temple, called Tavole Paladine, and other ruins. The Greek city appears to have been founded on the site of an earlier Oenotrian settlement called Metabon.

metrope: a panel on the frieze of an ancient Greek temple.

Metropolitan: The head of an ecclesiastic province. Normally, the archdiocese of a province.

Metropolitana di Napoli: The underground rapid transit rail system of the city of Naples.

Mezecius: A Byzantine rebel in Sicily in AD 668.

Mezzogiorno:

Mezzojuso (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.

Miggiano (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 3,678 (2006e).

Miglianico (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 4,611 (2006e).

Miglierina (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 843 (2006e).

Miglionico (MT): A commune in the province of Matera. Population: 2,595 (2006e).

Mignano Monte Lungo (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population: 3,307 (2006e).

Milazzo (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

Mile, Italian: A former measurement used in Italy until the 19th Century. It was equivalent to 11/12 of an English mile.

Mile, Neapolitan: A standard measurement used in the kingdom of the Two Sicilies. Different sources give contrasting equivalents as to its equivalent in English miles, ranging from 6,075 feet equal to 7,306 feet. One source, Thomas Milner’s A Universal Geography (1876), stated that 60 Neapolitan miles were equal to 1 degree on the equator, that is equal to 1 universal nautical mile.

Milena (CL): A commune in the province of Caltanissetta. Population: 3,350 (2006e).

Mileto (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.

Mileto – Nicotera – Tropea, Diocese of:

Suffragans:

Metropolitan: Reggio Calabria – Bova.

Conference Region: Calabria.

Area: 943 km²/ mi²

Total Population: 170,961

Catholic Population:

Total Priests: 136(Diocesan: 108; Religious: 28)

Permanent Deacons:

Male Religious:

Female Religious:

Parishes: 133

History:

Military Ordinatiate: A personal jurisdiction serving members of the armed forces of a particular country regardless of the country in which they are serving at any given time.

Military/Naval terminology (Past & Present), Italian:

Italian

English

aiutante maggiore

Battalion adjutant. A high ranking officer assigned to assist the unit commander.

Al Valore Militare

Military Valor

Alpino (pl. Alpini)

Elite Alpine soldier of the Royal Army

alto mare

High Seas; International waters.

Ariete

Battering Ram

Artiglieria

Artillery

Artiglieria d’Armata

Heavy artillery

Artiglieria Divisionale

Divisional Artillery

Artiglieria Marittima

Marine artillery

Autobilinda

Armored car

Baistrocchi

a style of grey-green tunic with an open collar named after General Baistrocchi, Secretary of War.

barricata

barricade

Battaglione (pl. battaglioni)

Battalion. Normally, an infantry battalione is formed from several companies under the command of a maggiore (major) or tenente colonnello (lieutenant colonel).

It is the equivalent of an artillery gruppo (group).

Battaglione Fanti dell’Aria

Infantry of the Air Battalion

Battaglione Nazionale Paracadutisti

National Parachute Battalion

beretto da campagna

Black field cap, similar to German Model 43 worn by Black Brigade.

Bersaglieri (sing. Bersagliere)

Elite corp of sharpshooters.This type of light infantry are perhaps the most famous Italian soldiers.

They are distinguished by black cock feathers worn on their helmets or on their round, black hat with flat brim.

Brigadiere (or generale di brigata)

Brigadier General.

Brigadieri

Sergeant

Brigata

Brigade. A unit consisting of several regiments under the command of a generale di brigata or a brigadiere (Brigadier General).

Bustina

Literally, “small envelope”, reference to a style of side cap unique to the Italian army

Cacciatori

(= “hunters”). Light infantry equipped for fast movement.

Capitano

Captain

Capitano di vascello

Naval Captain. This rank is equivalent to an army colonnello (colonel).

Carabina

Carbine.

Carabiniere (pl. Carabinieri)

a soldier or military policeman armed with a carbine.

Carabinieri Reali

Military police, senior arm of the Royal Army.

Cavalleria

cavalry

Celere

Fast, quick

Chimico

Chemical

Chimico Mortaio

Chemical mortar

Cohort

A unit equivalent to a battalion

Colonnello

Colonel. Equivalent to a naval Capitano di Vascello.

Comando Generale

General Headquarters

Compagnia (pl. compagnie)

Company. An infantry unit commanded by a captaino (captain). It was composed of a hundred soldiers, subdivided into plotoni (platoons),

each commanded by tenente (lieutenant) or sotto-tenente (second lieutenant). It was the equivalent of a cavalry squadrone (squadron) or an artillery batteria (battery).

Console Generale

Militia equivalent of a brigade general of the Royal Army

Controaera (pl. Controaeri)

Anti-aircraft

Corazzato

Armored Cuirassier

Corazzieri

Cuirassiers, cavalry who wear armored breastplates

Cordellino

Fine braided material(gaberdine) used in the manufacture of officers’ tunics and breeches.

Croce al Valore Militare

Military Cross of Valor

Divisione

Division

Escerito

Army.

Fanteria

Infantry

Generale di brigata

See Brigadiere

Generalfeldmarshall

Field Marshal

Generali (sing. Generale)

Officers of general rank

Genio

a military specialist or engineer.

Granatieri

Grenadiers

Greca

Zigzag braid of Royal Army general’s peak cap

Gruppo

Group

Guardia alla Frontiera

Frontier Guard

Guardia di Finanza

Finance Guard. A dual purposed corps. Its primary function is to act as specialized police for tax and financial crimes. It is secondarily a military corps.

Guardia Nazionale Repubblicana

National Republican Guard

Guastatori

Assault Engineers

Guida

Guide

Intendente

A military supply officer.

Legione

Legion; unit equivalent to a regiment

Lugotente Generale

Militia equivalent of an army corps general of the Royal Army.

Maggiore

Major.

Maresciallo

Field Marshall or senior warrant officer

Marina

Navy

Merito di Guerra

War merit

Milizia Confinaria

Frontier Militia

Milizia Controaerei

Anti-aircraft militia

Milizia di Frontiera

Frontier Militia

Milizia Forestale

Forestry Militia

Milizia Nazionale della Strada

National Road Militia

Milizia Portuaria

Port Militia

Milizia Postelegrafonica

Post and Telegraph Militia

Milizia Universitaria

University Militia

Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale

Volunteer Militia for National Security

Mortaio

Mortar

Moschetto Automatico Beretta

Beretta Automatic machine-gun.

Mostreggiature

collar insignia designating unit ID & type

Motomitraglieri

Machine-gunners on motorcycles.

Motorizzata

Motorized

MT

Motor transport

NAAFI

Navy, Army and Airforce Institutes

Nappine

Tuft, pom-pom worn on Alpine-style cap

Ochiello

loop in rank braid on cuffs

Plotone

Platoon

Portuaria

adjective for Port

Raggruppamento/

Raggruppamenti

task force

Rando

military rations

Reggimento (pl. reggimenti)

Regiment. A military unit formed by several battalions commanded by a colonnello (colonel).

Reggimento Fanti dell’Aria

Infantry Regiment of the Air

Regiamarina

Royal Navy

Regio Esercito

Royal Army

Sahariana

a style of tropical tunic worn in the former Italian African colonies and in southern Italy.

Sergente Maggiore

Sergeant-Major

Sezione d’artiglieria

Section of artillery. A small artillery unit usually comprised of two cannons, howitzers. mortars. Several sections comprise a battery.

Societa Romana Costruzioni Meccaniche

a company which manufactured antipersonnel hand grenades.

Sotto Tenente

Second Lieutenant

Sottufficiale

(pl. Sottufficiali)

non-commissioned officer

Squadrone

Squadron; a cavalry unit.

Stato maggiore

General staff.

Tenente

First Lieutenant

Tenente Colonello

Lieutenant-Colonel

Truppa/Truppe

other ranks

Truppe Speciale

Special Troop

Ufficiale

Officer

Ufficiale d’ordinanza

Ordinance officer. A lieutenant or second lieutenant assigned to a commander for a variety of tasks and services.

Valore Militare

Military Valor

Zona

Zone

Militello in Val di Catania (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 7,984 (2006e).

Militello Rosmarino (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

Milo (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 1,064 (2006e). The commune has a notable view of the nearby Valle del Bove.

Milon (or Milo): A political and military leader of ancient Kroton. Famous throughout the Greek World as an athlete, he was victor in the Olympian Games in Boys’ Wrestling in 540 BC, and in wrestling in 532 BC, 528 BC, 524 BC, 520 BC, and 516 BC.

Miltiades (Melchiades), St.: Pope. (rJuly 2, 311 – Jan. 11, 314).

Mime: a form of dramatic entertainment which developed among the ancient Greeks in Magna Graecia and Sicily. In its original form, mime combined dialogue with simple actions. It became a favorite entertainment of the Romans who adapted it into “pantomime”, which eliminated dialogue for exaggerated action. Roman mime was far cruder and lewd than the Greek.

Mimica: a collection of hand gestures commonly used by southern Italian, often claimed by some to be an actual sign language. The roots of the mimica can be traced back to the ancient Greeks of Magna Graecia.

Mineo (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 5,397 (2006e).

Minervino di Lecce (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 3,881 (2006e).

Minervino Murge (BA): A commune in the province of Bari: Population: 9,872 (2006e).

Minervium: Ancient name for Squillace (CZ).

Minori (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Minucii: An important family of ancient Rome. It was originally of Etruscan origins.

Miqueletti: A small body of mountain fusiliers, who formerly belonged to the Neapolitan army. The term is related to the French Miquelets, originally the armed mountaineers of the Pyrenees.

Mirabella Eclano (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 8,237 (2006e).

Milabella Imbaccari (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 6,468 (2006e).

Mirabello Sannitico (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 1,878 (2006e).

Miranda (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 1,076 (2006e).

Mirto (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

Mirto, Fabio: (d. AD 1587). Ecclesiastic. He was elected Bishop of Caiazzo in 1537, and participated in the Council of Trent (1545-1563). At the end of his life he was serving as Apostolic nuncio to Paris.

Misilmeri (Sic. Musulumeli)(PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.

History: The communes name derives from the Arabic meaning “resting place of the Emir.”

Misenum: The name for a promontory (Capo Miseno) and ancient port (Porte di Miseno) on the coast of Campania. The great Roman port of Misenum was constructed by Marcus Agrippa during the time of Augustus and long served as the principal base for the Roman fleet.

                According to tradition, the name derived from the mythical Misenus, a follower of either Ulysses or Aeneas, who had been buried there.

Missanello (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

Misterbianco (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 46,602 (2006e).

Mistretta (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

mithraeum: A shrine dedicated to the ancient god Mithras, a Persian deity linked to Zoroastrianism. Mithraism was a mystery cult favored particularly by Roman soldiers. Typically, a mithraeum was built underground. The best-preserved mithraeum in Southern Italy is at Santa Maria Capua Vetere, the site of ancient Capua.

Modica (anc. Múrika; Sic. Muòrica)(RG): A commune in the province of Ragusa.

Modugno (BA): A commune in the province of Bari: Population: 37,617 (2006e).

Moiano (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 4,135 (2006e).

Mojo Alcantara (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

Moio della Civitella (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Mola di Bari (BA): A commune in the province of Bari: Population: 26,564 (2006e).

Molfetta (BA): A commune in the province of Bari: Population: 60,062 (2006e).

Molina Aterno (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 432 (2006e).

Molinara (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 1,903 (2006e).

Molise: A province in the former kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Naples). It was also known as Samnio (see which).

Molise:

Location: A region in southern Italy.

Name: .

Capital: Campobasso.

Area: 4,438 km² (mi²) (19th in size). It is the smallest region in size in the Mezzogiorno.

Number of Provinces: 2 (Campobasso; Isernia).

Number of Communes (Municipalities): 136.

Population: 320,074 (19th in number). It has the smallest population of all the regions of the Mezzogiorno.

Population Density:  72.1/km² (2007).

Demographics of Molise (figures per 1000 inhabitants)

2000

2001

2002

Births

8.2

7.9

8.1

Deaths

10.8

10.4

10.2

Marriages

4.3

3.7

3.9

History: Molise became a separate region in 1963, upon the splitting up of Abruzzi e Molise.

Historical Population: 328,371 (1981); 330,900 (1991); 320,601 (2001); 320,907 (2006e).

Landscape:

Terrain:

Molise, Communes of:

Province of Campobasso:

Acquaviva Collecroce, Baranello, Bojano, Bonefro, Busso, Campobasso, Campochiaro, Campodipietra, Campolieto, Campomarino, Casacalenda, Casalciprano, Castelbottaccio, Castellino del Biferno, Castelmauro, Castropignano, Cercemaggiore, Cercepiccola, Civitacampomarano, Colle d`Anchise, Colletorto, Duronia, Ferrazzano, Fossalto, Gambatesa, Gildone, Guardialfiera, Guardiaregia, Guglionesi, Jelsi, Larino, Limosano, Lucito, Lupara, Macchia Valfortore, Mafalda, Matrice, Mirabello Sannitico, Molise, Monacilioni, Montagano, Montecilfone, Montefalcone nel Sannio, Montelongo, Montemitro, Montenero di Bisaccia, Montorio nei Frentani, Morrone del Sannio, Oratino, Palata, Petacciato, Petrella Tifernina, Pietracatella, Pietracupa, Portocannone, Provvidenti, Riccia, Ripabottoni, Ripalimosani, Roccavivara, Rotello, Salcito, San Biase, San Felice del Molise, San Giacomo degli Schiavoni, San Giovanni in Galdo, San Giuliano del Sannio, San Giuliano di Puglia, San Martino in Pensilis, San Massimo, San Polo Matese, Santa Croce di Magliano, Sant`Angelo Limosano, Sant`Elia a Pianisi, Sepino, Spinete, Tavenna, Termoli, Torella del Sannio, Toro, Trivento, Tufara, Ururi, Vinchiaturo.

Province of Isernia:

Acquaviva D`Isernia, Agnone, Bagnoli del Trigno, Belmonte del Sannio, Cantalupo nel Sannio, Capracotta, Carovilli, Carpinone, Castel del Giudice, Castel San Vincenzo, Castelpetroso, Castelpizzuto, Castelverrino, Cerro al Volturno, Chiauci, Civitanova del Sannio, Colli a Volturno, Conca Casale, Filignano, Forli` del Sannio, Fornelli, Frosolone, Isernia, Longano, Macchia d`Isernia, Macchiagodena, Miranda, Montaquila, Montenero Val Cocchiara, Monteroduni, Pesche, Pescolanciano, Pescopennataro, Pettoranello del Molise, Pietrabbondante, Pizzone, Poggio Sannita, Pozzilli, Rionero Sannitico, Roccamandolfi, Roccasicura, Rocchetta a Volturno, San Pietro Avellana, Santa Maria del Molise, Sant`Agapito, Sant`Angelo del Pesco, Sant`Elena Sannita, Scapoli, Sessano del Molise, Sesto Campano, Vastogirardi, Venafro.

Molise(CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 180 (2006e).

Moliterno (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

Molochio (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.

Monacelli: A legendary race of dwarfs said to inhabit the deep ravines near the town of Sorrento in Campania.

Monacilioni (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 674 (2006e).

Monasterace (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.

Mondragone (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population: 26,626 (2006e).

Monetary units in the Two Sicilies:

Carlino = 10 grani; 12 carlini = 1 piastra.

Ducato = 10 carini.

Grano = 1/10 Carlino.

Pistola =

Piastra or Scudo (silver) = 12 carlini.

Monforte San Giorgio (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

Mongiana (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.

Mongibello: A local Sicilian name for Mt. Etna (see which).

Mongiuffi Melia (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

Mongrassano (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,727 (2006e).

Monopoli (BA): A commune in the province of Bari: Population: 49,846 (2006e).

Monreale (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.

Montagano (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 1,204 (2006e).

Montagnareale (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

Montaguto (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 545 (2006e).

Montalbano Elicona (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

Montalbano Jonico (MT): A commune in the province of Matera. Population: 7,806 (2006e).

Montallegro (AG): A commune in the province of Agrigento. Population: 2,637 (2006e).

Montalto: The highest summit (alt. 4,380 ft) of the Aspromonte in southern Calabria.

Montalto Uffugo (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 18,272 (2006e).

Montano Antilia (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Montaquila (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 2,464 (2006e).

Montauro (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 1,386 (2006e).

Montazzoli (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 1,056 (2006e).

Monte di Procida (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli – region: Campania

Monte San Giacomo (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Monte Sant’Angelo (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 13,600 (2006e).

Montebello di Bertona (PE): A commune in the province of Pescara.

Montebello Ionico (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.

Montebello sul Sangro (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 115 (2006e).

Montecalvo Irpino (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 10,180 (2006e).

Montecilfone (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 1,547 (2006e).

Montecorice (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Montecorvino Pugliano (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Montecorvino Rovella (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Montedoro (CL): A commune in the province of Caltanissetta. Population: 1,724 (2006e).

Monte Epomeo (anc.Epomeus, Epopos): An active volcano on the island of Ischia. More ancient than Vesuvius, its activity led to the desertion of the original Greek colony there.

Montefalcione (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 3,445 (2006e).

Montefalcone di Val Fortore (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 1,733 (2006e).

Montefalcone nel Sannio (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 1,775 (2006e).

Monteferrante (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 166 (2006e).

Montefino (TE): A commune in the province of Teramo.

Monteforte Cilento (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Monteforte Irpino (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 10,180 (2006e).

Montefredane (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 2,308 (2006e).

Montefusco (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 1,453 (2006e).

Montegiordano (): A commune in the province of Cosenza.

Monteiasi (): A commune in the province of Taranto.

Montelapiano (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 94 (2006e).

Monteleone di Puglia (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 1,242 (2006e).

Montelepre (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.

Montella (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 7,857 (2006e).

Montelongo (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 446 (2006e).

Montemaggiore Belsito (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.

Montemarano (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 3,026 (2006e).

Montemesola (TA): A commune in the province of Taranto.

Montemiletto (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 5,322 (2006e).

Montemilone (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

Montemitro (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 470 (2006e).

Montemurro (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

Montenero di Bisaccia (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 6,667 (2006e).

Montenero Val Cocchiara (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 572 (2006e).

Montenerodomo (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 896 (2006e).

Monteodorisio (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 2,505 (2006e).

Montepaone (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 4,461 (2006e).

Monteparano (TA): A commune in the province of Taranto.

Montereale (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 2,803 (2006e).

Monteroduni (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 2,411 (2006e).

Monteroni di Lecce (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 13,757 (2006e).

Monterosso Almo (RG): A commune in the province of Ragusa.

Monterosso Calabro (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.

Montesano Salentino (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 2,754 (2006e).

Montesano sulla Marcellana (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Montesarchio (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 13,515 (2006e).

Montescaglioso (MT): A commune in the province of Matera. Population: 10,079 (2006e).

Montesilvano (PE): A commune in the province of Pescara.

Montevago (AG): A commune in the province of Agrigento. Population: 3,043 (2006e).

Monteverde (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 903 (2006e).

Monte Vergine (or Montevergine): an important pilgrimage site located near Avellino in northern Campania. The shine was founded in 1119 on ruins of an ancient temple of Cybele. The church contains a famous image of the Virgin Mary. Here can be seen the tombs of Catherine of Valois and her son Louis of Taranto. Their carved images lay on an ancient Roman sarcophagus.

Montevergine, Territorial Abbey of:

Suffragans:

Metropolitan: Benevento

Conference Region: Campania

Area: 1 km²/ mi²

Total Population: 0

Catholic Population:

Total Priests: 7(Diocesan: 0; Religious: 7)

Permanent Deacons: 0

Male Religious:

Female Religious:

Parishes: 0

History:

Monti, Vittorio: (b. 6 January 1868, Naples. d. 20 June 1922, Naples). Composer of the Czardas for Violin and Orchestra.

Montorio al Vomano (TE): A commune in the province of Teramo.

Montorio nei Frentani (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 520 (2006e).

Montoro Inferiore (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 10,087 (2006e).

Montoro Superiore (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 8,358 (2006e).

Morano Calabro (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 4,859 (2006e).

Morciano di Leuca (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 3,489 (2006e).

Morcone (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 5,234 (2006e).

Morigerati (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Morino (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 1,531 (2006e).

Mormanno (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 3,590 (2006e).

Morra de Sanctis (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 1,351(2006e).

Morro d’Oro (TE): A commune in the province of Teramo.

Morrone del Sannio (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 702 (2006e).

Moschiano (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 1,713 (2006e).

Mosciano Sant’Angelo (TE): A commune in the province of Teramo.

Moscufo (PE): A commune in the province of Pescara.

mostaccioli: small, almond-shaped chocolate iced cakes popular in southern Italy. Made of chocolate and spices, they are often filled with dried and candied fruits and nuts.

Motta Camastra (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

Motta d’Affermo (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

Motta Montecorvino (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 901 (2006e).

Motta San Giovanni (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.

Motta Santa Lucia (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 853 (2006e).

Motta Sant’Anastasia (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 10,705 (2006e).

Mottafollone (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,434 (2006e).

Mottola (TA): A commune in the province of Taranto.

Motya: An ancient Phoenician/Carthaginain colony in western Sicily. The town was situated on a small coastal island now called Mozia (formerly S. Pantaleo). Situated about a kilometer from the shore, the island was later joined to the mainlend by a causeway. The colony was founded in the 8th century BC as a trading station, or emporium.

Mozzagrogna (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 2,169 (2006e).

moz(z)etta: a type of hooded cape worn by certain high officials in the Roman Catholic Church. The mozetta worn by the pope is red colored and trimmed with ermine; those of cardinals are scarlet colored, and those of bishops are purple. The mozetta is also part of the costume worn by canons in certain cathedrals in Sicily.

Mugnano del Cardinale (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 5,166 (2006e).

Mugnano di Napoli (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.

Murat, Joachim (Joachim I): King of Naples (r1808-1815).

Muro Leccese (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 5,158 (2006e).

Muro Lucano (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

Mussomeli (CL): A commune in the province of Caltanissetta. Population: 11,265 (2006e).

Mylae: ancient port, NE Sicily, now Milazzo. It was settled by colonists from Messina. Here in 260 B.C. the Romans in a newly built fleet were led to victory over the Carthaginians by the consul Caius Duilius in the First Punic War; it was Rome’s first naval triumph. Mylae was (36 B.C.) the scene of a naval victory of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa over Sextus Pompeius.

Myron: An athlete of ancient Syracuse. He was victor in the Tethrippon at the Olympian Games in 648 BC.

Mys: an athlete of ancient Taras. He was victor in Boxing at the Olympian Games in 336 BC.

Mystia and Hyporon: Ancient cities of ancient Bruttium.

Myttistratum: See Amestratus.