Encyclopedia of Southern Italy – L

L

Labellum: Ancient name of Lavello (PZ).

Lablache, Luigi: (b. Dec. 6, 1794, in Naples; d. Jan. 23, 1858, in Naples). Singer. The son of a French merchant from Marseilles, he came to the attention of Joseph Bonaparte who placed him in a music conservatory in Naples. A troublesome youth who disliked the structure imposed at the conservatory, he had to be forced to complete his studies there by being threatened with imprisonment. He finally began his singing career in 1812 as a singer in opera buffo. He spent these early years performing in minor theaters in Naples, Messina and Palermo. In 1817 he finally performed at La Scala theater in Milan. The success of his performance there launched his career in the major theaters of northern Italy, Vienna, and elsewhere. In 1830, he returned to Naples to become royal chapel-master and to perform at the San Carlo theater. He soon returned to touring Europe, spending most time performing in London, Paris, and, occasionally, Naples. Lablache’s incredible artistic skill and dedication to excellence, coupled with his great range and pure voice made him one of the most popular singers of his age. For a time he was the singing master and personal friend of the queen of England.

Lacco Ameno (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.

Lacedonia (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 2,979 (2006e).

Lachrymae Christi: (= “tears of Christ”). A noted wine produced for centuries in and around Naples and much of Campania. Under the Bourbons, the wine was considered so fine that it was produced only in a small quantity for use almost exclusively by the royal family.

Ladislaus: King of Naples (r1386-1414). He was opposed by Louis II of Anjou (r1390-1399).

Laganadi (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.

Lago (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 2,934 (2006e).

Lagonegro (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

Laidulf: Prince of Capua (993-999).

Laino Borgo (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza.

Laino Castello (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 909 (2006e).

Lamachos: an athlete of ancient Tauromenium in Sicily. He was victor in the stadion at the Olympian Games in 56 BC.

Lama dei Peligni (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 1,460 (2006e).

Lamarque, Count Maximilien: b. July 22, 1770, in St. Sever, France; d. June 1, 1832, in Paris. French soldier and political orator. After a distinguished military career, he entered into the service of Napoleon, fighting for him as a brigadier-general at Austerlitz. He participated in the French invasion of the Kingdom of Naples, participating in the capture of Gaeta in 1806. He also was responsible for crushing an insurrection in Calabria. In 1807, he defeated a British force and was promoted to the rank of general of division. Under King Joachim Murat he successfully captured the island and citadel of Capri from the British garrison under Sir Hudson Lowe. In later years, following Napoleon’s return from Elba, Lamarque served with loyalty. After Waterloo and Napoleon’s final exile, Lamarque was forced to flee from France. He settled in Amsterdam for a time before being allowed to return home.

Lametus fl. (mod. river Amato, Calabria): An ancient river in Bruttium. According to one theory, the name is of ancient Illyrian origin, related to the Indo-European root *lama- (‘swamp, puddle’).

Lamezia Terme (formerly Nicastro) (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 70,365 (2006e); 18,150 (1901).

Lamezia Terme, Diocese of:

Suffragans:

Metropolitan: Catanzaro – Squillace.

Conference Region: Calabria.

Area: 915 km²/ mi²

Total Population: 137,223.

Catholic Population:

Total Priests: 80 (Diocesan: 67; Religious: 13).

Permanent Deacons: 22

Male Religious:

Female Religious:

Parishes: 60.

History:

Lampedusa e Linosa (AG): A commune in the province of Agrigento. Population: 6,078 (2006e).

Lanbadusha: Arabic name for the island of Lampedusa.

Lanciano (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 36,306 (2006e). It is located 13 miles SE of Chieti.

Lanciano-Ortona, Archdiocese of:

Basic Information on the Archdiocese of Lanciano-Ortona (2004)

(Source: Catholic-hierarchy.org)

Ecclesiastical Conference

Region

Abruzzo-Molise

Metropolitan

Chieti-Vasto

Suffragans

Area

305 km² (117 mi²)

Total Population

90,855

Catholic Population

90,205

Total Priests

70

Diocesan Priests

37

Religious Priests

33

Permanent Deacons

3

Male Religious

36

Female Religious

91

Parishes

42

  • History: Diocese of Lanciano is erected on April 27, 1515.
  • Diocese of Lanciano is elevated to an Archdiocese on February 9, 1562.
  • The Diocese of Ortona is erected in 1570.
  • The Archdiocese of Lanciano and Diocese of Ortona are united as the Archdiocese of Lanciano (e Ortona) in 1834.
  • The Archdiocese of Lanciano (e Ortona) becomes the Archdiocese of Lanciano e Ortona on November 24, 1945.
  • The Archdiocese of Lanciano e Ortona becomes the Archdiocese of Lanciano-Ortona on September 30, 1986.

Landenulf of Capua: Bishop of Capua (r AD 879 – ?).

Landenulf I of Capua: Prince of Capua (r885-887).

Landenulf II of Capua: Prince of Capua (982-993).

Lando: Pope. (rJuly/Aug 913-Feb/Mar 914).

Lando I of Capua: Prince of Capua (r843-861).

Lando II of Capua: Prince of Capua (r861).

Lando III of Capua: Prince of Capua (r882-885).

Landolfo: (fl. early 11th Century). The son of Giovanni IV (Duke of Naples AD 999-1002), he was adopted by the infamous Marozia, senetrix of Rome.

Landolina, Giovanni Battista: (fl. late 17th / early 18th Centuries). Marchese di S. Alfano. Following the destruction of the Sicilian city of Noto in the great earthquake of 1693, he was responsible having the city rebuilt on a new site about 10 km from the original one. Working with three local architects, he designed the new city in a careful layout, structured as much on current socio-economics as practicality. Laid out on a hill, the wealthy aristocrats were given the highest elevations where they could enjoy the cleanest air and best views. The cathedral and its piazza mark the center of the town, while the districts for the poor classes stretched along the urban edges. In 1730, Giovanni’s son, Francesco, disregarded his father’s social town pattern by building his Palazzo Landolina at the town center beside the cathedral.

Landulf I of Capua: Prince of Capua (r840-843).

Landulf I of Capua: Bishop of Capua (r 843-879).

Landulf II of Benevento: See Landulf IV of Capua.

Landulf II of Capua (1): Prince of Capua (r863-879). He usurped the power in Capua from his nephew in 863.

Landulf II of Capua (2): Bishop of Capua (r 879-882; 882 – ?).

Landulf III of Capua: (). Prince of Capua (co-ruler 901-943). After the death of Atenulf I, he shared power with Atenulf II (r911-940), Landulf IV (r939 or 940-943), and Atenulf III Carinola (r933-943).

Landulf IV “the Red” of Capua: (d. 961). Prince of Capua (r939/940-961) and Prince of Benevento (as Landulf II) (r939/940-961). He was raised to power when his father made him co-ruler. Upon his father’s death he immediately sent his elder brother Atenulf to Benevento and his cousin Landulf to Capua. Both men, believing that they were going to be killed, fled to Guaimar II of Salerno. In modern times, Landulf has figured into the bizarre psychology of Adolf Hitler who believed that he was the reincarnation of Landulf.

Landulf V of Capua: Prince of Capua (959-968).

Landulf VI of Capua: Prince of Capua (968-982).

Landulf VII of Capua: Prince of Capua (999-1007).

Landulf VIII of Capua: Prince of Capua (1057-1058).

Langobardi: Italian name for the Lombards.

Lapio (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 1,702 (2006e).

Lappano (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 984 (2006e).

L’Aquila: (formerly Aquila, Aquila), Province of: A province (area: 2,485 mi² [5,034.6 km²]) in the region of Abruzzo. It produces cereal crops, flax, hemp and fruits.

Communes of L’Aquila Province

Commune

Area

(km²)

Population

(2007e)

Population

(2006e)

Population

(2001 census)

Population

(1991 census)

Acciano

32.36

380

396

401

538

Aielli

34.70

1460

1506

1477

1473

Alfedena

40.27

800

787

716

741

Anversa degli Abruzzi

31.78

400

409

431

439

Ateleta

41.69

1203

1227

1232

1371

Avezzano

104.04

40277

39705

38337

37179

Balsorano

58.01

3695

3706

3705

3643

Barete

24.33

662

664

633

635

Barisciano

78.56

1788

1787

1798

1768

Barrea

86.96

769

771

776

864

Bisegna

46.15

332

345

342

467

Bugnara

25.77

1072

1076

1035

1161

Cagnano Amiterno

60.24

1423

1431

1509

1685

Calascio

39.84

165

169

150

224

Campo di Giove

30.45

896

916

907

926

Campotosto

51.58

730

737

683

865

Canistro

15.78

1053

1050

1042

1018

Cansano

40.21

268

269

270

357

Capestrano

43.08

952

963

960

1141

Capistrello

60.85

5402

5456

5429

5597

Capitignano

30.63

662

666

689

742

Caporciano

18.29

255

265

265

324

Cappadocia

67.42

510

519

519

660

Carapelle Calvisio

14.48

90

92

95

125

Carsoli

95.27

5322

5243

5086

5068

Castel del Monte

57.83

480

507

527

707

Castel di Ieri

18.79

355

362

405

437

Castel di Sangro

84.05

5819

5798

5626

5475

Castellafiume

24.61

1105

1081

1049

987

Castelvecchio Calvisio

15.09

187

192

198

246

Castelvecchio Subequo

19.23

1141

1167

1241

1448

Celano

91.77

11050

11075

10975

10893

Cerchio

20.11

1716

1708

1669

1735

Civita d’Antino

29.11

1059

1082

1076

1065

Civitella Alfedena

29.50

316

310

280

299

Civitella Roveto

45.35

3378

3402

3330

3260

Cocullo

31.72

282

280

317

416

Collarmele

23.70

1005

1026

1055

1051

Collelongo

57.17

1404

1443

1514

1596

Collepietro

15.24

246

257

270

364

Corfinio

18.21

1030

1023

997

968

Fagnano Alto

24.48

446

452

446

499

Fontecchio

16.89

410

425

422

469

Fossa

8.63

673

673

661

630

Gagliano Aterno

33.36

316

312

314

396

Gioia dei Marsi

63.39

2274

2288

2284

2275

Goriano Sicoli

21.77

616

595

633

685

Introdacqua

36.97

2053

2027

1831

1675

L’Aquila

466.96

72222

71989

68503

66813

Lecce nei Marsi

65.98

1711

1731

1752

1699

Luco dei Marsi

44.59

5841

5811

5541

5347

Lucoli

109.74

972

963

944

1046

Magliano de’ Marsi

67.96

3827

3810

3540

3497

Massa d’Albe

68.47

1566

1567

1436

1291

Molina Aterno

11.84

429

432

463

554

Montereale

104.39

2722

2803

2930

3114

Morino

52.58

1519

1531

1545

1603

Navelli

42.12

614

616

625

700

Ocre

23.54

1063

1059

1020

984

Ofena

36.72

588

608

611

757

Opi

49.37

469

470

462

534

Oricola

18.40

1057

1037

950

897

Ortona dei Marsi

52.66

722

737

803

988

Ortucchio

35.62

1968

1971

1978

1931

Ovindoli

58.84

1263

1270

1200

1204

Pacentro

71.99

1269

1282

1279

1405

Pereto

41.11

738

721

704

637

Pescasseroli

92.54

2204

2225

2130

2207

Pescina

37.51

4437

4484

4506

4699

Pescocostanzo

52.25

1196

1202

1216

1285

Pettorano sul Gizio

62.38

1320

1314

1255

1293

Pizzoli

56.11

3402

3335

3047

2598

Poggio Picenze

11.62

1038

1036

1011

917

Prata d’Ansidonia

19.66

525

545

547

616

Pratola Peligna

28.27

7879

7892

7814

7939

Prezza

19.71

1060

1070

1092

1231

Raiano

29.10

2969

2977

2973

2726

Rivisondoli

31.65

717

726

686

792

Roccacasale

17.23

713

714

754

768

Rocca di Botte

29.77

746

690

522

449

Rocca di Cambio

27.62

487

498

447

447

Rocca di Mezzo

87.14

1544

1547

1426

1531

Rocca Pia

44.80

183

189

189

253

Roccaraso

49.95

1672

1690

1604

1668

San Benedetto dei Marsi

25.25

3977

4091

4006

3916

San Benedetto in Perillis

19.01

132

133

145

175

San Demetrio ne’ Vestini

16.33

1755

1695

1605

1553

San Pio delle Camere

17.27

586

583

554

554

Sante Marie

40.06

1291

1304

1342

1497

Sant’Eusanio Forconese

7.97

406

416

443

462

Santo Stefano di Sessanio

33.29

120

114

118

142

San Vincenzo Valle Roveto

43.37

2525

2555

2577

2757

Scanno

134.04

2048

2073

2133

2352

Scontrone

21.38

605

601

595

561

Scoppito

53.04

2927

2857

2757

2251

Scurcola Marsicana

30.01

2684

2669

2501

2332

Secinaro

32.05

438

441

480

558

Sulmona

58.33

25238

25307

25304

25454

Tagliacozzo

89.40

6820

6814

6532

6452

Tione degli Abruzzi

40.24

343

353

380

485

Tornimparte

65.87

3011

2966

2958

3016

Trasacco

51.41

6130

6143

5998

5956

Villalago

35.29

619

622

636

738

Villa Santa Lucia degli Abruzzi

27.67

174

185

206

305

Villa Sant’Angelo

5.26

436

432

431

480

Villavallelonga

73.44

949

961

1004

1070

Villetta Barrea

20.54

647

649

595

623

Vittorito

14.04

960

955

1012

1142

Total

5,034.46

305400

305101

297424

297838

L’Aquila (formerly Aquila, Aquila): A city and regional capital of Abruzzo. It is the  provincial capital of the province of L’Aquila. Population: 71,989 (2006e). Located about 55 miles NE of Rome, it is situated at the foot of the Gran Sasso d’Italia. It is the site of a 13th century cathedral. The economy is based in part on saffron-growing and lace-manufacturing.

                The city was founded in 1240 by Emperor Frederick II, on the site of ancient Amiternum, the birthplace of Sallust. It suffered from earthquakes in 1688, 1703, and 1706.

                The city grew in size and prosperity to become second in the kingdom of Naples only to the capital itself. At the height of its power in the early 16th century, it could field a militia of 15,000 armed men.

                Under the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, it was the capital of the province of Abruzzo Ultra. In 1856, the population was about 12,000. According to New American Cyclopaedia (1858 ed) it had 24 churches and “numerous monastic houses.”

Basic Information on the Metropolitan Archdiocese of L’Aquila (2004)

(Source: Catholic-hierarchy.org)

Ecclesiastical Conference

Region

Abruzzo-Molise

Metropolitan

Suffragans

Diocese of Avezzano

Diocese of Sulmona-Valva

Area

1,516 km² (585 mi²)

Total Population

108,300

Catholic Population

106,000

Total Priests

155

Diocesan Priests

121

Religious Priests

34

Permanent Deacons

2

Male Religious

48

Female Religious

287

Parishes

147

History: •  Diocese of L’Aquila erected on February 20, 1257.

•               Diocese of L’Aquila elevated to an Archdiocese on January 19, 1876.

•               Archdiocese of L’Aquila becomes a Metropolitan on August 15, 1972.

Laran (Larun): Etruscan god of war. He was often depicted as naked, holding a spear and wearing a helmet.

Larcii: An important family of ancient Rome. It was originally of Etruscan origins.

Larino (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 7,208 (2006e).

Larunda: an ancient Italic/Sabine goddess. An earth mother-goddess, some sources name her as the mother of the Lares. Her name is said to mean “may she cause the eath to turn green.”

La serpe: a long strip of cloud that occasionally lies against the southern base of Mount Etna. It is usually a portent of rain.

Lasa: A class of Etruscan goddesses or nymphs who watched over graves. They were often the companions of the love goddess Turun.

Lascari (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.

Laterza (TA): A commune in the province of Taranto.

Latiano (BR): A commune in the province of Brindisi. Population: 15,208 (2006e).

Latronico (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

Lattarico (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 4,414 (2006e).

Latymnus Mons: A mountain in ancient Bruttium, located near Croton.

Laureana Cilento (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Laureana di Borrello (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.

Laurenzana (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

Lauria (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

Laurino (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Lauro (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 3,629 (2006e).

Laus: A Greek city in ancient Lucania. Located near the mouth of the river Laus, it was founded by refugees from Sybaris following the destruction of that city in 510 BC. The city was short-lived and played no significant role in history. It was deserted by the time of Pliny (AD 1st Century). The modern town of (Marcellina di) Santa Maria del Cedro (CS) sits on the site of the ancient city.

Laus (mod. Lao), River: An ancient river on the southern Italian mainland. The river rises in the Lucanian Apennines and is a considerable stream throughout its length. It emptied into the Gulf of Laus (mod. Golfo di Policastro) near the modern town of Santa Maria del Cedro (CS). According to Pliny, Ptolemy and Strabo, it formed the boundary between ancient Lucania and Bruttium. The name of the river, and the associated Greek town, is believed to be related to the Indo-European root *lou(e)- (‘to wash’).

Lavello (anc. Labellum) (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza. Population:  (2006e).

Laverna: an ancient Italic goddess, queen of the underworld. It was a custom to pour libations to her using the left hand.

Laviano (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Lavinium: An ancient town of Bruttium, near the modern town of Scalea (CS). Because it was situated in the valley of the Laus river, it is believed that its name is name is derived from that waterway.

lazzaroni (sing. lazzarone) A derogatory term used for the lowest social and economic classes of Naples during the Spanish and Bourbon eras. These included street peddlers, porters, boatmen, beggers, and the masses of homeless. The term derives from lazzaro, an Italian word for “leper”, and seems to refer to the begger Lazarus mentioned in the parable of Christ. During medieval times lepers were required to wear short drawers and a hooded shirt. The costume was retained until the modern era by the lazzaroni. At the end of the 18th Century, when the lazzaroni formed an important and violent faction of supporters for the Bourbons, it was estimated that they numbered around 40,000.

left-handedness: The belief that left-handedness was considered evil or immoral is a survival from Roman times. Typically it was considered bad-luck to enter a building using the left foot first and left-handed people were viewed with suspicion. The Latin term for “left” (= sinister) has been borrowed by the English language as a negative word.

Lecce (anc. Lupiae)(LE): A commune and provincial capital in the province of Lecce. Population: 92,688 (2006e).

Lecce, Province of: A province of Puglia.

Population of the Province of Lecce

1871

493,594

1901

706,520

1936

1951

1961

1971

1981

1991

2001

2005

2006

2007

Communes of Lecce Province

Commune

Area

(km²)

Population

(2007e)

Population

(2006e)

Population

(2001 census)

Population

(1991 census)

Acquarica del Capo

18.37

4956

4944

4734

4779

Alessano

28.48

6591

6615

6556

6552

Alezio

16.53

5329

5233

5084

5162

Alliste

23.47

6611

6581

6054

6213

Andrano

15.47

5095

5118

5160

5112

Aradeo

8.51

9764

9779

9676

9688

Arnesano

13.47

3752

3709

3453

3451

Bagnolo del Salento

6.76

1884

1867

1858

1809

Botrugno

9.68

2954

2995

3046

3069

Calimera

11.14

7360

7351

7302

7328

Campi Salentina

45.11

10964

10981

11242

11594

Cannole

20.02

1773

1761

1765

1765

Caprarica di Lecce

10.82

2620

2673

2813

2968

Carmiano

23.66

12297

12325

12160

12176

Carpignano Salentino

48.04

3843

3868

3843

3889

Casarano

38.08

20457

20506

20579

20164

Castri di Lecce

12.22

3059

3077

3112

3058

Castrignano de’ Greci

9.52

4121

4164

4107

3985

Castrignano del Capo

20.27

5422

5423

5474

5314

Castro

4.44

2519

2525

2557

2421

Cavallino

22.34

11767

11667

10621

9314

Collepasso

12.68

6600

6638

6691

6874

Copertino

57.76

24303

24353

22294

23475

Corigliano d’Otranto

28.06

5779

5762

5633

5627

Corsano

9.08

5760

5754

5735

5345

Cursi

8.18

4203

4166

4122

4190

Cutrofiano

55.72

9190

9250

9089

9577

Diso

11.56

3186

3201

3298

3372

Gagliano del Capo

16.14

5465

5484

5660

5764

Galatina

81.62

27636

27659

28081

29296

Galatone

46.54

15905

15884

15895

16153

Gallipoli

40.35

21201

21204

20266

20090

Giuggianello

10.06

1229

1232

1286

1320

Giurdignano

13.75

1811

1802

1793

1750

Guagnano

37.79

6027

6050

6193

6629

Lecce

238.39

93529

92688

83303

100884

Lequile

36.36

8313

8272

7946

7645

Leverano

48.77

14053

14004

13914

13526

Lizzanello

25.01

10862

10709

10161

9321

Maglie

22.36

15099

15195

15255

15223

Martano

21.84

9565

9588

9516

9594

Martignano

6.35

1777

1784

1770

1846

Matino

26.28

11658

11620

11615

11370

Melendugno

91.06

9649

9667

9307

8789

Melissano

12.42

7446

7488

7448

7124

Melpignano

10.93

2223

2234

2209

2156

Miggiano

7.64

3662

3678

3753

3666

Minervino di Lecce

17.88

3874

3881

3949

4113

Monteroni di Lecce

16.49

13715

13757

13677

13382

Montesano Salentino

8.47

2751

2754

2765

2626

Morciano di Leuca

13.39

3485

3489

3512

3521

Muro Leccese

16.54

5169

5158

5267

5173

Nardò

190.48

30886

30723

30520

31490

Neviano

16.06

5648

5673

5925

6330

Nociglia

10.90

2560

2593

2669

2766

Novoli

17.77

8324

8352

8484

8771

Ortelle

9.95

2459

2476

2489

2520

Otranto

76.15

5481

5492

5282

5114

Palmariggi

8.78

1584

1586

1603

1622

Parabita

20.84

9424

9345

9557

10039

Patù

8.54

6144

1732

1747

1696

Poggiardo

19.80

15099

6165

6075

6071

Porto Cesareo

34.67

5273

5120

4419

4044

Presicce

24.09

5669

5702

5629

5794

Racale

24.47

10696

10657

10321

9978

Ruffano

38.82

9645

9597

9530

10092

Salice Salentino

59.00

8829

8861

8863

8963

Salve

32.79

4612

4599

4556

4524

Sanarica

12.75

1462

1471

1446

1495

San Cassiano

8.61

2177

2192

2223

2263

San Cesario di Lecce

7.98

8097

7992

7357

7351

San Donato di Lecce

21.16

5837

5769

5718

5641

Sannicola

27.32

6034

6025

6152

6414

San Pietro in Lama

7.93

3696

3715

3733

3788

Santa Cesarea Terme

26.45

3110

3076

3095

3014

Scorrano

34.85

6955

6887

6755

6671

Seclì

8.65

1971

1945

1909

1808

Sogliano Cavour

5.17

4141

4146

4078

4061

Soleto

29.95

5579

5551

5537

5338

Specchia

24.74

4981

5003

4937

4966

Spongano

12.13

3824

3832

3814

3850

Squinzano

29.28

2548

15040

15355

15821

Sternatia

16.51

4452

2583

2699

2811

Supersano

36.19

1730

4469

4602

4651

Surano

8.85

14071

1755

1791

1800

Surbo

20.34

12594

13842

12729

10560

Taurisano

23.32

12759

12525

12436

11842

Taviano

21.18

2888

12678

12506

12322

Tiggiano

7.50

14553

2896

2871

2628

Trepuzzi

23.67

17889

14525

14147

14380

Tricase

42.64

5241

17909

17386

16390

Tuglie

8.40

11941

5299

5308

5601

Ugento

98.72

4311

11836

10824

11301

Uggiano la Chiesa

14.33

14271

4286

4341

4454

Veglie

61.35

7524

14259

14022

13639

Vernole

60.57

2116

7535

7592

7792

Zollino

9.89

3696

2143

2194

2279

Total

2,759.41

808939

807,424

787,825

803,977

Lecce, Metropolitan Archdiocese of: A Metropolitan archdiocese in the ecclesiastical region of Puglia.

Suffragans: Brindisi–Ostuni, Nardò–Gallipoli, Otranto, Ugento–Santa Maria di Leuca.

Metropolitan:

Conference Region: .

Area: km²/ mi²):

Total Population:.

Catholic Population:

Total Priests: (Diocesan: ; Religious:)

Permanent Deacons:

Male Religious:

Female Religious:

Parishes:.

History:

                Diocese of Lecce established in 1057.

                Promoted to a Metropolitan Archdiocese on Oct. 20, 1980.

Lecce nei Marsi (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 1,731 (2006e).

Leni (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

Lent Traditions: In the Abruzzo region, it is a tradition to cut a paper figure of an old woman with 7 feet. The figure is meant to represent Lent, and is hung on the chimney on Ash Wednesday, 7 weeks before Easter. As each week passed, a member of the family, usually a child, cuts off one of the figure’s feet.

                A long-held Lenten tradition consists of a cord being stretched on Ash Wednesday from one window to another, at the center of which is hug a figure made of rope and rags. The figure is decorated with 7 features and holds a spindle and distaff in its hands. Elsewhere on the same cord are hung a herring, garlic, an onion, a bit of charcoal (or dried cod-fish). All of these are symbolic of the traditional Lenten meal. As this decoration is being created and hung, the makers repeat a rhyme:

Quarésema puverella.

Va dicendo pe’ la terra:

Chi me da’ ‘na fuglitélla?

E noglie, noglie?

Chi mi da’ dù far’ ammoglie?

Chi mi da’ la stuppetélla

Pe’ fa’ fila’ quarésema puverella?”

Poor old Lent

Goes wandering o’er the earth, a-crying:

Who will give me a drop of wine?

Who, but who?

Who will give me wherewithal to wed?

Who will give a strand of hemo

For poor old Lent to spin?

Source: Antiquary Magazine vol.36. Jan-Dec. 1900 p.200

Every Sunday one of the feathers is removed from the central figure, and on Holy Saturday, as the churchbells ring, the figures are ritualistically burned as everyone rejoices.

                An old tradition is found in the town of Roccacaramanico, in the province of Pescara. On Good Friday, 24 young men of the town are chosen to represent ancient Roman centurions. Half of the group dresses in red tunics, and the rest in green. They all carry lances and wear helmets. In a double line, and with great solemnity, the “soldiers” slowly march through the town to the parish church. On the lowest step of the church’s altar is placed the figure of Christ, having been earlier taken down from the cross and laid on cushions. The red tuniced “Romans” then enter the church, march around the nave, and then take up positions as sentinels around the figure of Christ. The green-tuniced detachment remains outside of the church as though standing guard. After an hour the two detachments switch places. This is repeated for the remainder of the day and throughout the night until dawn of Holy Saturday. It is believed that this is a survival of sacred play which originated in medieval times.

Lentella (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 439 (2006e).

Lentini (SR): A commune in the province of Siracusa, located 24 miles NW of Siracusa. Population: 24,356 (2006e).

Leo I, St: Pope. (r September 29, 440-Nov 10, 461).

Leo II, St.: Pope. (rDec 681-July 3, 683).

Leo III: Pope. (rDec 26, 795-June 12, 816).

Leo IV, St.: Pope. (rJan. 847-July 17, 855).

Leo V: Pope. (rJuly-Sept 903).

Leo VI: Pope. (rMay-Dec 928).

Leo VII: Pope. (rJan 3, 936-July 13, 939).

Leo VIII: Pope. (rJuly 964-Mar 1, 965).

Leo IX, St.: Pope. (rFeb 12, 1049-Apr. 19, 1054).

Leo X: Pope. (rMar 9, 1513-Dec 1, 1531).

Leo XI: Pope. (rApr. 1-Apr 27, 1605).

Leo XII: Pope. (rSept. 28, 1823-Feb 10, 1829).

Leo XIII: Pope. (rFeb 20, 1878-July 20, 1903).

Leo, Leonardo: (b. 5 August 1694, San Vito Degli Schiavi. d. 31 October 1744, Naples). Composer.

Leoncavallo, Ruggiero: (b. 8 March 1857, Naples. d. 9 August 1919, Montecatini). Composer.

Leonforte (EN): A commune in the province of Enna. Population: 13,993 (2006e).

Leontini: ancient city, E Sicily, c.20 mi (32 km) S of Catania. It was founded (729 B.C.) as a colony of Chalcidian Greeks from the island of Naxos and, in the 5th century BC, passed under the rule of Syracuse. It was the legendary home of the Laestrygonians, a group of giants encountered by Odysseus. The site of ancient Leontini is now occupied by modern Lentini.

Leotiskos: an athlete of ancient Messene in Sicily. He was victor in wrestling at the Olympian Games in 456 BC and 452 BC.

Leontius (1): (fl. mid-7th century). Ecclesiastic. Bishop of Naples. He was present at the Lateran synod of AD 649. He held the see of Naples for 4 years.

Leontius (2): (fl. 2nd half of the 8th century). Ecclesiastic. Bishop of Bari. He was present at the 2nd Council of Nicaea in AD 787.

Leontius (3): (fl. late 6th/early 7th centuries). Byzantine official. After serving as Consul or Quaestor in Sicily, he remained an important figure. He received a number of letters from Pope Gregory I between AD 598 and 601.

Leonymus: A mythological Greek king of Croton, in southern Italy who made war on neighboring Locri. According to Pausanias [3.19.12ff], he was wounded in battle by the ghost of the hero Ajax the Greater, who was fight on behalf of the Locrians. When the wound failed to heal, Leonymus went to Delphi to consult the oracle of Delphi. There he was told that he must travel to the mystical island of Leuke (the White Island). Here, it was said, that the souls of dead heroes dwelt, and here he had to seek out Ajax, for only he could cure the wound which he had inflicted. Leonymus found the White Island at the mouth of the River Ister (Danube) and was said to become the first living man to set foot there. Ajax agreed to heal him and while there, Leonymus also saw the shades of Ajax the Lesser, of Helen (who had wed Achilles in the afterlife), Patroclus, and Antilochus.

Leporano (TA): A commune in the province of Taranto.

Lequile (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 8,272 (2006e).

Lercara Friddi (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.

Lesina (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 6,278 (2006e).

Letino (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population: 798 (2006e).

Letojanni (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

Lettere (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.

Lettopalena (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 392 (2006e).

Leucothea: In classical mythology, one of the Sirens. She had cult centers located in the cities of Neapolis (Naples) and Velia, in Magna Graecia.

Levanzo (anc. Phorbantia; Bucinna): One of the principal islands of the Isole Egadi, off the west coast of Sicily. Its highest point is 850 feet.

Leverano (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 14,004 (2006e).

Lex municipalis Tarentina: A municipal charter of the city of Tarentum (mod. Taranto) dating from the 1st Century BC. The surviving portion of the charter contains provisions about the responsibilities of municipal magistrates, building regulations, etc.

Liber: Originally an ancient Italic god of animal and vegetation fertility god, he later came to a wine god similar to the Greek Dionysus. His festival on March 17 marked the day when Roman youths assumed the toga virilus, the symbol of adulthood. He was the son of Ceres and brother of Libera.

Libera: An ancient Italic underworld (chthonic) goddess. She was the daughter of Ceres and sister of Liber, with whose worship she was usually connected. She was often identified with Persephone,

Liberi (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population: 1,184 (2006e).

Liberius: Pope. (rMay 17, 352-Sept 24, 366).

Librizzi (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

Licata (AG): A commune in the province of Agrigento. Population: 39,091 (2006e).

Licinii: An important gens (clan) of ancient Rome. It was originally of Etruscan origins. The triumvir Marcus Licinius Crassus (d. 53 BC), the conqueror of Spartacus, belonged to this gens.

Licodia Eubea (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 3,212 (2006e).

Ligorio, Pirro: (b. c1510, Naples. d. 1583, Ferrara). Architect, painter, art writer and antique dealer. He was living in Rome in 1534, where he was creating paintings depicting historical events. In 1568, he moved to the court of Este in Ferrara.Principal Works:Paintings:Excavations of the Villa Adriana in the city of Tivoli- 1549.Books:Libro delle antichita’ di Roma- 1553.Architecture-Villa d’Este in Tivoli- (1550-1572).Casino di Pio IV in Rome (1559-1562).Palazzo Torres-Lancellotti- Rome.Niche of the courtyard of Belvedere- Rome.

Liguori (or Ligorio), St. Alfonso Maria de: b. Sept. 26, 1696, at Marianella, near Naples; d. Aug. 1, 1787, at Nocera de Pagani.

Lilybaeum, Cape: ancient name for the westernmost corner of Sicily.

Lilybaeum: ancient city of Sicily, on the extreme western coast. It is the modern Marsala. It was founded (396 B.C.) by Carthage and became a stronghold. In the First Punic War it resisted a long Roman siege (250-242 B.C.). Rome finally captured the city in 241 BC and later used it as a base for the African campaign of Scipio Africanus Major. The city was famous for its harbor.

Limatola (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 3,750 (2006e).

Limbadi (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.

Limina (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

Limosano (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 894 (2006e).

Linguaglossa (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 5,365 (2006e).

Linus, St.: Pope (rAD 67-76). He was a native of Tuscany.

Lioni (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 6,289 (2006e).

Lipara: The principal island of the Aeoliae Insulae.

Lipareae: See Aeoliae Insulae.

Lipari (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

Lipari (anc. Lipareae): (area: 37.6 km²). The principal island of the Isole Eolie (Lipari Islands).

Lipari Islands: Also known as Isole Eolie. A chain of volcanic islands in the Mediterranean to the N of Sicily. According to legend, the ancient name, Lipara, derives from that of Liparus, a mythical king of the islands. A less-romantic theory states that the name comes from the Greek word liparos (= “fat” or “rich”).

Lira (Neapolitan): The principal currency used in the Kingdom of Naples in 1812-1813 under Murat. It was subdivided into 100 centesimi and was equal to 1 French franc. Minted as a silver coin, its name derived from the Latin libra = pound.

lire: a 3-stringed bowed fiddle, played on the knee. It is found mostly in Calabria.

Liris (mod. Garigliano): A river in central Italy. Rising near the Fucinus lacus, it flows SSE to Sora, and then turns sharply to the SSW. At Isola dei Liri, its flows cascades and finally  flows through marshy ground at Minturnae to enter the Tyrrhenian Sea.

Liscia (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 805 (2006e).

Liternum (mod. Lago di Patria): A Roman colony founded in 194 BC in the Liternum Patria, 8 km N of Cumae. It is known that P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus retired to a villa located. Although Livy, in the 1st century AD, wrote that the colony had failed by his time, archaeological evidence contradicts him and seems to show that it survived until the 3rd century AD. The construction of the Via Domitia, in the late AD 1st century, brought the town a brief period of prosperity. The advance of malarial marshes led to the town’s ultimate decline.

Liternum Patria: An ancient district along the northern coast of Campania. The Greeks established Kyme (Cumae), their first colony on the Italian mainland, here.

Liveri (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.

Lizzanello (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 10,709 (2006e).

Lizzano (TA): A commune in the province of Taranto.

Locorotondo (BA): A commune in the province of Bari: Population: 14,042 (2006e).

Locri (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.

Locri – Gerace, Diocese of:

Suffragans:

Metropolitan: Reggio Calabria – Bova

Conference Region: Calabria

Area: 1,248 km²/ mi²

Total Population: 131,005.

Catholic Population:

Total Priests: 80 (Diocesan: 56; Religious: 24)

Permanent Deacons: 2

Male Religious:

Female Religious:

Parishes: 74

History:

Locri Epizephyrii (Lokroi Epizephyrioi): A city of ancient Bruttium. During the 7th century BC, a colony was established by Opuntian Greeks from Lokri on a site 85 km NE of modern Reggio Calabria. This city was the site where the lawgiver Zaleucus created what is often thought to be the earliest written Greek law code. The governement supported by this constutution was a hereditary oligarchic in nature.

                Once securely established the Locrians began to send out their own colonies in the 6th century BC. These colonies, medma, Hipponium, and Metaurus, never attained any real level of independence, remaining largely dependent on Locri throughout their history.  Politically, Locri was closely allied with Syracuse and supported the latter during the Athenian expedition of 415-13 BC. They provided aid to Dionysius I during his operations in southern Italy. In 356 BC, after giving asylum to Dionysius II, it was seized by him for a time. After Dionysius returned to Syracuse, the Locrians regained control of their city and brutally killed Dionysius’s family who had remained there. A constitutional government was reestablished. From 280 to 270 BC, Locri established an alliance with Pyrrhus, donating treasure from their sanctuary of Zeus to finance his campaigns. After Pyrrhus withdrew from Italy, Locri formed an alliance with Rome which continued until the Secord Punic War. In 214 BC, the Locrians threw their support to Hannibal until, in 208 BC, control of the city was siezed by a pro-Roman faction. This allowed the city to escape severe reprisal when Rome emerged victorious. For several centuries under the Romans, Locri flourished as a municipium. It was only as the empire declined that Lorci began to suffer. During the 5th century AD the ancient city was finally abandoned.

loggia: a roofed gallery or balcony.

Lokroi Epizephyrioi: See Locri Epizephyrii.

Lollia Gens: An ancient Roman plebian gens. Not appearing in history until the last decades of the Republic, it is believed to have been of Sabine or Samnite origins. The first member of this gens to attain the consulship was M. Lollius in 21 BC.

Lollius (1): (fl. 3rd Century BC) A Samnite, he was held at Rome as a hostage after the Pyrrhic War. Escaping, he became the leader of a band of brigands and seized control of the stronghold of Caricinum in Samnium. He used this fortress as a base of operations for raiding the countryside. In 269 BC, he was defeated and his stronghold captured by the Romans under Q. Ogulnius Gallus and C. Fabius Pictor.

Lollius, Quintus (2): (fl. 2nd – 1st Centuries BC). A Roman knight (eques) living in Sicily. Nearly 90 years old when Verres served as governor of Sicily (73-71 BC), he was victimized by the governor’s assistant Q. Apronius. When Cicero later prosecuted Verres for his crimes, Lollius was too feeble to testify, but his son Marcus Lollius served as his agent. Another of his sons, Quintus Lollius, while gathering evidence to use against Verres in Sicily, was murdered on the road. It was generally believed that the act was done by assassins hired by Verres but there is no evidence that anyone was ever officially prosecuted.

Lombards: (It. Longobardi). A Teutonic people of Scandinavian origins. After a period of settlement in the area of the lower Danube, they invaded Byzantine-held Italy in the spring of AD 568. The name, usually translated as “Long Beards”, is a combination of two Germanic words lang ( = long) and bart ( = beard). Some researchers, however, believe that the second root is actually barta( = ax), thus changing the meaning of the name to “long axes”, referring to a favorite weapon of the Lombards.

Longano (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia. Population: 719 (2006e).

Longi (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

Longobardi: See Lombards.

Longobardi (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 2,295 (2006e).

Longobucco (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 4,077 (2006e).

Loreto Aprutino (PE): A commune in the province of Pescara, located 4 miles from Chieti.

Losna: Etruscan goddess of the moon.

Louis: King of Sicily (Trinacria) (r1342-1355).

Louis I of Anjou: (b. July 23, 1339, Château de Vincennes, France; d. Sept. 20, 1384, Biseglia Castle near Bari). King of Naples and Jerusalem (r1382-1384); Count of Anjou (1356–1360), Duke of Anjou (1360–1384), Count of Maine (1356–1384), Duke of Touraine (1370–1384), and Count of Provence and Forcalquier (1382–1384). He was the second son of King John II of France and Bonne de Luxembourg. After the French defeat by the English at the Battle of Poitiers (1356), Louis became a hostage and was sent to England in October 1360. He managed to escape and return to France, but was sent back by his father who considered his getaway to be dishonorable.

                Between 1380 and 1382 he served as regent of France for his nephew Charles VI. Having been adopted as the heir of Queen Joanna I of Naples, Louis seized control of the counties of Provence and Forcalquier after Joanna’s overthrown and execution (May 12, 1382). He left France in an attempt to secure his claim to Naples, but could not oust Charles of Durazzo, who became King Charles III. Louis died in Bari and his claim to Naples was inherited by his son Louis II.

Louis II of Anjou: (b. 1377; d. Apr. 29, 1417). King of Naples (r1390-1399) in opposition to Ladislaus (r1386-1414). He was the son of Louis I of Anjou, whose claim to the throne of Naples he inherited. On Nov. 1, 1389, he was crowned King of Naples by the antipope Clement VIII. Louis entered Naples in 1390 and held the city until Ladislaus recovered it in 1399. He would continue his contest with Ladislaus, driving the latter out of Rome in 1409. In the following year, Louis allied himself with the antipope John XXIII against Ladislaus. He was able to defeat his rival in battle at Roccasecca in 1411, but was never able to retake the Neapolitan throne. Retiring back into his French holdings, he died in 1417, and his claim to Naples passed to his son Louis III.

Lucania: ancient region of S Italy. It had an area of about 3,900 sq. miles. It was bounded on the east by the Gulf of Tarentum (now Taranto) and by Apulia, on the north by Samnium and Campania, on the west by the Tyrrhenian Sea, and on the south by Bruttium. Italic tribes and Greek colonists lived there before the Roman conquest in the 3d cent. B.C. Their chief cities were Heraclea and Metapontum on the Gulf of Tarentum and Paestum and Buxentum on the Tyrrhenian coast. The non-Greek Lucanians were Samnites. The western portion of ancient Lucania is now in Campania; the larger eastern part is in Basilicata.

Lucanians (Lucani): An ancient Indo-European Oscan-speaking people of southern Italy. The few Lucanian inscriptions which still survive are relatively late (4th-3rd centuries BC) and written using a Greek alphabet.

It is known that the Lucanians moved south into “Oenotria” in the middle of the 5th century BC, driving the native Oenotrians, Chones, and Lauternoi, into the mountainous interior of the peninsula. The expansion southward eventually brought the Lucanians into direct conflict with the Greeks of Taras (Tarentum). The Tarentines utilized allies such as Alexander of Epirus to fight their wars with varying success.

The initial contact between the Lucanians and the Romans was on good terms.

Lucca Sicula (AG): A commune in the province of Agrigento. Population: 2,016 (2006e).

Lucera (anc. Luceria) (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 35,017 (2006e).

Luceria: A city of ancient Apulia, the modern Lucera (FG). Situated on the borders of Samnium and Apulia, it first appeared in history in 315/4 BC as a Samnite stronghold captured by the Romans. A Latin colony was established on the site, which was renewed by Augustus. It was during the reign of Augustus that a fine amphitheater was contructed on the site.

                Luceria survived the collapse of the western Empire and maintained enough local importance to have a strong citadel constructed there in medieval times.

Lucia (Lucy), St.: (date uncertain). Christian martyr. Many scholars believe that she is only semi-historical, if not completely fictitious, in nature. According to her legend, she was a native of the Sicilian city of Syracuse. When she took a vow of chastity and dedicated her life to Christ, her mother tried to arrange a marriage for her to a pagan. The mother immediately became seriously ill and Lucia prayed to St. Agatha to cure her. When the mother recovered she consented to Lucia’s wishes to break-off the unwanted marriage contract. The rejected bridegroom became so incensed that he denounced Lucy as a Christian to the Roman authorities. The Roman governor first attempted to convince her to renounce her faith but when this proved futile he condemned her to become a prostitute. When the guards came to take her away, however, she miraculously became so heavy that she could not be lifted. Her sentence was then changed to be tortured and executed. In one version of her story, it is stated that while being tortured, her eyes were put out. Because of this, she became the patron saint of the blind and those with eye disorders. Feast Day: Dec. 13.

Lucilius, Caius: (b. 148 BC in Suessa Aurunca; d. 103 BC in Naples). Latin poet. As a youth he joined the Roman army and served under the younger Scipio in Spain. He is believed to have been a maternal great-uncle of the triumvir Pompey the Great. Lucilius had an important influence on Latin poetry and is considered the first important writer of Roman satire. Many fragments of his workers have survived though few are of any length.

Lucito (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 857 (2006e).

Lucius I, St.: Pope. (r June 25, 253-March 5, 254).

Lucius II: Pope. (rMar 12, 1144-Mar 15, 1145).

Lucius III: Pope. (rSept 1, 1181-Nov 25, 1185).

Luco dei Marsi (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 5,811 (2006e).

Lucoli (AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila. Population: 963 (2006e).

Lucrino, Lago (anc. Lucrinus lacus): A lake in Campania, separated from the sea by a narrow strip of land, which, according to tradition, was created by the hero Hercules. Since ancient times, the lake was famous for its oysters.

Lucy, St.: See St. Lucia.

Lungro (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 2,966 (2006e).

Lungro, Eparchate of:

Suffragans:

Metropolitan: Immediately subject to the Holy See.

Conference Region: Calabria

Area: 493 km²/ mi²

Total Population: 33,086

Catholic Population:

Total Priests: 34 (Diocesan: 32; Religious: 2)

Permanent Deacons: 1.

Male Religious:

Female Religious:

Parishes: 29.

History:

Luogosano (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 1,244 (2006e).

Lupara (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 601 (2006e).

Lupiae (LE): Ancient name for the city of Lecce.

Lurs: An obscure Etruscan god about which little is known.

Lusciano (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population: 13,636 (2006e).

Lustitieratus Aprutii: A small state in the Abruzzi created by Frederick II in the 13th Century. It was centered of the city of Sulmona.

Lustra (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Luzzi (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 10,102 (2006e).

Lygdamis: An athlete of ancient Syracuse. He was victor in the pankration at the Olympian Games in 648 BC.

Lykinos: an athlete of ancient Kroton. He was victor in the Stadion at the Olympian Games in 584 BC.