Encyclopedia of Southern Italy – E


Eboli (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Ebremud: See Evremud.

Ebrimud: See Evremud.

Ecphantus: (fl. 4th Century BC; b. Syracuse or Croton). Pythagorean philosopher. He taught that indivisible bodies known as monads, which moved by a divine power (referred to as mind or soul), were the components which made up the world. This was a spherical world which was governed by providence. Some scholars identify Ecphantus as the author of a Neopythagorean treatise entitle On Kingship, although many others contest this and date that work to between the 3rd century BC and the 3rd century AD.

Egnatia Gens: An ancient Roman gens of Samnite origins. They appear to have originally lived in and around the town of Teanum (mod. Teano (CE)) in northern Campania. After the end of the Social War (87 BC), most of the family moved to Rome where two members were admitted to the Senate. Among the surnames belonging to members of his gens were Celer, Maximus, Rufus, and Veratus.

Egnatius, Gellius: (fl. early 3rd century BC). A Samnite leader during the 3rd Samnite War, he led an invasion of Etruria in 288 BC, where he convinced the Etruscans to form and alliance against the Romans.

Eleuterus (Eleutherus), St.: Pope (AD 174/175 – 189). A native of Nicopolis in Epirus, he succeeded St. Soter and was succeeded by St. Victor I.

Eleutherius: (fl. first part of the 7th century AD). Byzantine official. (full page)

Elia of Castrogiovanni, St.: (fl. mid-9th Century). A native of Castrogiovanni in Sicily. While still a minor he fled with his parents from the Saracens who were invading Sicily. They took refuge but were ultimately taken captive. He was fortunate enough on this occasion to be ransomed in North Africa by some Christian mercenaries in the service of the Saracens. While sailing from Africa, his ship was met by a Byzantine vessel to which he transferred. Soon he was able to return home and reunite with his family. Eventually he had the misfortune to be taken captive by the Saracens again. Taken back to North Africa he was sold as a slave to a fellow-Christian. Later, he was sold to a wealthy land owner who grew to respect him as a holy man. Freed at last, he went on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem in c850, remaining there for three years.

Elice (PE): A commune in the province of Pescara.

Elymian (Grk: Elymoi; Lat: Elymi): (Full Page)

Elymian Ware: Pottery ware (dente di lupo, gray ware) common in seventh- and sixth-century west Sicily. Despite the name, there is no good reason to think that “Elymian ware” was actually associated in any way with the Elymian ethnic group.

-emi: a suffix attached to several place names in Sicily who Saracen foundation; e.g. Buscemi, Salemi, and Niscemi.

Empedocles (Grk. Empedokles): an athlete of ancient Akragas. He was victor in the Horse Race at the Olympian Games in 496 BC. He was the grandfather of his namesake, the famous philosopher Empedocles (c490-430 BC).

Emperor: (Ital. imperatore). The highest level of a sovereign, generally ranking over kings. The ruler of an empire The term derives from the Latin imperator, originally a title given to a victorious Roman general. When Roman rulers began to reserve the title exclusively for themselves, imperator took on the meaning of “supreme ruler” which it still holds today.

emporion (Lat. emporium): an ancient Greek trading-post or proto-colony.

Enceladus (Grk. Enkelados): a mythical giant, the son of Tartarus and Gaia (Ge). He participated in the war between the Olympian gods and the Gigantes (giants). He was seriously wounded by Athena who then crushed him beneath the island of Sicily. A fire-breather, it is his breathe that is reputed to spout forth from Mt. Etna.

Endecasillabo: A Central Italian song form with 11-syllable phrases.

Enna, Province of: A province of Sicily.

Enna (EN): A commune and provincial capital in the province of Enna. Population: 18,312 (2006e).

Ennius, Quintus: Quintus Ennius is the first Latin poet; he wrote during the Roman Republic. His Annales, written in dactylic hexameter, chronicled Roman history beginning with the fall of Troy and continuing through Cato the Elder’s censorship. The Annales was an early text used in schools that was eventually replaced with Vergil’s Aeneid.