Encyclopedia of Southern Italy – I


Iapyges (Iapygians)
: An ancient Indo-European people of Illyrian origin related to the Messapii, who inhabited the heel of Italy prior to their absorption by the Romans. The Messapii can, in fact, be considered the southernmost Iapygian tribe.
Idrisi (sometimes Edrisi), Abu Abdullah Mohammed ben Mohammed: (b. Spain, 1099). Muslim scholar and geographer. He spent many years at the court of the Norman king Roger II at Palermo where, in c1150, he created a giant silver globe of the world showing the latest geographical knowledge to that time. He also composed an accompanying volume in Arabic. From the description of this globe and volume, it appears that Idrisi had knowledge of the African lakes which formed the sources of the Nile.
Ikkos: an athlete of ancient Taras. He was victor in the Pentathlon at the Olympian Games in 444 BC.
Inarime: Ancient name for Ischia.
Innocent I, St.: Pope. (rDec 22, 401-March 12, 417).
Innocent II: Pope. (rFeb 14, 1130-Sept 24, 1143).
Innocent III: Pope. (rJan 8, 1198-July 16, 1216).
Innocent IV: Pope. (rJune 25, 1243- Dec 7, 1254).
Innocent V: Pope. (rJan 21-June 22, 1276).
Innocent VI: Pope. (rDec 18, 1352-Sept 12, 1362).
Innocent VII: Pope. (rOct 17, 1404-Nov 6, 1406).
Innocent VIII: Pope. (rAug 29, 1484-July 25, July 25, 1492).
Innocent IX: Pope. (rOct 29-Dec 30, 1591).
Innocent X: Pope. (rSept 15, 1644-Jan 7, 1655).
Innocent XI: Pope. (rSept 21, 1676-Aug 11/12, 1689).
Innocent XII: (original name: Antonio Pignatelli del Rastrello). (b. March 13, 1616, in Spinazzola; d. Sept. 27, 1700, Rome). Pope (rJuly 12, 1691- Sept 27, 1700). Having served as Apostolic Nuncio to Poland and Austria, he became a cardinal in 1681. He served as archbishop of Lecce in 1671 and archbishop of Naples (1686-1691) before being elected pope in 1691.
Innocent XIII: Pope. (rMay 8, 1721-Mar. 7, 1724).
Inscripition Painter: (fl. 570 BC – 530 BC). Vase-Painter. A Greek artist centered at Rhegion (modern Reggio di Calabria). He was the founder and leading artist of the Chalcidian School of vase-painting. Working in the black-figure technique, the Inscription Painter decorated mostly large vases: amphorai, hydriai, and kraters. He was very careful to coordinate the shape of the vase with its decoration. His style is marked by the use of large areas of added red and white, little inner detail on the figures, and a balance of light and dark areas. His style was influenced by those of Athens, Corinth, and Ionian Greece. His name derives from the inscriptions he added to his works.

Intenente: A provincial governor under the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. These officials were appointed by the king and served for a period of three years. The Indendente exercised power over the civil, financial, and military administration of his province. Supporting the Intenente was a secretary and a council, although the number of councilors depended on the importance of the province.: first class (Napoli, Terra di Lavoro, Principato Citra): 5 members; second class (Principato Ultra, Basilicata, Capitanata, Terra di Bari, Terra d’Otranto, Calabria Citra, Calabria Ultra II): 4 members; third class (Calabria Ultra I, Molise, Abruzzi): 3 members.
Interamia Praetutiorum: Ancient name for Teramo. Located in southern Picenum, at the confluence of the rivers Vezzola and Tordino, it was originally founded by the Praetutii.
Introdacqua (AQ): A commune in the province of L‘Aquila. Population: 2,027 (2006e).
investiture: the appointment of bishops and archbishops in the Roman Catholic Church.

Iolaus: A figure in ancient Greek mythology, he was a kinsman and companion of Heracles. He is usually identified asbeing the son of Iphicles, the half-brother of Heracles. A hero-cult developed around Iolaus at Thebes and in mainland Greece which was brought west by Greek colonists. Cult centers to Iolaus have been identified in Sardinia and Sicily.

Ionadi (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.
Iron Age: Archaeological period, dating in Sicily from 900 to 734 BC.
Irsina (MT): A commune in the province of Matera. Population: 5,484 (2006e).
Isca sullo Ionio (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 1,571 (2006e).
Ischia: (anc. Aenaria, Pithekoussai, Pithecusa, Inarime) (NA). An island is situated off the coast of Campania, at the NW end of the Gulf of Naples. The earliest inhabitants on the island established themselves during the Bronze Age. A settlement existed on Mt. Epomaeus which traded with the Mycenaeans. The earliest Greek colony in Italy was established here by settlers from Eretria and Chalkis in the early 8th Century BC. Soon afterwards Greeks from this colony founded Kyme (Cumae) on the mainland (which, in turn, founded Neapolis [Naples]). Both of these settlements were ideally placed to facilitate trade with the Etruscans located to the north. There have been a number theories related to the origins of Ischia’s ancient names. Pliny explained that the Greek name Pithekoussai (Pithecusa) derived from the local clay deposits, while the Latin name Aenaria was connected with the story of Aeneas’s landing. It has also been speculated that the latter name may have derived from the abundant copper (Lat. aeneus= “made of copper”) from there. Eventually the Greek colony on the island was abandoned because of seismic and volcanic dangers. It eventually came under the control of the Greek city of Neapolis (Naples) and became a noted center for ceramics, fruit and fine wine. The seismic/volcanic nature of the island has led to it sometimes being identified with Homer’s land of the Arimi, the site where the monstrous Typhon (Typhoeus) lies buried.