Encyclopedia of Southern Italy – G

G

gabella: a term for tax or rent formerly used in Sicily. The term derives from the Arabic kabala (=tax).

gabelloto (Lat. gabellotus): A Sicilian term for a person who rents an estate from a landowner and sublets portions of it to peasant farmers; a tax-farmer or the manager of a landowner’s estate. The term derives from gabella = “rent.”

Gaeta: A port city in the province of Latina, on the southern coast of Lazio. It formerly was a part of the Campanian province of Caserta. It was a principal citadel for the kingdom of Naples and often served as a sanctuary for both the kings of the Regio and the popes.

Rulers of Gaeta

AD 839-866

Constantine: First Hypatus of Gaeta. He was the son of Count Anatolius, a Byzantine Greek noble. He soon raised his son Marinus I to share rule with him.

AD 839-866

Marinus I. Son of Constantine. He held the title of co-Hypatus and/or comes (count).

AD 866-906

Docibilis I. He was married to Matrona, daughter of Bonus and probably niece of Constantine. It appears that he overthrew Constantine and Marinus I. He first ruled as prefect, taking the title of hypatus in 877.

Soon after taking power he associated his son John I with rule of Gaeta.

AD 867/906-933

John I

Gaetano: A male personal name found mainly in the regions of Campania and Sicily. It derives from an earlier Latin form Caietanus, meaning “inhabitant of Caita (mod. Gaeta).”

Gaggi (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

History: Founded in the 9th Century as Hagg (= pilgrim) by the Saracens, the name was changed to Scaggi under the Normans. This eventually evolved into Kaggi, which it remained until 1939, when the name was officially changed to Gaggi. The Norman king Roger II gave the town to the Monastery of Savoca. Afterwards attached to the town of Taormina, in 1639 it became a fief of the Berriles, the Princes Branciforte of Scordia. It later came into the possession of the Marchese De Spuches, remaining a possession of that family until 1760.

Gagliano Aterno (AQ): A commune in the province of L‘Aquila. Population: 312 (2006e).

Gagliano Castelferrato (EN): A commune in the province of Enna. Population: 3,788 (2006e).

Gagliano del Capo (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 5,484 (2006e).

Gagliardi, Rosario: (b. 1698, at Siracusa; d. 1762). Architect. A leading promoter of the Sicilian Baroque style, he designed the cathedral at Modica in 1702. Other examples of his work is the domed basilica of S. Giorgio (1744-66), with its great approaching staircase of 250 steps, and many of the palazzi and churches in the rebuilt Noto.

Gagliato (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 556 (2006e).

Gaius, St.: (dates uncertain). Martyr. With fellow martyrs Fortunatus (1) and Antus, he is one of the patron saints of Salerno.

Galati Mamertino (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

Galatina (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 27,659 (2006e).

Galatone (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 15,884 (2006e).

Galatro (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.

Gallicchio (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

Gallipoli (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 21,204 (2006e). A seaport city in southern Puglia situated on a rocky peninsula on the east coast of the gulf of Taranto. The name derives from the Greek kallipolis (= beautiful town).

Gallo Matese (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  719 (2006e).

Gallodoro (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

Gallonistus: (fl. Mid 7th Century AD). Ecclesiatic. He is the first known bishop of Adria. In 649, he attended a synod in Rome called by Pope Martin I.

Galluccio (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  2,342 (2006e).

Galofaro: An alternate name for the Capo di Faro.

Galugnano (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce.

Gambatesa (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 1,635 (2006e).

Gamberale (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 369 (2006e).

Gamorai: The noble class of ancient Syracuse. It’s members claimed descent from the city’s original colonists.

Gangi (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.

Garaguso (MT): A commune in the province of Matera. Population: 1,171 (2006e).

Gargano, Giovanni: (b. March 1907, Bitonto). Librettist with the Compagnia d’operette.

Garigliano, River: A river in south-central Italy.  It forms at the confluence of the rivers Gari (also known as Rapido) and Liri. The name Garigliano actually derives from “Gari-Lirano” (that is “Gari from the Liri”). For the most part of its 40 km length, the Garigliano River marks the border between the Italian regions of Lazio and Campania. Known as the Verde (=Green) river in medieval times, it marked the southern boundary of the Papal States.

It was the site of many conflicts throughout history. In 1503, the Spanish under Gonsalvo Fernandez de Cordoba defeated the French beside this river, and heavy fighting took place here during World War II (Nov. 1943-May 1944).

Gasparina (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 2,232 (2006e).

Gasparis, Annibale de: (b. Apr. or Nov. 9, 1819, Bugnara (AQ); d. Mar. 21, 1892, Naples). Astronomer. Between 1849 and 1865, he discovered 9 asteroids. In 1851, he won the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society. From 1864 to 1889 he was the director of the Capo di Monte Observatory in Naples. He was honored by having asteroid 4279 De Gasparis, the lunar crater de Gasparis, and the lunar Rimae de Gasparis named after him.

Gaudiosus, St. (the African)(1): (d. 452 at Naples). Ecclesiastic. Having served as bishop of Abitina in the province of Africa, he was exiled in AD 440, by the Vandal king, Geiseric. He resettled at Naples, where he founded a monastery. Feast Day: Feb. 27.

Gaudiosus (2): (fl. 1st half of the 7th century). Ecclesiastic. Bishop of Naples (rAD 637-644).

Gaudiosus (3): (fl. middle of the 7th century). Ecclesiastic. Bishop of Salerno (bef. AD 646).  He was apparently related to the Ducal house of Naples. He was succeeded by Luminosus.

Gaudiosus (4): Bishop of Capua (r649-660). He was present at the Lateran synod of AD 649.

Gela, Ancient: An important city of ancient Sicily. Founded in c688 BC by Greek colonists from Rhodes and Crete, Gela’s name appears to derive from that of the nearby river Gela. The river’s name derives from a Greek verb meaning “smiling.”

Gela(CL): A commune in the province of Caltanissetta. Population: 77,245 (2006e).

Gelasius I, St.: Pope. (rMar. 1, 492-Nov 21, 496).

Gelasius II (John of Gaeta): (b. Gaeta) Pope (rJan 24, 1118-Jan. 28, 1119). He served as the papal chancellor of Pope Paschal II and succeeded him on the papal throne

Gelon (or Gelo) I: (d. 478 BC). Tyrant of Gela and, later, of Syracuse. Gelon was also a notable athlete. He competed for Gela in the Olympian Games in 488 BC, and was victor of the tethrippon (a four-horse chariot race).

Gelon (or Gelo) II: (d. 216 BC). Co-King of Syracuse. The son of Hieron II and Phistis, he was the co-ruler of Syracuse with his father. He married Nereis, a daughter of Pyrrhus of Epirus. The couple had two children; a son, Hieronymus, who succeeded Hieron as king of Syracuse, and a daughter, Harmonia, who was killed by a mob in c214 BC.

Gemito, Vincenzo: b. 1852. d. 1929. Sculptor. He flourished in Naples throughout much of the second half of the 19th century and established a bronze foundry there. After suffering a mental breakdown in 1887, he did not resume his career until 1909. Among his works are statues of a Neapolitan Fisherboy and of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.

Genetic makeup of Southern Italians: Modern genetic studies show that the modern population of Sicily is closely related to the populations of the southern Italian mainland and of Greece. The North African-Saracen element, once thought to predominate in western Sicily, some little significant genetic contribution.

genos (pl. gene): an ancient Greek clan or group of families.

Genzano di Lucania (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

Geoffrey (Godefroi, Goisfredus) of Hauteville: (b. in Normandy; fl. 2nd half of the 11th century/1st half of the 12th century.). Norman nobleman. A son of Tancred of Hauteville by his first wife Muriella, he arrived in southern Italy in c1053 with his half-brothers Mauger and William. Soon after his arrival, he participated in the Battle of Civitate (June 18, 1053).

Gerace (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.

Geraci Siculo (Sic. Giraci or Iraggi)(PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.

Gerard (Gerardus), Blessed: (originally surnamed Tum, Tune, Tenque or Thom). b. c1040, probably Sasso di Scalo, near Amalfi; d. Sept. 3, 1120, Jerusalem. Founder of the Order of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem (aka Knights Hospitaller, Knights of Rhodes, Knights of Malta, and Cavaliers of Malta). Although some sources claim that he was born in Martigues in Provence, or at the Chateau d’Avesnes in Hainaut, most reliable authorities make him a native of Amalfi. Having arrived in Palestine as a soldier or merchant at the end of the 11th Century, he joined other Amalfitans who operated a hospice at Jerusalem which cared for Christians pilgrims. Around c1100, he became provost of this group and reorganized it into the religious Order of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem.

Gerberto: Archbishop of Capua (r 977-981).

Germanus, S.: (fl. 1st part of the 6th century). Ecclesiastic. Bishop of Capua (rAD 516-540). In AD 519, he was among the legates sent by Pope Hormisdas to Constantinople.

Gerocarne (VV): A commune in the province of Vibo Valentia.

Gervasius (1): (fl. mid 4th century). Ecclesiastic. He is listed as the first known bishop of Bari and was present at the council of Sardica in AD 347.

Gervasius (2): (fl. 2nd part of the 7th century). Ecclesiastic. He was bishop of Taranto in AD 659.

Gessopalena (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 1,624 (2006e).

Gesualdo (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 3,691 (2007e); 3,760 (2006e).

Gesualdo, Carlo: b. Mar. 8, 1566, Venosa. d. Sept. 8, 1613. Nobleman and composer. The Prince of Venosa, he is best known for being involved in a grisly scandal. Having discovered his wife in bed with the Duke of Anzio, he had the latter killed by his henchmen. He then savagely murdered his wife with his own hand, disemboweling her and slitting her throat. The guilt he suffered from this act eventually drove him insane. He died of blood-poisoning caused by chronic constipation. Despite his sordid personal life, he was a brilliant composer of 6 madrigal books, 2 sacrae cantiones and 1 libro di responsorial.

Ghibellines (Ghibellini): the pro-imperial faction during the secular power struggle between the Holy Roman Emperors and the papacy. They were powerful supporters of the Swabian rulers in Naples/Sicily but concentrated mostly in northern Italy after the conquest of the Regno by Charles I of Anjou. Their opponents were the pro-papal Guelfs (Guelfi). Their name derives from the German Waiblingen, a castle in SW Germany belonging to the Hohenstaufens.

Giano Vetusto (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  649 (2006e).

Giaquinto, Corrado: (b. 1703, Molfetta; d. 1765, Naples). Painter. A pupil of F. Solimena in Naples, he moved to Rome in 1723. Most of his subsequent career was spent there except for visits to Turin and Madrid (1753-1762). In Spain he was an official painter of Ferdinand VI and a director of the Royal Academy of Painting. He returned to Naples in 1765 and died shortly after. Principal Works: Capella Ruffo [S. Lorenzo in Damaso, Rome, 1734].Villa della Regina [near Turin, 1733, 1739-40].San Giovanni Calibita [Rome, 1740-41].Santa Croce in Gerusalemme (Rome, 1744-1745).Palazzo Reale [Madrid, 1755].Palazzo Reale [Aranjuez, Spain].

Giardinello (Sic. Jardineddu)(PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.

Giardini Naxos (ME): A commune in the province of Messina. It was from here, on August 9, 1860, that Garibaldi embarked for his invasion of the Italian mainland.

Giarratana (RG): A commune in the province of Ragusa.

Giarre (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 26,932 (2006e).

Gibellina (TP): A commune in the province of Trapani.

Giffone (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.

Giffoni Sei Casali (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Giffoni Valle Piana (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Gildone (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 845 (2006e).

Gimigliano (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 3,389 (2006e).

Ginestra (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

Ginestra degli Schiavoni (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population:  565 (2006e).

Ginosa (TA): A commune in the province of Taranto.

Gioi (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Gioia dei Marsi (AQ): A commune in the province of L‘Aquila. Population: 2,288 (2006e).

Gioia del Colle (BA): A commune in the province of Bari. Population: 27,736 (2006e).

Gioia Sannitica (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  3,611 (2006e).

Gioia Tauro (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.

Gioiosa Ionica (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.

Gioiosa Marea (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

Gioja, Flavio: (b. Amalfi, Naples, or Positano; fl. 1302). Inventor and marine pilot. He is credited with perfecting the sailor’s compass by suspending a magnetized needle over a fleur-de-lis design. The needle was enclosed in a small box with a glass cover. The compass had already been in use in the Mediterranean for some time before Gioja. Marco Polo is sometimes credited with bringing the compass back from China. While the Chinese did indeed develop a compass, there is evidence that a primitive device based on a lodestone was used by the ancient Greek mariners. Gioja’s decision to use the French fleur-de-lis design for his compass to win the support of the king of Naples, the French-born Charles I of Anjou.

Giordani, Giuseppe (called Giordanello): (b. 19 Dec. 1745, Naples. d. 4 January 1798, Fermo, Italy). Composer. The son of singer and composer Carmine Giordani, he studied music at Conservatory of Loreto at Naples. In 1771, he produced his first opera at Naples. In 1791 he became Maestro di Capella at Fermo Cathedral. During his career he wrote over 30 operas and oratorios. The canzonetta Caro Mio Ben is attributed to him.

Giordano, Luca: (b. 1634, Naples. d. 1705, Naples). Painter. A pupil of J. Ribera, he moved to Rome in 1656 where he came under the influence of Pietro da Cortona and other members of the Neo-Venetian school. He produced a number of copies of Renaissance-era masterpieces, working with such speed and simplicity that he earned the nickname “Luca Fapresto.” He visited several cities in northern Italy including Bologna, Parma, Florence and Venice. From 1692 to 1702, he was a court painter to the Spanish king Charles II. Principal Works:Storie della Vergine [church of S. Maria della Salute, Venice, 1667].Church of Sant’Agostino degli Scalzi [Naples, 1658].Church of San Gregorio Armeno [Naples].Church of Santa Brigida [Naples].Ceiling of the Gallery in Palazzo Medici-Riccardi [Florence, 1682-1702].Paintings in Escorial, Palazzo Reale, and Prado [all Madrid, 1692-1702].Frescoes in the Capella del Tesoro di San Martino [Naples, 1704].

Giordano, Umberto Menotti Maria: (b. 26 Aug. 1867, Foggia. d. 12 Nov. 1948, Milan). Composer. Having received his musical education at the Royal College of Music in Naples, he produced his first opera, Marina, in that city. Moving to Milan, he achieved only minor success until 1896 when he produced his opera Andrea Chenier. His work in similar to that of Puccini and Leoncavallo.

Giovanna I: See Joanna I, Queen of Naples (r1343-1382).

Giovanna II: See Joanna II, Queen of Naples (r1414-1435).

Giovanni: Bishop of Capua (r ?-966). Archbishop of Capua (r966-973).

Giovanni (John) II: Duke of Naples (AD 915-919). He was the probable son of Gregory IV and the probable father of Marino (Marinus) I.

Giovanni (John) III: Duke of Naples (AD 928-963). He was the probable son of Marino (Marinus) I and the father of Marino (Marinus) II. He married Teodora (Theodora) of Byzantium.

Giovanni (John) IV: (d. 1002). Duke of Naples (AD 999-1002). He was the son of Sergius (Sergio) III and the father of Landolfo.

Giovinazzo (BA): A commune in the province of Bari. Population: 20,827 (2006e).

Giratiosus: (fl. 1st half of the 7th century). Ecclesiastic. Bishop of Naples. He succeeded Caesarius in either AD 638 or 641, and was succeeded by Eusebius in either AD 646 or 649.

Girgenti: Former name for Agrigento.

Girifalco (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 6,390 (2006e).

Gissi (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 3,034 (2006e).

Giuggianello (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 1,232 (2006e).

Giugliano in Campania (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.

Giuliana (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.

Giuliani, Mauro: (b. 27 July 1781, Bisceglie. d. 8 May 1829, Naples). Composer and musician. He is considered one of the greatest guitar virtuosos of the 19th century. During the course of his career he produced 150 compositions for guitar.

Giuliano Teatino (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 1,328 (2006e).

Giulianova (TE): A commune in the province of Teramo.

Giungano (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Giurdignano (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 1,802 (2006e).

Gizzeria (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 3,946 (2006e).

gnorimoi: ancient Greek term for the noble or aristocratic class. The term is synonymous with eupatridai.

Godrano (Sic. Cutranu) (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.

Goffredo: Archbishop of Capua (r 1137-1157).

Gorgias of Leotini: (fl. c485-380 BC). Greek sophist.

Gorgoglione (MT): A commune in the province of Matera. Population: 1,094 (2006e).

Goriano Sicoli (AQ): A commune in the province of L‘Aquila. Population: 595 (2006e).

Gragnano (NA): A town of Campania located about 2 miles E of Castellammare di Stabia.

Grammichele (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 13,145 (2006e).

Gran Sasso (d’Italia): A massif of the Abruzzian Apennines. Its principal summit, Monte Corno (alt. 10,154 feet; 2,914 meters), is the high point of the Apennine chain.

Grand Duke (Ital. Granduca): A title of recent origins, created to distinguish certain sovereign Dukes from simple Dukes.

Graniti (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

grano: a coin used in the kingdom of Naples, equivalent in value to 2 tornesi or 3 quattrini, 12 cavalli. Until 1784, it was equal to 0.0437 lire. From 1784 to 1814, it was valued at 0.0425 lire.

Grassano (MT): A commune in the province of Matera. Population: 5,618 (2006e).

Gratteri (PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.

Gravina di Catania (CT): A commune in the province of Catania. Population: 27,982 (2006e).

Gravina in Puglia (BA): A commune in the province of Bari. Population: 43,671 (2006e).

Grazzanise (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  6,835 (2006e).

Greci (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 840 (2006e).

Greek Colonies in Magna Graecia and Sicily:

Colony

Region

Year Founded (BCE)

Mother City/Region

Akragas

Sicily

580

Gela

Alalia

Corsica

546

Phocaea

Ancona

Italy

390

Sicilian refugees

Cumae

Campania

730-25

Chalcis & Cyme (Euboea)

Elia

Lucania

535

Phocaea

Enna

Sicily

633

Syracuse

Gela

Sicily

688

Rhodes/Crete

Heraclea

Lucania

443/2

Taras & Thourioi

Himera

Sicily

649/48

Zancle & Euobea

Kamarina

Sicily

599/98

Syracuse

Kaulonia

Bruttium

675

Kroton/Achaea

Katane

Sicily

729

Naxos & Chalcis

Kroton

Bruttium

710

Achaea

Kyme (Cumae)

Campania

750

Chalcis

Laos

Lucania

510

Sybaris

Leontinoi

Sicily

734

Chalcis

Lipara

off Sicily

580

Knidos

Lokri Epizephyrioi

Bruttium

early 7th century

Lokris Opuntia

Megara Hyblaea

Sicily

728

Megara

Metapontion

Lucania

770-720

Achaea

Mylae

Sicily

717/16

Zancle

Naxos

Sicily

734

Chalcis

Neapolis

Campania

650

Cumae (Kyme)

Nola

Campania

Pre 500

Chalcis (dubious)

Pithekoussai

(Ischia)

Campania

775-750

Chalkis & Eretria

Poseidonia

Lucania

625-600

Sybaris

Rhegium

Bruttium

743-720

Zancle

Selinus

Sicily

628

Megara Hyblaea

Siris

Italy

670

Kolophon

Sybaris

Bruttium

720

Achaea

Syracuse

Sicily

734

Corinth

Taras

Calabria

706

Sparta

Terina

Bruttium

6th century

Kroton

Tyndaris

Sicily

396

Sparta/Syracuse

Velia

Lucania

530

Phocaea

Gregory I “the Great”, St: (b. cAD 540, Rome; d. Mar. 12, 604, Rome). Pope. (r Sept 3, 590- Mar 12, 604). He succeeded Pelasgius II and was succeeded by Sabinian.

Gregory II, St.: Pope. (rMay 19, 715-Feb 11, 731).

Gregory III: Pope. (rMar 18, 731-Nov 28, 741).

Gregory III: (d. AD 870). Duke of Naples (AD 865-870). He was the son of Sergius (Sergio) I and the father of Sergius (Sergio) II.

Gregory IV: Pope. (r827-Jan 844).

Gregory IV: Duke of Naples (AD 898-915) and Byzantine Patrician. He was the son of Sergius (Sergio) II and the probable father of Giovanni (John) II.

Gregory V: Pope. (rMay 3, 996-Feb 18, 999).

Gregory VI: Pope. (rApr/May 1045-Dec 20, 1046).

Gregory VII, St: Pope. (rApr. 22, 1073-May 25, 1085).

Gregory VIII: Pope. (rOct 21-Dec 17, 1187).

Gregory IX: Pope. (rMarch 19, 1227-Aug 22, 1241).

Gregory X: Pope. (rSept 1, 1271-Jan 10, 1276).

Gregory XI: Pope. (rDec 30, 1370-March 26, 1378).

Gregory XII: Pope. (rNov 30, 1406-July 4, 1415).

Gregory XIII: Pope. (rMay 13, 1572-Apr 10, 1585).

Gregory XIV: Pope. (rDec 5, 1590-Oct 15/16, 1591).

Gregory XV: Pope. (rFeb 9, 1621-July 8, 1623).

Gregory XVI: Pope. (rFeb. 2, 1831-June 1, 1846).

Gricignano di Aversa (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population:  9,479 (2006e).

Griko: A modern Greek dialect spoken in two small areas on the southern Italian mainland.

Grimaldi (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,820 (2006e).

Grimoald I: (b. cAD 610-671). Duke of Benevento (AD 651-662). He was king of the Lombard Kingdom of Italy from 662 to 671/2.

Grisolia (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 2,420 (2006e).

Grottaglie (TA): A commune in the province of Taranto. Its name derives from the caves (grottos) and ravines carved into the local limestone.

Grottaminarda (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 8,336 (2006e).

Grotte: A commune in the province of Agrigento. Population: 6,050 (2006e).

Grotteria (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.

Grottole (MT): A commune in the province of Matera. Population: 2,518 (2006e).

Grottolella (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 1,935 (2006e).

Grumento Nova (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

Grumo Appula (BA): A commune in the province of Bari. Population: 12,797 (2006e).

Grumo Nevano (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.

Guagnano (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 6,050 (2006e).

Guaimar: Prince of Capua (1038-1047). Also Prince of Salerno.

Gualtieri Sicamino (ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

Gualtiero: (fl. late 12th century). Bishop of Troia and Grand Chancellor of Sicily in 1195.

Gualtiero da Ocre: Grand Chancellor of Sicily under King Manfred.

Gualtiero de Palearia: (fl. early 13th century). Grand Chancellor of Sicily in 1206.

Guardavalle (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 5,117 (2006e).

Guardia Lombardi (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 1,937 (2006e).

Guardia Perticara (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

Guardia Piemontese (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,567 (2006e).

Guardia Sanframondi (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population:  5,472 (2006e).

Guardiagrele (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 9,621 (2006e).

Guardialfiera (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 1,196 (2006e).

Guardiaregia (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 784 (2006e).

Guelfs (Guelphs, Guelfi): the pro-papal faction who battled the Ghibellines during the struggle for secular power in Italy between the Popes and the Holy Roman Emperors. The Guelf power was established in southern Italy after Charles I of Anjou conquered the Regno in 1266.

Guglielmino, Francesco: (b. 1872, Aci Catena (CT). d. 1956, teacher, classical scholar and poet.

Guglielmo: Archbishop of Capua (r 1135-?).

Guglionesi (CB): A commune in the province of Campobasso. Population: 5,365 (2006e).

Guido of Anagti: (fl. 2nd part of the 12th Century). Ecclesiastic. While serving as bishop of Cefalù, in AD 1187-88, he ceded to the Jews of Syracuse a tract of land to enlarge their cemetery.

Guilmi (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Population: 473 (2006e).

Guiscard, Robert: See Robert Guiscard.