Encyclopedia of Southern Italy – I

I


Iapyges (Iapygians)
: An ancient Indo-European people of Illyrian origin related to the Messapii, who inhabited the heel of Italy prior to their absorption by the Romans. The Messapii can, in fact, be considered the southernmost Iapygian tribe.
Idrisi (sometimes Edrisi), Abu Abdullah Mohammed ben Mohammed: (b. Spain, 1099). Muslim scholar and geographer. He spent many years at the court of the Norman king Roger II at Palermo where, in c1150, he created a giant silver globe of the world showing the latest geographical knowledge to that time. He also composed an accompanying volume in Arabic. From the description of this globe and volume, it appears that Idrisi had knowledge of the African lakes which formed the sources of the Nile.
Ikkos: an athlete of ancient Taras. He was victor in the Pentathlon at the Olympian Games in 444 BC.
Inarime: Ancient name for Ischia.
Innocent I, St.: Pope. (rDec 22, 401-March 12, 417).
Innocent II: Pope. (rFeb 14, 1130-Sept 24, 1143).
Innocent III: Pope. (rJan 8, 1198-July 16, 1216).
Innocent IV: Pope. (rJune 25, 1243- Dec 7, 1254).
Innocent V: Pope. (rJan 21-June 22, 1276).
Innocent VI: Pope. (rDec 18, 1352-Sept 12, 1362).
Innocent VII: Pope. (rOct 17, 1404-Nov 6, 1406).
Innocent VIII: Pope. (rAug 29, 1484-July 25, July 25, 1492).
Innocent IX: Pope. (rOct 29-Dec 30, 1591).
Innocent X: Pope. (rSept 15, 1644-Jan 7, 1655).
Innocent XI: Pope. (rSept 21, 1676-Aug 11/12, 1689).
Innocent XII: (original name: Antonio Pignatelli del Rastrello). (b. March 13, 1616, in Spinazzola; d. Sept. 27, 1700, Rome). Pope (rJuly 12, 1691- Sept 27, 1700). Having served as Apostolic Nuncio to Poland and Austria, he became a cardinal in 1681. He served as archbishop of Lecce in 1671 and archbishop of Naples (1686-1691) before being elected pope in 1691.
Innocent XIII: Pope. (rMay 8, 1721-Mar. 7, 1724).
Inscripition Painter: (fl. 570 BC – 530 BC). Vase-Painter. A Greek artist centered at Rhegion (modern Reggio di Calabria). He was the founder and leading artist of the Chalcidian School of vase-painting. Working in the black-figure technique, the Inscription Painter decorated mostly large vases: amphorai, hydriai, and kraters. He was very careful to coordinate the shape of the vase with its decoration. His style is marked by the use of large areas of added red and white, little inner detail on the figures, and a balance of light and dark areas. His style was influenced by those of Athens, Corinth, and Ionian Greece. His name derives from the inscriptions he added to his works.

Intenente: A provincial governor under the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. These officials were appointed by the king and served for a period of three years. The Indendente exercised power over the civil, financial, and military administration of his province. Supporting the Intenente was a secretary and a council, although the number of councilors depended on the importance of the province.: first class (Napoli, Terra di Lavoro, Principato Citra): 5 members; second class (Principato Ultra, Basilicata, Capitanata, Terra di Bari, Terra d’Otranto, Calabria Citra, Calabria Ultra II): 4 members; third class (Calabria Ultra I, Molise, Abruzzi): 3 members.
Interamia Praetutiorum: Ancient name for Teramo. Located in southern Picenum, at the confluence of the rivers Vezzola and Tordino, it was originally founded by the Praetutii.
Introdacqua (AQ): A commune in the province of L‘Aquila. Population: 2,027 (2006e).
investiture: the appointment of bishops and archbishops in the Roman Catholic Church.

Iolaus: A figure in ancient Greek mythology, he was a kinsman and companion of Heracles. He is usually identified asbeing the son of Iphicles, the half-brother of Heracles. A hero-cult developed around Iolaus at Thebes and in mainland Greece which was brought west by Greek colonists. Cult centers to Iolaus have been identified in Sardinia and Sicily.

Ionadi (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.
Iron Age: Archaeological period, dating in Sicily from 900 to 734 BC.
Irsina (MT): A commune in the province of Matera. Population: 5,484 (2006e).
Isca sullo Ionio (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 1,571 (2006e).
Ischia: (anc. Aenaria, Pithekoussai, Pithecusa, Inarime) (NA). An island is situated off the coast of Campania, at the NW end of the Gulf of Naples. The earliest inhabitants on the island established themselves during the Bronze Age. A settlement existed on Mt. Epomaeus which traded with the Mycenaeans. The earliest Greek colony in Italy was established here by settlers from Eretria and Chalkis in the early 8th Century BC. Soon afterwards Greeks from this colony founded Kyme (Cumae) on the mainland (which, in turn, founded Neapolis [Naples]). Both of these settlements were ideally placed to facilitate trade with the Etruscans located to the north. There have been a number theories related to the origins of Ischia’s ancient names. Pliny explained that the Greek name Pithekoussai (Pithecusa) derived from the local clay deposits, while the Latin name Aenaria was connected with the story of Aeneas’s landing. It has also been speculated that the latter name may have derived from the abundant copper (Lat. aeneus= “made of copper”) from there. Eventually the Greek colony on the island was abandoned because of seismic and volcanic dangers. It eventually came under the control of the Greek city of Neapolis (Naples) and became a noted center for ceramics, fruit and fine wine. The seismic/volcanic nature of the island has led to it sometimes being identified with Homer’s land of the Arimi, the site where the monstrous Typhon (Typhoeus) lies buried.

Ischia (Na): A commune in the province of Napoli.
Ischia, Diocese of:
Suffragans:
Metropolitan: Napoli.
Conference Region: Campania
Area: 46 km²/ mi²
Total Population: 46,702
Catholic Population:
Total Priests: 46(Diocesan: 35; Religious: 11)
Permanent Deacons: 5
Male Religious:
Female Religious:
Parishes: 25
History:
Ischitella (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 4,427 (2006e).
Ischomachos (or Isomachos): An athlete of ancient Kroton. He was victor in the Stadion at the Olympian Games in 508 BC and 504 BC.
Iscla: Medieval name for Ischia.

Isernia, Province of: A province in the region of Molise. Population: 89,577 (2006e).

Communes of Isernia Province

Commune

Area

(km²)

Population

(2007e)

Population

(2006e)

Population

(2001 census)

Population

(1991 census)

Acquaviva d’Isernia

13.73

469

468

468

531

Agnone

96.27

5551

5628

5,842

6,207

Bagnoli del Trigno

36.65

810

835

877

1,131

Belmonte del Sannio

20.21

862

878

921

1,048

Cantalupo nel Sannio

15.51

741

737

736

761

Capracotta

42.38

1043

1063

1,122

1,314

Carovilli

41.69

1496

1504

1,528

1,618

Carpinone

32.47

1242

1260

1,254

1,296

Castel del Giudice

14.69

355

348

353

412

Castelpetroso

22.62

1651

1675

1,644

1,722

Castelpizzuto

15.29

154

153

143

134

Castel San Vincenzo

22.36

571

572

577

591

Castelverrino

6.15

124

127

130

177

Cerro al Volturno

23.70

1440

1461

1,440

1,682

Chiauci

15.72

275

271

277

337

Civitanova del Sannio

55.94

950

936

949

1,015

Colli a Volturno

24.26

1391

1397

1,407

1,374

Conca Casale

14.54

238

244

269

294

Filignano

32.02

747

749

756

897

Forlì del Sannio

32.36

791

794

833

918

Fornelli

23.08

2005

2002

1,985

1,821

Frosolone

49.62

3276

3301

3,405

3,531

Isernia

68.75

21616

21608

21,152

20,933

Longano

27.07

717

719

725

811

Macchia d’Isernia

17.87

944

948

909

963

Macchiagodena

34.30

1920

1928

1,959

2,143

Miranda

22.27

1068

1076

1,083

1,143

Montaquila

25.32

2484

2464

2,474

2,527

Montenero Val Cocchiara

21.88

557

572

608

683

Monteroduni

37.02

2399

2411

2,395

2,409

Pesche

12.65

1498

1498

1,312

958

Pescolanciano

33.99

937

946

1,002

1,094

Pescopennataro

18.80

329

343

387

502

Pettoranello del Molise

15.53

482

490

428

397

Pietrabbondante

27.33

893

909

961

1,108

Pizzone

33.14

339

343

328

392

Poggio Sannita

20.61

856

866

940

1,217

Pozzilli

33.83

2279

2262

2,201

2,017

Rionero Sannitico

29.03

1177

1170

1,131

1,281

Roccamandolfi

53.79

1031

1044

1,073

1,164

Roccasicura

29.01

595

605

627

699

Rocchetta a Volturno

24.02

1082

1071

1,083

1,108

San Pietro Avellana

44.92

568

613

662

726

Sant’Agapito

15.81

1348

1357

1,332

1,187

Santa Maria del Molise

17.09

679

675

654

747

Sant’Angelo del Pesco

15.45

387

402

416

461

Sant’Elena Sannita

14.05

292

283

277

287

Scapoli

16.88

835

908

949

1,033

Sessano del Molise

24.75

835

851

927

1,029

Sesto Campano

36.60

2495

2505

2,945

3,141

Vastogirardi

60.72

782

793

798

864

Venafro

45.11

11437

11514

11,198

10,107

Total

1,528.85

89,043

89577

89,852

91,942


Isernia (IS): A city and provincial capital of the province of Isernia, in Molise. It situated 23 miles W of Campobasso on the west slope of the Apennines. Population: 21,608 (2006e).
Isernia-Venafro, Diocese of: A diocese in the ecclesiastical region of Abruzzo-Molise.

Basic Information on the Diocese of Isernia-Venafro (2006)

(Source: Catholic-hierarchy.org)

Ecclesiastical Conference

Region

Abruzzo-Molise

Metropolitan

Campobasso-Boiano

Suffragans

Area

740 km² (285 mi²)

Total Population

63,000

Catholic Population

60,000

Total Priests

75

Diocesan Priests

63

Religious Priests

12

Permanent Deacons

12

Male Religious

24

Female Religious

46

Parishes

48

History: •  Diocese of Isernia erected in the 5th century.

•               Dioceses of Isernia and Venafro are united into the Diocese of Isernia e Venafro on June 12, 1852.

•               Named is changed to Diocese of Isernia-Venafro on September 30, 1986.

Islam in Italy: Although in medieval times, the vast majority of Muslims in Italy resided in the southern part of the country, only about 20% of the country’s million or so Muslims now reside there. The majority of Muslims in modern Italy are of North African origin. In 1992 there were approximately 304,000 Muslim immigrants in Italy, comprising about 29% of the total legal immigrant population. By the end of 1999, the Italian Ministry of Interior estimated that the Immigrant Muslim population had grown to between 650,000 and 700,000, of which 436,000 had legal status. Government statistics estimated that about 34% of the foreign population of Italy at the beginning of 2005 were Muslim, totaling between 960,000 and 1,030,000 (1.4% of the total Italian population.)

Legally Resident Muslim immigrants in Italy at the end of 1998

(Source: Hadid, Yvonne Yazbeck, ed.

Muslims in the West: From Sojourners to Citizens.

State of Origin

(Largest Groups)

# in Italy

% of the total

Muslim Population

Morocco

145,843

33.4

Albania

67,000

15.8

Tunisia

47,267

10.8

Senegal

35,897

8.2

Egypt

25,553

5.8

Algeria

13,324

3.0

Pakistan

11,320

2.5

Bangladesh

11,201

2.5

Somalia

10,818

2.4

Iran

6,814

1.5

Turkey

6,630

1.5

Nigeria

6,447

1.4

Yugoslavia

6,500

1.4

Bosnia

5,339

1.2

Iraq

4,519

0.9

Macedonia

4,126

0.5

Isnello (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.

Isola del Gran Sasso d’ltalia (TE): A commune in the province of Teramo.

Isola delle Femmine (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.
Isola di Capo Rizzuto (KR): A commune in the province of Crotone. Population: 14,461 (2006e).
Isole Tremiti (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 417 (2006e).
Isomachos: See Ischomachos.

Ispani (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Ispica (RG): A commune in the province of Ragusa.

Itala (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.
Italian Emigration and Immigration:
Italian Emigration by Region

Region

1883

1884

1885

1886

1887

1906

1907

1908

1911

1913

Piedmont

52,335

78,663

Liguria

7,052

9,428

Lombardy

65,069

87,133

Venetia

97,588

123,853

No. Italy

222,044

299,077

Emilia

32,459

39,134

Tuscany

37,442

45,599

Marches

17,232

32,069

Umbria

12,098

17,851

Latium

9,121

25,962

Cent. Italy

108,352

160,615

Abruzzi e Molise

32,025

62,038

Campania

54,149

78,633

Apulia

21,318

41,837

Basilicata

10,426

16,153

Calabria

30,382

55,910

Sicily

50,789

146,061

Sardinia

5,359

12,274

So. Italy

203,448

412,906

Total Italy

169,101

147,017

157,193

167,829

215,665

787,977

704,675

486,674

533,844

872,598

Source: Rothwell. Foerster. The Italian Emigration of Our Times. 1924/1969; The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 8
Destination of Italian Emigrants

1887

1906

1907

1908

Europe

82,474

Europe & Mediterranean

276,042

288,774

248,101

Egypt

867

Tunis

633

Algeria

1,375

Transoceanic

511,935

415,901

238,573

U.S. & Canada

38,853

Argentine Republic,
Uruguay, & Paraguay

54,499

Brazil & rest of South
America, Mexico and
Central America

33,003

South America (w/o
declared destination)

3,108

Asia, Africa, Oceania

853

Total # Emigrants

215,665

787,977

704,675

486,674

Source: Appleton’s Annual Cyclopedia 1888; The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 8.


Italian Immigration to the United States

1831-1870

25,082

1870-1880

55,759

1880-1890

307,309

1890

52,093

1891

76,055

1892

62,137

1893

72,916

1894

43,967

1895

36,961

1896

68,060

1897

59,431

1898

58,613

1899

77,419

1900

100,135

1901

135,996

1902

178,375

1903

230,622

1904

193,296

1905

221,479

1906

273,120

1907

285,731

1908

128,503

Total: 1831-1908

2,743,059

Source: The Catholic Encyclopedia

Italian-Americans: According to the National Italian American Foundation (www.niaf.org/research/contribution.demographic/ consulted 08/03/06) about 15% of the American population was of Italian ancestry. This meant that there were (1990) nearly 15 million Americans of full Italian background. If those with only partial Italian ancestry were considered, the number rose to c26 million. The states with the highest number of Italian Americans were (according to the 1990 US census): California: 1,500,000.Connecticut 650,000.Massachusetts 845,000.New Jersey 1,500,000.New York 2,900,000.Pennsylvania 1,400,000.Rhode Island 200,000.Florida (800,000).Illinois (730,000).Ohio (640,000).Michigan (412,000).Texas (314,000).Maryland (253,000).
According to the records of the United States Immigration Bureau, between 1821 and 1892, 526,749 Italians immigrated to the U.S. Over the subsequent 6 years (1893 to 1899), the number of Italian arrivals increased to 417,367.
Italian-Americans and Italians, Prejudice against           
Considerable prejudice was shown towards Italian immigrants and their descendants in much of the United States during much of the 20th Century. Several derogatory terms came into use to refer to the immigrants and their offspring.

Derogatory terms used against Italians and Italian Americans
(Source: The Racial Slur Index. www.rsdb.org/)
(Warning: Some readers may find terms in this table to be offensive. This list is added for educational purposes. It is meant to show the extent of prejudice against Italian immigrants to America and to Americans of Italian descent.)

Term

Source

Black Dagos

Derived from the belief that some Sicilians are of partly Black African origins.

Bologna

Derives from the Italian city Bologna.

Brown Pants/Shirts

A derogatory term coined during World War II by American Gis to refer to Italian soldiers. It was claimed that the Italians were such cowards that they soiled themselves from fear in battle.

Burnt Pizza

Meant to refer to the dark-skinned Italians.

Calzone

Italian food

Chop

A person of mixed Chinese-Italian blood (Chink+Wop).

Dago

Originally coming from Spain. “Diego” was a common name in Italy at the time this slang was first used.

Dagowop

A combination of Dago and Wop.

Eggplant

Often used to imply that Italians, especially of darker complexion, were of African blood.

Eggplant-
Parmesan

A person of mixed African-Italian blood.

Euro

A term used to refer to all Europeans, including Italians. Usually used as a pejorative.

Fonzie

A term originating from the popular character of that name on the Happy Days TV show.

Garlic Bread

Derived from the tasty Garlic flavored bread favorite among Italians.

Garlic Breadth

Referring to the use of garlic in Italian cuisine.

Geep

From Pinnochio’s “father” Gepetto.

Gina

Common Italian name.

Ginny

In reference to popular Italian garb Ginny T’s, now more commonly known as wife beater shirts.

Gino

Common Italian name.

Ginzo

Derives from the word Guinea.

Goombah

From the Italian word “Compare” (pronounced ‘cumpa’) meaning “a close friend.” Considered a slur when used by non-Italians to describe an Italian male.

Grape-Smasher

Refers to the Italian wine-making practice of smashing grapes with their feet.

Grape-Stomper

Refers to the Italian wine-making practice of smashing grapes with their feet.

Grease Ball/Bag

Multiple origins. The most common being that the Italian people supposedly have an abnormally oily dermis and epidermis. Sometimes called a Greaser.

Guidette

Feminine version of Guido.

Guido

Northern term referring to Italians who try to portray a mafia mentality. Feminine version is Guidette.

Guinea Pig

An overweight Italian

Guinea/Ginney

Pronounced “gi-nee.” Originally used in the 1740s as “Guinea Negro,” it referred to any Black or any person of mixed ancestry. By the 1890s it was being applied to Italians—probably because of their darker complexion in comparison to northern Europeans. By 1911 the term began being applied to Hispanics, although the reference to Italians is the most common. Derived from Sicilian immigrants who paid in Italian currency, Guineas.

Hightalian

A derogatory term for upper-class, wealthy, snobbish Italians.

Hothead

Derived from the belief that Italians had short, violent tempers.

I-Tie

A corruption of the word “Italian.”

IROC

Italian Retards Out Crusing. A term popular especially popular in the Eastern United States.

Jabonee

A term used by native-born Italian Americans in reference to newly arrived Italian immigrants, who could not speak English.

Jewop

A person of mixed Jewish-Italian blood (Jew+Wop).

Katzenfresser

An anti-Italian slur of German origin meaning “cat-eater.”

Laposta

Italian slang for lazy person with a small penis.

Luigi

From a character in a popular video game. Used to refer to a tall, thin Italian. (see Mario).

Macaroni

Refers to the popular Italian pasta.

Makaronifresser

An anti-Italian slur of German origin meaning “macaroni-eater.” The term is particularly rude because the term essen , used in reference to a human eater, is replaced with fressen, used in connection with animals.

Mario

From a character in a popular video game. Used to refer to a fat Italian. (see Luigi).

McWop

A person of mixed Irish-Italian blood (Mick+Wop).

Meatball

A reference to Italian cuisine.

Med Wop

A combination of Mediterranean and Wop.

Melanzana

From the Italian word for Eggplant. Used to refer to a person of dark complexion.

Minglia

A derogatory term derived from the Sicilian dialect word for “dick.”

Moolie

A short form of Melanzane.

Moolignon

A variation of Melanzane. Possibly a combination of Moolie and hooligan.

PIGS

Portuguese+Italian+Greek+Spanish. Used to refer principally to Mediterranean males because of so-called “piggish” behavior towards women.

Pizzabagel

A person of mixed Jewish-Italian blood. Especially popular in New York.

Pizza Nigger

A pejorative derived from the belief that many Italian are of Black African origins.

Polentone

A term used by southern Italians for Northern ItaliansIt refers to the Northern Italian cuisine called polenta which the southerners considered an inferior dish.

Portawop

A person of mixed Portuguese-Italian blood.

Provolone

Derives from provolone cheese. Used for a Italian with “cheesy” tastes.

Ragu

A term derived from the word meaning pasta sauce.

Rasta Fazoul

A person of mixed Jamaican-Italian blood. (Pasta+Rastafarian)

Rizzo

A pejorative which originated from advertisements for Rizzo brand pasta sauce placed on dumpsters.

Salami

Derives from the belief that Italians have a body odor resembling salami.

Spaghetti vendor

Self-explanatory.

Spaghetti-Slurper

Derives from the popular Italian pasta dish.

Spaghetti-Twister

Derives from the popular Italian pasta dish.

Spaghetto

A term for an Italian who acts “Black.”

Spic

A term originally attached to those of Hispanic origins. By the late 19th century, it had been extended towards Italians as well.

Spider

A term for Italian-American inspired by a character named Spider in the movie “Goodfellas.”

Stallion

Derives from the movie Rocky, Stallion being the nickname of the title character.

Swap

A person of mixed Mexican-Italian blood. (Spic+Wop)

Terrone

A term applied to southern Italians. It derives from the Italian word Terra = land, earth. A “terrone” was a person who worked the earth, i.e. a peasant.

Tony

Derived from the tag attached to the luggage of poor Italian immigrants to America (TO NY = to New York).

Tony Soprano

A term deriving from the name of a character in the television show “The Sopranos”. It is meant to imply that all Italian-Americans are connected to the mafia.

Uni-brow

A term of derision derived from the belief that both Greeks and Italians have this physical trait.

Wallione

A term of friendship between Italians, but considered to be derogatory when used by a non-Italian.

Whopper

A variation of Wop.

Won Ton Parmesan

A person of mixed Asian-Italian blood.

Wonder Bread Wop

A term used by Italians for an Italian who rejected his heritage in favor of “WASP” American culture.

WOP

A term of disputed origins. According to one belief it means “Without Papers” or “Without Official Papers”, and is meant to imply that the Italian immigrants arrived illegally. Another theory is that it meant “Working On Pavement” referring to immigrants working as street vendors or outdoor workers. A third theory is that it is a corruption of the Neapolitan dialect word “guappo” (pronounced “woppo”) meaning to a criminal or strong bully.

Wopalock

A person of mixed Polish-Italian blood. (Wop+Polock)

Wopski

A person of mixed Polish-Italian blood.

Zip

A term used by native-born Italian-Americans for new Italian immigrants because they spoke their mother tongue so quickly.

Italica Romaea Sebasta Olympia (or Isolympia): A competitive festival of games founded by the Roman Emperor Augustus in AD 2. Styled after the more famous Olympic Games of Greece, this Neapolitan festival appears to have remained a local affair until the time of Emperor Claudius (rAD 41-54). Claudius gave them full imperial recognition and support, thus making them far more attractive to the major athletes from throughout the Roman Empire. As a result it soon developed into one of the major festivals of its kind. Held every four years in August, there is evidence that the games survived well into the 4th Century. Competitions included athletic events (including footraces, one of which was for girls), as well as dramatic and musical events. Some events were restricted exclusively to citizens Often cash prizes were awards as well as symbolic trophies. This festival was the only one known in which competitors were paid living expenses: 1 drachma per day for the first half of the games and 2 or 3 drachmas for the 2nd half.
                A damaged Roman Era inscription (IvO [Inschriften von Olympia]56.11-28) found at Olympia sheads a little light on the Neapolitan games, which it referred to the “Italic isOlympic games”, males aged seventeen to twenty years participated in boys’ category. Those older could compete at the mens’ level.
Italiotes: A name given to the pre-Roman Greek-speaking inhabitants of the Italian peninsula, between Neapolis and Sicily (people there are still sometimes, albeit very rarely, referred to as Italiotes). During the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, the Italiotes were distinguished from the non-Greek Italic inhabitants of southern Italy.