Encyclopedia of Southern Italy – A

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A: In the ancient Roman world, A usually stood for the praenomen Aulus. In many inscriptions it stood for the singular title Augustus; AA meant duo Augusti (two Augusti); AAA meant tres Augusti (three Augusti); etc.

Aaron ben Gershon Abu Al-Rabi of Catania: (fl. 1400-1450). Sicilian-Jewish scholar, cabalist, and astrologer. Having been educated at Treviso, he was well-acquainted with the various scientific and philosophical controversies of his time. He was an excellent grammarian and had a good working knowledge of the Arabic language. He was also familiar with the practice of astrology and the tenets of the Cabala. During his lifetime he traveled widely through the lands bordering the eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea, making many connections with influential Jewish and Christian leaders and scholars, including Pope Martin V.

Abacaenum (Greek: Abakainon) (see full page)

Abagnole, Giuseppe: [b. Nov. 25, 1816, Casole, [NA]. d. Feb. 13, 1869, Aversa [CE]]. Patriot. He was a member of Garibaldi’s Mille (Thousand) in 1860.
Abamonti, (or Abbamonte), Giuseppe: (see full page)
Abarbanel (Abravanel): A Jewish family which flourished in the Kingdom of Naples in the 15th and 16th centuries. Their ranks included prominent merchants, bankers, scholars, and philosophers. Originally centered in Spain and Portugal, they fled into exile in southern Italy when the Inquisition was imposed in 1492. Two of their members, the brothers Giuseppe and Giacomo Abarbanel, created a commercial network throughout Apulia, Basilicata, and Calabria. When, in 1510, the new Spanish government in Naples issued a decree of expulsion against the Jews, the Abarbanel family was able to successfully bribe court officials into granting them special exemption.
Abarbanel (Abravanel), Isaac
: (b. 1437 in Lisbon. d. 1508 in Venice). Financier and scholar. A member of a prominent Jewish family, he had earned great wealth and a reputation for great intellect and scholarship in his native Portugal. During these years he was honored with several high appointments by King Alfonso. On the accession of John II to the Portuguese throne, Abarbanel found himself out of favor and forced to flee to neighboring Castile. He now devoted much time to the study of the Old Testament, but soon reentered the political arena. It was not long before his gifts brought him the attention and favor of King Ferdinand of Aragon, who now ruled Castile jointly with his wife Isabella. This favor, however, was of no help when, in 1492, Jews were banished from the Spanish kingdom. Not wishing to become a victim of the Inquisition, Abarbanel decided to seek a friendlier and more tolerant home. Accompanied by his three sons, Judah, Joseph, and Samuel, he resettled at Naples, in 1493, and soon earned a place of honor at the court of King Ferdinand I. He was able to use his great talents to rebuild his fortune and to play an important role in the kingdom’s intellectual life. For the next few years, Abarbanel enjoyed the royal favor of Ferdinand and his successor, Alfonso II. He made several close contacts with leading Jewish and Christian scholars throughout Italy. Abarbanel’s misfortunes returned when, in 1495, the French King Charles VIII seized power in Naples. Accompanying Alfonso II into exile at Messina, Sicily, he remained there until the former king’s death. He then relocated for a short time to the Greek island of Corfu. After the French retreated from the Kingdom of Naples, Abarbanel returned (1496) and settled in the port-city of Monopoli in Apulia. He was his intention to devote his time hereafter to scholarly pursuits and avoid politics. His rest from forced travels, however, proved all too short. In 1504, Spain defeated France for control of southern Italy and annexed Naples. The Inquisition which he had fled in Spain was now brought to Italy, forcing Abarbanel to flee once again. At the age of 71, he resettled in Venice, remaining there until his death. Abarbanel had one more, short episode in his political career when he played an instrumental role in effecting a treaty between Venice and his native Portugal. When he finally died in 1508, he was interred in a beautiful tomb at Padua. Abarbanel’s surviving literary works are concerned with Biblical studies and commentaries. Throughout his life, Abarbanel claimed, although without any proof, that he was a direct descendant of King David of Israel.
Abarbanel
: See Abrabanel.
Abate (sometimes Abbate)
: A prominent Sicilian family. Becoming feudal lords of Carina in 1293, they later obtained the title of Barons of Uria (1453). One branch of the family held the title of Marchese of Lungarini.
Abate, St. Adamo
: (b. cAD 990 in Petazio (mod. Petacciato [CB]); d. May 3, between 1060 and 1070). Benedictine abbot. He was a strong supporter of the unification of southern Italy under Roger II. Feast Day: June 3.
Abate (or Abbate), Andrea Belvedere
: (b. 1642 or 1652, Naples; d. June 26, 1732]. Painter. Centered in Naples, he specialized in depictions of natural history and still life. He was particularly well-known for his paintings of flowers and his style anticipates the approaching European Rococo.
Abate, Gennaro
: (b. Apr. 1, 1874, Bitonto [BA]). Composer. His works consist of operas, symphonies, and chamber music.
Abate, Onofrio
: (b. 1824, Palermo. d. 1915, Cairo). Physician and naturalist. A specialist in ophthalmology, he traveled to Egypt in 1845, where he became director of the government hospital at Alexandria. After 1882, he came to be known as Abate Pascià. The author of a number of medical works, he also wrote on the Egyptian economic and sanitation systems, the history of science, and Egyptian archaeology and geography.
Abatellis, Francesco
: (fl. 2nd half of the 15th century). Harbor master (Maestro Portulano) of the kingdom of Sicily, Praetor of the city of Palermo. He is best-known for his fine home in Palermo, the Palazzo Abatellia (or Palazzo Patella), designed and built by Matteo Carnelivari between 1488 and 1495. After the death of Abatellis, the building was transformed into a monastery, remaining such until 1867. It is now the home of the Palazzo Abatellis Sicilian Regional Gallery.
Abate Pascià
: See Onofrio Abate.
Abba, Giuseppe Cesare
: (b. Oct. 6, 1838, Cairo Montenotte [SV]), Liguria. d. Nov. 6, 1910, Brescia [BS]). Diarist, novelist, short story writer. A member of Garibaldi’s Mille (Thousand), he published an excellent account of the 1860 conquest of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. This subject formed the premise for the poem Arrigo: da Quarto al Volturno (publ. 1866) as well as for two diaries: Noterelle di uno dei Mille edite dopo vent’anni (Notes by one of the Mille twenty years later)(1880) and Da Quarto al Volturno: Noterelle d’uno dei Mille (From Quarto to Volturno: Notes by one of the Mille), [1891].
Abbadelli
: See Abbatelli.
Abbadessa
: A noble family in Sicily. Originating in Florence, they appear to have arrived in Palermo during the reign of Frederick III (r1295-1337). Nicolo Abbadessa served that king as a royal percettore (collector) and then governor of the Camera Reginale. His descendents, Corrado and Andrea Abbadessa, both served in the post of governor of Vizzini under Charles V in the 16th Century.
Abbadia: See Badia.
Abbagnano, Nicola: (b. July 15, 1901, Salerno. d. Sept. 9, 1990, Milan). Existentialist Philosopher and Historian of Italian Philosophy. In 1936, he joined the faculty of the University of Torino (Turin) as a professor of philosophy. In 1939, he became professor of the history of philosophy at the same institution. He was an exponent of Positive Existentialism, in opposition to the Negative Existentialism as expounded by Heidegger, Jaspers, and Sartre. He was the author of several works: La struttura scienza (Torino, 1939); Esistnzialismo positive (Torino, 1948); Storia della filosofia (in 3 vol. 1946-50); Problemi di sociologia (Torino, 1958); Filosofia Antica, Filosofia Patristica, Filosofia Scolastica: Volume 1 (Torino, 1963); Filosofia del Rinascimento, Filosofia Moderna dei secoli XVII e XVIII: Volume II (Torino, 1963).Quote: “Reason itself is fallible, and this fallibility must find a place in our logic”.- Daily Telegraph (London, Sept. 14, 1990).
Abbasids
: The 2nd dynasty of the Islamic empire. Reigning from AD 750 to 1258, they came to power by overthrowing their predecessors, the Umayyads. The Abbasids based their right to rule upon their descent from al-Abbas, the uncle of Mohammed. It was under the Abbasid Caliphs that the Islamic assault on Europe took place.
Abbate (or Abbati)
: A noble family of Sicily. Its founder appears to have been a Roman knight named Papiro. Wishing to withdraw to the monastery of Monte Cassino, he turned all of his worldly possession over to his son Ascanio. When Ascanio died soon afterwards without having produced an heir, Papiro was forced to give up his monk’s habit and return to the outside world. Marrying again, he began a new family which took the surname Abbate in remembrance of his time as a monk.
Abbate, Andrea
: See Abate, Andrea.
Abbateggio (PE):A commune (Area: 15.71 km². Alt. 450 m) of Abruzzo, in the province of Pescara, located 40 km from Pescara. Pop. 419 (2007e).
History: The town dates back to at least the 10th century.
Abbatelli: A noble family of Sicily. The earliest known member was Dulcio Abbatelli from Lucca in northern Italy who settled at Palermo in 1237 during the reign of Emperor Frederick II (r1198-1250). In 1431, Giovanni Abbatelli (also known as Patella) purchased the county of Cammarata from one Moncada for the price of 40 thousand gold fiorini. He also acquired the fiefs of Pietra and Cefalu, as well as half of the excise tax on fruit from Palermo. He rose to a high social status, marrying into the Chiaromonte family. In 1451, Dulcio’s son Ferderico was officially invested with the title of Count of Cammarata. Through is mother’s line he also became the Count of Modica. A few generations later, in 1535, Cammarata came into the hands of Margherita Abbatelli and her husband, Blasco (Biagio) Branciforte, nephew of the Captain-general Count Federico Branciforte. The principal branch of the family soon became extinct but another line survived at Catania.
Abbati
: See Abbate.
Abbati, Giuseppe
: (b. 1836, Naples. d. 1868, Florence). Painter. The son of Vincenzo Abbati, another Neapolitan painter, he received his earliest education from his father. Later, graduating from the Academy at Venice, he specialized in genre (i.e. pictures of everyday life), architecture, and landscapes. During the Risorgimento, he fought under Garibaldi and lost an eye in combat. In 1866, he volunteered to fight in the Italian army against the Austrians in the Tyrol. He survived the war only to succumb to an infected dog bite in 1868. Principal Works: A Dominican singing in the choir of Santa Maria Novella, Florence (1863); Peasant Family taking a siesta. The Prayer; The Dominican; A Street in Sunlight.
Abbot
: The Ordinary of an abbey. For those abbeys having additional territory attached to the, the abbot serves as the Ordinary for the whole area.
Abd: an Arabic term meaning “slave of”, “servant of”, or “worshipper of”. Several Arabic personal names are created by the combination of Abd- with “Allah” or other names or attributes of the deity (e.g. Abdullah, Abdul).
Abdalla-ibn-Cais-el-Fezary: (fl. 2nd half of the 7th Century AD). Saracen raider. A general of the Caliph Moawia, he led the first Saracen raid on Sicily in AD 667.
‘Abdallah ibn ‘Abbas ibn al-Fadl
: Aghlabid governor of Sicily (rAD 862).
Abdila
: Byzantine Strategies of Bari (rAD 969-975).
Abdilla: a surname of Saracen origin. It is first attested in historical documents in 1178 among the Muslim serfs living in Norman Sicily.
Abela: A surname found in Sicily, of Aragonese origins.
Abela, Gaetano: (b. 1796, Siracusa. d. 1826, Palermo). Patriot. Joining the Carbonara movement, he participated in an unsuccessful insurrection at Siracusa in 1826. Arrested the following year, he spent the remainder of his short life in prison.
Abelard of Hauteville
: (b. c1044; d. 1081). (see full page)
Abella (or Avella)
: An ancient Greek town in Campania. Situated near Nola, it was founded by the Chalcidian Greeks. It was best known for the quality of its apples and hazel-nuts. The modern Avella (AV).
Abellinum (
sometimes Abellinum Protropum): Ancient name for Avellino [AV]. The original Abellinum lay near the present city of Avellino in the upper valley of the river Sabatus (mod. Sabbato). Founded by the Hirpini, a Samnite tribe, it lay on the road connecting Beneventum and Salernum. Abellinum appears in history only in the Roman era. By then it had become a prosperous town and had probably achieved the status of a colonia under the Second Triumvirate (mid- 1st century BC).The city survived the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, finally succumbing in the early Middle Ages during the wars between the Byzantines and Lombards. The survivors abandoned the original site and refounded their city on the present site of Avellino. The site of ancient Abellinum includes the remains of the city walls and the ruins of an amphitheatre. A great number of inscriptions, bas-reliefs, statuary, etc have been unearthed.
Abellinum Marsicum
: An ancient town in Lucania, situated to the NE of Casilinum, near the source of the river Aciris. It was the capital city of the Marsi. The modern Marsico Vetere [PZ].
Abenavolo, Ludovico
: (b. 1470, Capua or Teano. d. c1535). Man-at-arms. Son of Troilo Abanavolo, lord of Teano, he was one of the 13 Italian knights who defeated an equal number of French knights in the famous Disfida di Barletta (Feb 13, 1503). He is mentioned as being one of the three sindici of the University of Teano in 1518. In 1528, he had apparently changed loyalties and supported the French against the Spanish during their war over southern Italy. After 1532 he disappears from the historical record.
Abignente, Filippo
: (b. 1814, Sarno. d. 1887, Rome). Patriot and statesman. On May 15, 1848, he was one of the Deputies of the Neapolitan Parliament who signed the protest against King Ferdinand II. As a result he was forced to flee for his life in 1849 when the revolutionary movement was crushed. He settled in Nice, then part of the Kingdom of Sardinia, until the final collapse of Bourbon power in Naples in 1860. He then returned home where he became professor of church history at the University of Naples. Reentering politics, he served in the Italian government as a Counselor of State in 1876. From 1866 to 1883, he was a Parliamentary Deputy, serving in 1880 as President of the Camera. Throughout his career, Abignente played an important role in guiding relations between the Church and the Kingdom of Italy.
Abignente, Marino
: (b. 1471, Sarno. d. 1521). Man-at-arms. Born into a noble family of Sarno (SA), he was one of the 13 Italian knights who took part in the famous Disfida di Barletta (Feb. 13, 1503).
Abolla (SR)
: An ancient town in eastern Sicily, situated at the mouth of the river Erineus. It is usually identified with present-day Avola (SR), located on the island’s E coast about 9 km NE of Noto (SR). Abolla is only mentioned in the historical records by the 5th century AD historian Stephanus Byzantinus.
Aborigines
: A generic term for the original inhabitants of a country. Although the term is sometimes applied to the ancestors of the Latins by ancient writers it is a misnomer. These proto-Latins had to drive away earlier settlers, often identified as the Sikels, before they were able to settle in Latium.
Abos, Gerolamo (or Geronimo)
: (b. Nov. 16, 1715, Valetta, Malta. d. May or Oct. 1760, Naples). Composer and singing teacher. Trained in Naples by L. Leo and Francesco Durante, he toured through many of Europe’s great cities including Rome, Venice, Turin, and London. In 1756, he became maestro al cembalo at the Italian Theater in London. During his career he composed 14 operas (both melodramatic and opera buffo) and several pieces of church music. Principal Works: La Serva Padrona (1744, Naples).L’Ifigenia in Aulide.
Abramo di Balmes
: (b. Lecce. d. Venice, 1523). Jewish physician and grammarian. A native of Apulia, he made several important translations, from Hebrew editions, of Arab philosophical and scientific works. Among these were the writings of Averroës; and the Miqreh Abram (Possession of Abram).
Abravanel
: See Abarbanel.
Abrial, Count Andre Joseph
: (b. Mar. 19, 1750, Annoney, France. d. 1828, Paris). Magistrate and politician. After establishing himself as a successful magistrate in Paris, he was selected by the Directory to go to Naples in 1799 to help organize the government of the Parthenopean Republic. In February of that year he became the republic’s chief of civic and political police and set about setting up the organization of the civilian and military branches of the government. The plans he formulated who create a constitutional republic along the lines that governed France at that time. During his term in office, he developed a reputation for fairness and honesty. The collapse of the Parthenopean Republic forced him to flee back to France where he became a strong supporter of Napoleon. He was subsequently honored both by Napoleon and King Louis XVIII.
Abriola (PZ): (see full page)
Abruzzi/Abruzzo: (see full page)
Abruzzi/Abruzzo, Communes of:
Province of Chieti
Altino, Archi, Ari, Arielli, Atessa, Bomba, Borrello, Bucchianico, Canosa Sannita, Carpineto Sinello, Carunchio, Casacanditella, Casalanguida, Casalbordino, Casalincontrada, Casoli, Castel Frentano, Castelguidone, Castiglione Messer Marino, Celenza sul Trigno, Chieti, Civitaluparella, Civitella Messer Raimondo, Colledimacine, Colledimezzo, Crecchio, Cupello, Dogliola, Fallo, Fara Filiorum Petri, Fara San Martino, Filetto, Fossacesia, Fraine, Francavilla al Mare, Fresagrandinaria, Frisa, Furci, Gamberale, Gessopalena, Gissi, Giuliano Teatino, Guardiagrele, Guilmi, Lama dei Peligni, Lanciano, Lentella, Lettopalena, Liscia, Miglianico, Montazzoli, Montebello sul Sangro, Monteferrante, Montelapiano, Montenerodomo, Monteodorisio, Mozzagrogna, Orsogna, Ortona, Paglieta, Palena, Palmoli, Palombaro, Pennadomo, Pennapiedimonte, Perano, Pietraferrazzana, Pizzoferrato, Poggiofiorito, Pollutri, Pretoro, Quadri, Rapino, Ripa Teatina, Rocca San Giovanni, Roccamontepiano, Roccascalegna, Roccaspinalveti, Roio del Sangro, Rosello, San Buono, San Giovanni Lipioni, San Giovanni Teatino, San Martino sulla Marrucina, San Salvo, San Vito Chietino, Santa Maria Imbaro, Sant`Eusanio del Sangro, Scerni, Schiavi di Abruzzo, Taranta Peligna, Tollo, Torino di Sangro, Tornareccio, Torrebruna, Torrevecchia Teatina, Torricella Peligna, Treglio, Tufillo, Vacri, Vasto, Villa Santa Maria, Villalfonsina, Villamagna.
Province of L’Aquila
Acciano, Aielli, Alfedena, Anversa degli Abruzzi, Ateleta, Avezzano, Balsorano, Barete, Barisciano, Barrea, Bisegna, Bugnara, Cagnano Amiterno, Calascio, Campo di Giove, Campotosto, Canistro, Cansano, Capestrano, Capistrello, Capitignano, Caporciano, Cappadocia, Carapelle Calvisio, Carsoli, Castel del Monte, Castel di Ieri, Castel di Sangro, Castellafiume, Castelvecchio Calvisio, Castelvecchio Subequo, Celano, Cerchio, Civita d`Antino, Civitella Alfedena, Civitella Roveto, Cocullo, Collarmele, Collelongo, Collepietro, Corfinio, Fagnano Alto, Fontecchio, Fossa, Gagliano Aterno, Gioia dei Marsi, Goriano Sicoli, Introdacqua, Lecce nei Marsi, Luco dei Marsi, Lucoli, L`Aquila, Magliano de` Marsi, Massa d`Albe, Molina Aterno, Montereale, Morino, Navelli, Ocre, Ofena, Opi, Oricola, Ortona dei Marsi, Ortucchio, Ovindoli, Pacentro, Pereto, Pescasseroli, Pescina, Pescocostanzo, Pettorano sul Gizio, Pizzoli, Poggio Picenze, Prata d`Ansidonia, Pratola Peligna, Prezza, Raiano, Rivisondoli, Rocca di Botte, Rocca di Cambio, Rocca di Mezzo, Rocca Pia, Roccacasale, Roccaraso, San Benedetto dei Marsi, San Benedetto in Perillis, San Demetrio ne` Vestini, San Pio delle Camere, San Vincenzo Valle Roveto, Sante Marie, Santo Stefano di Sessanio, Sant`Eusanio Forconese, Scanno, Scontrone, Scoppito, Scurcola Marsicana, Secinaro, Sulmona, Tagliacozzo, Tione degli Abruzzi, Tornimparte, Trasacco, Villa Santa Lucia degli Abruzzi, Villa Sant`Angelo, Villalago, Villavallelonga, Villetta Barrea, Vittorito.
Province of Pescara
Abbateggio, Alanno, Bolognano, Brittoli, Bussi sul Tirino, Cappelle sul Tavo, Caramanico Terme, Carpineto della Nora, Castiglione a Casauria, Catignano, Cepagatti, Citta` Sant`Angelo, Civitaquana, Civitella Casanova, Collecorvino, Corvara, Cugnoli, Elice, Farindola, Lettomanoppello, Loreto Aprutino, Manoppello, Montebello di Bertona, Montesilvano, Moscufo, Nocciano, Penne, Pescara, Pescosansonesco, Pianella, Picciano, Pietranico, Popoli, Roccamorice, Rosciano, Salle, San Valentino in Abruzzo Citeriore, Sant`Eufemia a Maiella, Scafa, Serramonacesca, Spoltore, Tocco da Casauria, Torre De` Passeri, Turrivalignani, Vicoli, Villa Celiera.
Province of Teramo
Alba Adriatica, Ancarano, Arsita, Atri, Basciano, Bellante, Bisenti, Campli, Canzano, Castel Castagna, Castellalto, Castelli, Castiglione Messer Raimondo, Castilenti, Cellino Attanasio, Cermignano, Civitella del Tronto, Colledara, Colonnella, Controguerra, Corropoli, Cortino, Crognaleto, Fano Adriano, Giulianova, Isola del Gran Sasso d`Italia, Martinsicuro, Montefino, Montorio al Vomano, Morro d`Oro, Mosciano Sant`Angelo, Nereto, Notaresco, Penna Sant`Andrea, Pietracamela, Pineto, Rocca Santa Maria, Roseto degli Abruzzi, Sant`Egidio alla Vibrata, Sant`Omero, Silvi, Teramo, Torano Nuovo, Torricella Sicura, Tortoreto, Tossicia, Valle Castellana.
Abruzzi e Molise: A former region/compartment of Italy, now divided into the regions of Abruzzo and Molise. It had an area of 5,955 square miles (or 6,380 according to Lippincott, 1913).

Abruzzo, Parco Nazionale d’ (Abruzzo National Park):
A national park centered on the upper valley of the river Sangro. Privately founded in 1921, it came under national control in 1923. It covers 408 km² in area with an additional protected region of 200 km². The greater part of the park lies within the province of L’Aquila, with a smaller part in the province of Frosinone (Lazio). It is dominated by the Montagna Grande, which marks its northern boundary. The high meadows of the park consist of forests of pine, chestnut, beech, and maple trees. There is also a rare species of birch tree which have been native to the area since the last Ice Age.
                The park’s fauna is very diverse. It is home to about 300 different species of birds (including goshawks, sea crows, royal eagles, and song birds), 40 species of mammals (including the Abruzzian brown bear [Ursus arctos marsicanus]), Apennine wolf, roe deer, red deer, wildcats [e.g. Apennine lynx], otters, foxes, and squirrels), and 30 species of retiles and amphibians (including Orsini snakes and yellow salamanders). The park is famous as the home of the Abruzzo Chamois (Rupicapra ornata), found primarily in the high meadowlands.
                The park includes a natural history museum, a zoo, and a botanical garden. The park headquarters is located at Pescasseroli.
Abruzzo Citeriore: an alternate name for Abruzzo Citra.
Abruzzo Citra (sometimes Abruzzo Citeriore) (Nearer Abruzzo): A province of the former kingdoms of Naples and the Two Sicilies. It corresponds to the present province of Chieti. Its designation as “Nearer” referred to its position to the city of Naples in relation to the other two Abruzzian provinces (Abruzzo Ultra 1 and 2). The province was about 1,700 square miles in area and had a population of 260,250 (in 1825). Its capital was Chieti, or Teti, (anc. Teate), and its other principal communities were Pescara, Ortona, and Lanciano.
Abruzzo-Molise, Ecclesiastical Region of:

Ecclesiastical Region of Abruzzo-Molise (Data for 2006)

(Source: Chiesa Cattolica Italiana)

Area (km²)

15,472

Population

1,542,949

Parishes

1,059

Secular Priests

953

Religious Priests

394

Permanent Deacons

85

Archdioceses(A)&

Dioceses (D)

Avezzano (D)
Campobasso-Boiano (A)
Chieti-Vasto (A)
Isernia-Venafro (D)
Lanciano-Ortona (A)
L’Aquila (A)
Pescara-Penne (A)
Sulmona-Valva (D)
Teramo-Atri (D)
Termoli-Larino (D)
Trivento (D)

Abruzzo Ulteriore I: Alternate name for Abruzzo Ultra I.
Abruzzo Ulteriore II: Alternate name for Abruzzo Ultra II.
Abruzzo Ultra (sometimes Abruzzo Ulteriore) (Further Abruzzo) I: A province of the former kingdoms of Naples and the Two Sicilies corresponding to the modern province of Teramo. The northernmost province of the Regno, it had an area of about 1,143 square miles and a population of 174,370 (in 1825). Its principal towns were Teramo (the provincial capital), Atri, and Civita di Penne. Also found here was the fortress of Civitella, the last Bourbon stronghold to surrender to the Piedmontese in 1861.
Abruzzo Ultra (sometimes Abruzzo Ulteriore) (Further Abruzzo) II: A province of the former kingdoms of Naples and the Two Sicilies corresponding to the modern province of L’Aquila. It was about 2,220 square miles in area and had a population of 259,114 (in 1825). Its capital, Aquila (L’Aquila), was a center for the manufacturing of paper, stockings and leather goods. Its other principal towns were Sulmona (anc. Sulmo), the birthplace of the Roman poet Ovid, and Celano.
Abrystum: See Aprustum.
Abside
: See apse.
Abu: an Arabic form found in many personal and geographical names, usually signifying either possession or paternity.
Abu Aaron: (fl. 2nd part of the 9th century). Jewish scholar. A notable scholar, he frequented the various Jewish communities throughout southern Italy. While visiting Saracen-controlled Bari, he became friends with the emir Sawdan.
Abu Abbas ibn ‘Ali
: Aghlabid governor of Sicily (rAD 886).
Abu ‘Abbas ibn Ya’qub ibn ‘Abdallah
: Aghlabid governor of Sicily (r AD 871-2).
Abu ‘Abbas ‘Abdallah ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Abdallah ibn al-Aghlab
: Aghlabid governor of Sicily (rAD 873).
Abu ‘Abdallah Asad ibn Furat ibn Sinan: Aghlabid governor of Sicily (r. AD 827-8).
Abu ‘Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Battuta: (b. c1100, at Ceuta; d. 1164). Geographer. Having been educated at Cordoba, he traveled widely throughout much of the Islamic world, including Spain, the Barbary states in North Africa, and Asia Minor. He eventually arrived in Sicily where he became a member of Roger II’s court at Palermo. He is famous for creating a world map and an accompanying description of the world as it was then known for Roger. This work, called the al-nuzhat al-mushtaq (The Book of Roger), was completed in 1154.
Abu Fihr Muhammad ibn ‘Abdallah ibn al-Aghlab: Aghlabid governor of Sicily (r.AD 831-5).
Abu’l-Abbas ‘Abdallah ibn Ibrahim II
: Aghlabid governor of Sicily (r. AD 899-902).
Abu’l-Aghlab Abbas ibn Fadl ibn Ya’qub ibn Fezara
: Aghlabid governor of Sicily (r. AD 851-861).
Abu’l-Aghlab Ibrahim ibn ‘Abdallah
: Aghlabid governor of Sicily (r. AD 835-851).
Abu Malik Ahmad ibn ‘Umar ibn ‘Abdallah ibn Ibrahim I ibn al-Aghlab
: Aghlabid governor of Sicily (r AD 873-76; 899).
Academia: A beautiful country villa built by Cicero in the 1st century BC near Puteoli (mod. Pozzuoli) in Campania. It was one of his favorite retreats where he would take pleasure in philosophical studies and conversations with friends. It was here that he composed his Academic Questions. He named the villa Academia in honor of Plato’s famous philosophical school in Athens. (also see “academy”).
Academy: a school or conservatory. The name derives from the Greek akademeia, which, in turn, is based on Akademus, the name of a mythological hero. A public park is ancient Athens dedicated to Akademus, was the chosen location for Plato and his students to gather.
Acadine (Acadinus): A fountain of Sicily situated near ancient Palica, mentioned by Diodorus Siculus. Its waters were believed to have magic properties. Written oaths and promises were thrown into the fountain to test faithfulness. Those which sank were considered to be falsely made; while those made with honesty would float.
Acaia (or Acaja, Acaya) (LE): A community in southern Puglia, it is now a frazione in the commune of Vernole (LE). Its name, which derives from Achaia, a region of Greece, reveals its Byzantine origins. The existing center, however, is somewhat more recent, Aragonese foundation. A castle was begun here in 1506 by the Baron Alfonso dell Acaja, and completed by his son Gian Giacomo dell Acaja in 1535. The latter was also the architect for the castle at Lecce, the town walls at Crotone, and the Castel Sant’Elmo in Naples. The Acaia castle is considered a model of Aragonese military architecture, with an imposing enciente and large bastions with steep scarps and partially revealed, projecting battlements. Of particular interest is an underground passage which runs from this castle to the Castle of Charles V in Lecce, a distance of some 10 km.
                Outside the town walls is a marsh protected by the World Wildlife Fund.
Acalandra (mod. Salandra): A town in ancient Lucania. It derived its name from the nearby river, Acalandrus.
Acalandrus (or Akalandros), River
: Ancient name for a small river in Lucania. It is believed to be one of the streams flowing into the Gulf of Taranto about 16 km S of the river Sinni. Its exact identification with any modern river remains uncertain since there is a discrepancy among the ancient sources as to its location. Some modern sources identify it with the Cavone, while others believe it to be the Salandrella. The Acalandrus is thought to have been a natural boundary between the ancient Greek cities of Heraclea and Thurii. This gave it such political significance that it was chosen by Alexander of Epirus as his choice for the site of the general assembly of Italiote Greeks. According to Pliny the Elder, in Roman times the river was called the Talandrus. The Greek name Akalandros derives from the Indo-European *ekwel-, an extension of the root *akwa- (=water, river). The river Acalandrus lends its name to a canal on the planet Mars.
Acanthus
: A weed best-known for its beautiful purple flower. Its leaves are reminiscent of the elaborate capitals on Corinthian columns. Acanthus weeds are found growing wild throughout southern Italy, especially in stony locations like archaeological sites.
Acate (formerly Biscari) (see full page)

Acate (anc. Dirillo, Achates), River: A river in SE Sicily, rising at an elevation of c600 m. on M. Lauro at the N end of the Monti Iblei in Catania province. Flowing in a SW direction for 51.5 km, it passes through the province of Ragusa before emptying into the Mediterranean on the S coast of Sicily. Its mouth is located about 11 km SE of Gela.

Acaviser: An ancient Etruscan deity who is sometimes describer as a male and at other times as a female. Probably a divinity concerned with healing, this deity is associated with Turan, Achilles, Thetis and Alpan.
Accademia Antoniana: An early name for the Accademia Panormita in Naples.
Accadia (FG) (med. Eca):A commune (area: 30.47 km². alt. 650 m) of Puglia, in the province of Foggia. (see full page)

Accaria Rosario (CZ): A frazione in the commune of Serrastretta (CZ). It was founded in medieval times by the Saracens.
Accarini: A surname found mainly in Sicily. It is of Saracen origins deriving from the Arab al-qarinu (= husband).
Accascina, Filippo “Pippo”
: (b. May 13, 1919, Mezzojuso (PA). d. 2001, Rome). Chemist. He was a noted researcher on the theory of electric conductance of solutions between ions, solvent molecules, absorption of ultrasolics in liquid mixtures and kinetic of hydrolysis. During his career he was a professor of chemistry at the University of Rome.
Accetta, Giulio
: (b. Francavilla Fontana (BR). d. Sept. 25, 1725, Turin). Mathematician and Augustinian Monk. He was a professor of mathematics at the University of Turin. His principal work was Gli elementi di Euclid (post. 1753).
Accetto (sometimes Maestro Accetto)
: (b. Lavoro, Apulia. fl. 11th century). Sculptor and archdeacon. One of his best works was a pulpit in the Cathedral of Canosa di Puglia. Remains of another of his pulpits (1041) can be seen in the church of S. Michele at Monte Sant’Angelo (FG). Accetto’s sculpture reveals strong Byzantine and Saracen influences; ornate in styling and never depicting human figures.
Accetto, Torquato: (fl. 1st half of the 17th century). Neapolitan scholar. An author of moralistic verses, he is best known for his 1641 treatise Della dissimulazione onestra.
Accettura (MT): A commune (Area: 89.27 km². alt: 770 m) of Basilicata, in the province of Matera (see full page).


Acciaioli: See Acciaiuoli.
Acciaiuoli (or Acciajuoli, Acciaioli)
: A notable family of Florentine origins. Their name, deriving from acciao (=steel), reflects their roots as 12th century steel processors. As such, and later as bankers, they became exceptionally wealthy. During the 14th and 15th centuries, one branch of the family became deeply involved in the political affairs of central Greece, becoming virtual rulers of Elis, Messenia, and Cephalonia. Another branch of the family became important financial backers to the Angevin rulers of Naples. Among the family’s most notable members was Niccolo Acciaiuoli who, in 1358, was granted control of Corinth by King Robert the Wise of Naples. Among his endeavors was the refortification of the Isthmus of Corinth. Later members of the family went on to gain control over Athens and Thebes, maintaining themselves there until the Turkish invasion in the 15th century. This “Greek” branch intermarried with such families as the Palaiologi and the Tocco.
Acciaiuoli, Angelo
: (b. Apr. 15, 1340, Florence. d. May 31, 1408). Ecclesiastic. In 1375, Pope Gregory XI appointed him Bishop of Rapolla, a diocese in the Kingdom of Naples. In 1383, he was chosen to become Archbishop of Florence. Soon after (1385) Pope Urban VI appointed him to the College of Cardinals. When that pope died a conclave was called at which Acciaiuoli received half of the votes cast. When no decision could be resolved, he directed his followers to support the Neapolitan Piero Tomacelli who then became Pope Boniface IX. Boniface rewarded him by making him Cardinal-Bishop of Ostia. Acciaiuoli later became Governor of Naples, serving as guardian to the young King Ladislaus. After Ladislaus reached his majority, Acciaiuoli continued to be a strong supporter of his claim to the throne of Hungary. He accompanied Ladislaus when he went to Budapest to secure this claim.
Acciaiuoli (or Acciajuoli), Niccolo
: (see full page)

Acciano (AQ): A commune of Abruzzo, in the province of L’Aquila. (see full page)
Acciano, Giulio: (b. 1651, Bagnoli Irpino. d. 1681, Naples). Poet. He produced a series of burlesque and satirical poems, and was a member of the Accademia degli Investiganti (Neapolitan Academy of Investigation).
Acciaroli (SA): A frazione (alt. 10 m) in the commune of Pollica (SA), located 5.8 km SW of that center, on the coast of the Cilento district in the S. part of the province of Salerno. Situated on highway No. 267, it sits on a promontory overlooking the Tyrrhenian Sea. There is a small port facility. Possessing a rugged coastline and great expanse of sandy beaches, Acciaroli has become a center for tourism and water sports. Early in the 20th century, Acciaroli achieved a certain status as being a favorite location of Earnest Hemingway.
Accolti, Michele (a.k.a. Michael): (b. 1807, Conversano [BA]. d. 1878, San Francisco, California). Jesuit missionary. In 1843 he joined the mission sent to the American Indians, assisting Fr. Giovanni de Nobili in the newly established missions of California in 1849. In 1850, he served as Superior of the Jesuit Rocky Mountain Mission in Oregon. Returning for a time to Italy in 1853, he visited Rome. Again in California, he served as professor and prefect of studies at the mission of Santa Clara. In 1868, Accolti served his last post as preacher in New York and San Francisco.
Acconia (CZ): A small frazione in the commune of Curinga (CZ), located 4.5 km WNW of the communal center. It is situated to the left of the torrent Turrina, on the E edge of the Piana di Angitola.
Accordino, Giuseppe: (b. 1777, Patti [ME]; d. 1830). Philosopher.
Accorsi, Mariangelo
: See Accorso, Mariangelo.
Accorso (Accorsi), Mariangelo: (b. Apulia; fl. 1st half of the 16th century). Classical scholar, linguist and critic. He was a favorite of Emperor Charles V and resided at the imperial court for over 30 years. He spent much of his time organizing, editing and translating the ancient manuscripts. Among the ancient writers whose works helped to preserve were Ausonius, Ovid, Cassiodorus, Claudian, and Ammianus Marcellinus. He also wrote a number of original works including a fable, poems, and a satire.

Accua: a small town in ancient Apulia. Its exact site is uncertain but is appears to have been near Luceria. Its only historical mention is in Livy (xxiv.20) who identifies it as one of the towns recovered by the Romans under Q. Fabius from the Carthaginians in 214 BC.
Acellus: See Aegithallus promontorium (TP).
Acer, River
: A river in ancient Lucania. It emptied into the river Sora, near Grumentum.
Acerbi (or Acerbo), Francesco
: (b.1606, Nocera dei Pagani. d. 1690, Naples). Theologian and Latin poet. He served as professor of theology and philosophy at L’Aquila and then at Naples.
Acerbo, Francesco
: See Acerbi, Francesco.
Acerbo, Giacomo
: (b. 1888, Loreto Apurtino, near Pescara. d. 1969, Rome). Soldier, economist, and statesman. During a distinguished military career, he was awarded several medals for valor. Entering the political world, he joined the Fascist party and was elected (1921) as a deputy. He became under-secretary to the president of the Consiglio, serving in that post until 1924. In 1924, he became baron of Aterno. Acerbo served as professor of economics and political agriculture at Rome and, in 1926, became vice-president of the Camera. From 1929 to 1935, he served as Minister for Agriculture and the Forests and, for a short time in 1943 (Feb. 5-July 25), was minister of Finance. On July 25, 1943, he was a member of the Grand Council of Fascists that voted against Mussolini. For this action he was condemned to death (in default) by the Fascist tribunal of Verona (Jan.1944). He was later arrested by the Bonami government and sentenced to 30 years for “Great Acts”, but was later amnestied. He was the brother of Tito Acerbo.
Acerbo, Tito
: (b. Loreto Apurtino, near Pescara, 1890; d. Croce di Piave, 1918). Military hero. He was killed in battle against the Austrians during the First World War. In reward for his heroism, he was posthumously awarded the gold medal for military valor. His younger brother was the Fascist statesman, Giacomo Acerbo.
Acerenza (or Accerenza) (PZ): (see full page)

Acerenza, Archdiocese of
Founded: AD 4th century.
Conference Region: Basilicata.
Metropolitan: Archdiocese of Potenza-Muro Lucano-Marsico Nuovo.
Area: 1,250 km².
Population: 50,567 (2006e).
Priests: 42 (Diocesan: 40; Religious: 2).
Permanent Deacons: 0
Parishes: 21
History:
Suffragan to Potenza-Muro Lucano-Marsico Nuovo. Part of the Ecclesiastical Region of Basilicata. Area: 1,250 km²; Inhabitants: 51,575. Parishes: 21. Clergy: 36 (Secular Priests), 6 (Regular Priests), 0 (Permanent Deacons).
History: The diocese of Acerenza was established in the 4th century AD and became an archdiocese in the 11th century. It was united with the diocese of Matera in 1203.

Acerno (SA): (see full page)
Acerno, Former Diocese of
A former diocese erected in the 11th century.  In 1818, it was united with the Archdiocese of Salerno to become the Archdiocese of Salerno (-Acerno).
Acerno, Forca di (AQ): An alpine pass (alt. 1535 m.) at the edge of the Parco Nazionale d’Abruzzo connecting the valleys of the Comino (Liri) and Sangro.
Acernum (mod. Acerno [SA]): A town of the ancient Picenti. It was located to the east of Salerno.
Acerona (mod. Brienza [PZ]): A town in ancient Lucania, located between Forum Popilii and Marcellina.
Acerone di Avella (AV): A mountain (1,591m) of the Campanian Apennines, located in the province of Avellino.
Acerra (NA): (see full page)
Acerra, Diocese of:
Suffragans:
Metropolitan: Napoli
Conference Region: Campania
Area:  157 km²/ 60 mi²
Total Population: 110,187
Catholic Population:
Total Priests: 49(Diocesan: 28; Religious: 21)
Permanent Deacons: 0.
Male Religious:
Female Religious:
Parishes: 27
History: Founded in the 11th century.
Acerra, Torrente: A waterway (length: 5 km) of Campania, located in the province of Salerno. Rising near Serradarce, it flows into the river Sele at the railroad station for Tuori-Serradarce.
Acerrae (or Acherrae)(mod. Acerra [NA]): Ancient town of Campania, called Acerrae by Pliny, Livy, and Dio Cassius, and Acherrae by Strabo. It was located near the source of the river Clanius, and became a Roman town in 332 BC. It was destroyed by Hannibal during the Second Punic War. Later rebuilt, it was colonized by Augustus.
Acerronia
: Ancient name for Acerno (SA).
Acerronius
: An important gens (or clan) of ancient Lucania. They are mentioned on several inscriptions from Potentia (mod. Potenza) and the surrounding area.
Acerronius Proculus, Gnaeus
: (fl. 1st half of the 1st century AD). Roman consul in AD 37. During his consulship he dedicated a building to the Oscan deity Mefitis Utiana, at the ancient Lucanian sanctuary of Rossano di Vaglio (near modern Vaglio [PZ]). The Latin inscription bearing his name describes the construction of an aedes (=temple) but it was found in association with the remains of a stoa.
Acesines (Akesinês), River
: Ancient name for the river Alcantara (or Cantara) in NE Sicily. It appears in history under this name only in Thucydides (iv. 25) with regards to an attack on Naxos by the Messenians in 425 BC. It may be the same as the river which Pliny calls the Asines and Vibius Sequester calls the Asinius. It was sometimes called the Onobalas. A canal on the planet Mars has been named for the river Acesines.
Acesta
: See Segesta.
Acestes (or Aegestes)
: (see full page)
Acestorides
: A Corinthian general elected by the Syracusans as their principal military commander in 317 BC. He was banished from Syracuse by Agathocles.
Acetabulum: an ancient Roman vessel of standardized size utilized for holding sauce. It was used as a unit of for liquid measure equaling about 2 fluid ounces or 1/8 of a pint. The term derives from the Latin acetum (=vinegar).
Achaea (or Achaia): An alternate name for the Italic goddess Minerva, used at ancient Luceria in Apulia.
Achaeans (Achaians)
: Name for the aboriginal inhabitants of the Peloponnesus who were conquered by the Dorians.
Achaemenides (or Achemenides): A mythological character. The son of Adamastus, he was a Greek from Ithaca who fought at Troy under Ulysses (Odysseus). While returning home from the war, the Greeks stopped in eastern Sicily where they encountered the Cyclops Polyphemus. During their chaotic escape, they accidentally left Achaemenides behind. There he led a precarious existence, always in danger of being discovered by the Cyclopes. When Aeneas and the Trojan refugees arrived on the eastern coast of Sicily, they found Achaemenides, who warned by him of the Cyclopes. Although Achaemenides had once been an enemy, Aeneas honorably rescued him.
Achaeus (1)
: A Greek tragic poet from ancient Syracuse. He wrote from 10 to 14 tragedies, now all lost. He should not be mistaken for Achaeus of Eretria, a better-known poet born in 484 BC.
Achaeus (2)
: A Greek slave who commanded the army of Eunus during the First Servile War.
Achaia
: See Achaea.

Acharenses: See Acherini.
Achates: a faithful companion (fidus Achates) of the Trojan hero Aeneas. His name is often used to describe someone who is a true and loyal friend or follower. According to some sources the Achates River in Sicily was said to have been named for him.
Achates, River: A small river in ancient Sicily noted for the crystal clarity of its waters. Although its location is uncertain, many researchers identify it with the river Acate, to the SE of Gela in S Sicily. Others disagree, since it is known that the Acate bore the name Dirillo in ancient times. The origin of the river’s name is also controversial with some sources linking it with Achates, the companion of the hero Aeneas, while others claim it derived from the semiprecious agates (lapis Achates) that were said to lie in its bed. The only literary mention for the river Achatus is found in a Latin poem by Silius Italicus (AD 25-101). The river Achates lends its name to a canal on the planet Mars.
Achemenides
: See Achaemenides.
Acherini (Acharenses)
: The inhabitants of an ancient Sicilian town the location of which is uncertain. Cicero mentions them among those Sicilians who were victimized by Verres.
Acheron (Acheruns), Lake
: A sulfurous lake located near ancient Baiae, in Campania. The lake was surrounded by hills which blocked out the sun except at high noon. The gloomy surroundings were said to be the home of witches.
Acheron, River
: A small river in ancient Bruttium, situated near Pandosia, identified with either the Lese or Arconti. It was the site of the defeat and death of Alexander of Epirus (331 or 330 BC).
Acherontia
(1): A small town of ancient Apulia or Lucania, identified with modern Acerenza (PZ). Mentioned in the works of Horace, the ancient town was located near the frontier with Lucania, about 14 miles south of Venusia and 6 miles southeast of Ferentum. Although small in size, its location on a summit of M. Vulture, gave it a great strategic important. The town occupied a strong defensive position whose steep slopes made it accessible only on one side. It was originally a town of the Peuceti. During the Roman-Gothic Wars of the 6th century AD, the Ostrogothic leader Totila, recognized the value of the place and strengthened it with a garrison.
Acherontia
(2): A town in ancient Bruttium situated on the river Acheron.
Acherusia lacus (or Palus) (mod. Lago d’Fusaro): An ancient salt-water lake located in the province of Napoli, between the ancient sites of Cumae and Misenum, reputed to be an entrance to the infernal regions. This Campanian lake was the most famous of several lakes, swamps, and caverns found in the ancient Greek world. It is mentioned by Pliny the Elder (H.N. iii.5) and Strabo (v. p.243).
Acherusia Palus: (mod. Lago di Fusaro): A small, salt-water lake located near the coast of Campania between Cumae and Misenum. It is mentioned by Pliny the Elder (H.N. iii.5) and Strabo (v. p.243).
Achetum: A small town in ancient Sicily. Its location is uncertain.

Achetus: A river in ancient Sicily.
Achilles
: One of the greatest heroes in Greek mythology, he figures as the principal figure in Homer’s Iliad. Achilles was honored with a hero-cult at ancient Croton. His name is believed to derive from a Mycenaean Greek word meaning “grief to the army.”
Achimaaz du Oria: See Ahima as ben Palti’ el.
Achradina: One of the five quarters of ancient Syracuse.
Aci-
: A prefix found in many place names in northeastern Sicily. Many scholars believe it to derive from Acis, a mythological figure connected with the area since ancient times. According to the Metamorphosis of Ovid, Acis was a handsome Sicilian youth, the mortal son of the nature-god Faunus and the sea-nymph Symaethis. Beloved by the beautiful nymph Galatea, he aroused the jealousy of her spurned suitor, the Cyclops Polyphemus. In a fit of rage the Cyclops attacked Acis, crushing the youth beneath a huge rock from Mt. Etna. As the stream of Acis’s blood poured out from beneath the rock, it was divinely changed into the river Aci, although some choose to connect it with the river today called the Fiumefreddo. An associated legend claims that Polyphemus tore the body of Acis into nine parts, scattering them throughout the countryside. Collectively these sites came to be known as the Nove aci (the Nine Acis): Aci Bonaaccorsi, Aci Castello, Aci Catena, Aci Platani, Acireale, Aci S. Filippo, Aci S. Antonio, Aci S. Lucia and Aci Trezza. The nearby coastal area, the Riviera dei Ciclopi, likewise came to be associated with the legends of Polyphemus and the other Cyclopses. The actual root for aci– appears to derive from the Greek word Akus (“penetrating”) and was probably first attached to the ancient river Acis because of the cold temperature of its water.
Aci River (anc. Acis)
: A river in NE Sicily that flows along the foot of Mt. Etna, before emptying into the Ionian Sea near the city of Acireale (CT). The river’s name derives from its ancient association with the Homeric myth of Acis, the son of the nature-god Faunus and the nymph Symaethis. The river Acis lends its name to a canal on the planet Mars.
Aci Bonaccorsi (CT): A commune of Sicily, in the province of Catania. (see full page)
Aci Castello (CT): A commune of Sicily, in the  province of Catania. (see full page)
Aci Catena (CT): A commune of Sicily, in the province of Catania. (see full page)
          
Aci Consolazione (CT): A locality in the province of Catania. Major earthquakes struck in 1693, 1818, and 1894.

Aci Platani (CT): A frazione of Acireale (CT) in the province of Catania. Major earthquakes struck in 1693 and 1818.

Aci Sant’Antonio (CT): A commune of Sicily, province of Catania.
Former Names (if any): (Sic. Jaci Sant’Antoniu)
Region
: Sicilia │ Province: Catania.
Coordinates: Lat. 37°36’25″N/Long. 15°7’15” E.
Location/Setting: Located 13 km NNE of Catania, it is situated in a coastal hilly area on the SE slope of M. Etna. Part of the Regione Agraria n. 7 – Colline litoranee di Acireale.
Alt.: 302 m.
Area: 14.27 km².
Population: 16,901 (2006e).
Pop. Density: /km².
Frazioni & Localities: S.Maria La Stella, Monterosso Etneo, Lavinaio, Lavina.
CAP: 95025.
Tel. Prefix: 095.
ISTAT:
Name of Inhabitants: Santantoniesi.
Patron Saint(s):  Sant’Antonio Abate. Feast Day: Jan. 17.
Economy: The economy is based principally on agriculture (citrus fruits, olives, fruit, and wine grapes). The commune is also a center for livestock breeding (cattle and horses). One of the most important manufactured products is linseed oil. The town is also a center for the production of the famous Sicilian decorated carts (Carretti Siciliani). Another typically Sicilian art form practiced here is the manufacture of Sponde, figures used to recreate the feats of the medieval French Paladins.
History: The town arose in medieval times around a now-lost church dedicated to Sant’Antonio (hence its name). That church, along with the rest of the original town, has been destroyed by the many lava-flows from Mt. Etna (1169, 1329, and 1408) that have ravaged the place. The commune has been a feudal fief for much of its history, belonging first to the Platamone family, and later to the Moncada family. After being abandoned for a time, the present center arose on the site (Aci Superiore) in 1672 under the control of Luigi (or Stefano) Riggio, Prince of Campofranco and Campoflorido. The Spanish crown awarded him the title of Prince of Aci S. Antonio and S. Filippo. This new town was severely damaged by the great earthquake of 1693 and largely rebuilt.
                In 1702, the Prince of Campoflorido Luigi II constructed a great palace in the town.
                On April 15, 1951 Aci Sant’Antonio gave up some of its territory to create the new commune of Valven­de.
                Major earthquakes struck in 1669, 1693, 1818, 1894, 1905, 1907, 1908, 1911, 1914, 1975, and 1990.

Points of Interest:
Monuments
: The principal secular monuments are the Palazzo Riggio and the Palazzo Spitaleri, both founded in 1700.
                The Palazzo del Maltese was constructed and the end of the 18th century by Count Mario Amico (called il Maltese). It is believed his nickname derives from the fact that, although of Sicilian blood, he was born in Malta. A stone representation of the Amico coat of arms (which incorporates the double-headed Hapsburg eagle) can be seen in the buildings interior. The building was abandoned in 1968 due to the construction of a nearby multilevel condominium complex which blocked the sun from reaching the palazzo for most of the day.
                The former Palazzo Comunale dates from the second half of the 18th century. At various times it has been used for a number of governmental functions.
Museums
:
Churches (& other religious sites)
: The present Cathedral of S. Antonio Abate was constructed in the 17th century to replace an earlier destroyed by the great earthquake of 1693. The front of the church, designed by Francesco Battaglia (1701?-1778), combines trabeations, columns and frames. The façade is Baroque in style. In the choir are paintings by Alessandro Vasta (1720-1793).  The altarpiece consists of a painting by Michele Panebianco (1806-1873) of Messina, depicting Sant’Antonio. Other artists with works here include Sciuto and Lo Loco.
The Church of S. Michele includes among the treasures several paintings by Pietro Paolo Vasta (1697-1760).
Culture
:
Festivals/Feasts/Events
: Annual Fair dedicated to Sicilian wines- August.
Acidalus, Fountain of: A fountain in ancient Campania. Its waters were said to have had the medicinal power to treat or cure eye ailments.
Acidii: An ancient village of Lucania, situated to the north of Grumentum.
Acilla:   See Acrillae.
Acino: (from the Latin acinus or acinum = grape, berry, pip). The lowest unit of weight used in southern Italy during early modern times. It was the equivalent of the medieval Neapolitan grano (= 0.045 grams). There were 20 acini to one trappeso.
Acireale (Aci Reale) (CT): A commune of Sicily, in the province of Catania.
Former Names (if any): (Sic. Jaci) anc. Xiphonia, Acium, Aquilia, Aquilia Nuova, Akis(?).
Region
: Sicily│ Province: Catania.
Coordinates: Lat: N│ Long: E.
Location/Setting: Situated on the E coast of Sicily, about 9 miles NE of Catania. It was almost completely rebuilt after the earthquake of 1693 on the E. coast of Sicily, in a fertile valley on the E. slope of M. Etna, overlooking the shoreline. The city sits on 7 platforms formed by lava flows from Mt. Etna. Part of the Regione Agraria n. 7 – Colline litoranee di Acireale.
Alt.: .
Area: 39.96 km².
Population: 52,490 [2006e].
Pop. Density: /km².
Frazioni & Localities: S.Maria La Scala, S.Tecla, Stazzo, Pozzillo, S.M.Ammalati, Guardia, Mangano, Capomulini, S.Cosmo, Balatelle, Pennisi, Fiandaca, Loreto, Piano d’Api, Aciplatani, Scillichenti, S.Caterina, S.M.delle Grazie, S.M.la Stella, S.G.Bosco.
CAP: 95024
Tel. Prefix: 095
ISTAT:
Name of Inhabitants: Acesi.
Patron Saint(s):  Santa Venera. Feast Day: July 26./ San Sebastiano. Feast Day: Jan. 20.
Economy: Acireale is fortunate to have a diverse economic base. The communal territory is given over mainly to agriculture (cereals, fruits, and vegetables), with special emphasis on vineyards and citrus orchards. Animal breeding (cattle, sheep) is also important. There is also a variety of non-agricultural industries located here; the principal ones centering on foodstuffs (syrup, macaroni), leather goods, textiles (silks, linens, cottons, embroidery), carved lava rock, wrought iron, soap, wax, glass, cutlery, metal furniture and musical instruments. In addition, the commune also possesses pozzuolana mines. Along the coast, a certain segment of the population practices coral fishing. Port facilities are also located here.
History
: Ancient Acium took its name from the nearby river Aci and, by extension, from the mythical Greek/Sicilian character, Acis. Despite its apparent prosperity during Roman times, when it was called Aquilia, the town never played an important role historically. Acium’s only literary mention appears in the Itinerary, which lists it as a community between Catana and Tauromenium.
                Ancient Acis survived the turmoil of the early Middle Ages only to suffer destruction from an earthquake in 1169. Rebuilt soon afterwards, the second city (Aquilia Nuova) suffered the terrors of Saracen piratical raids throughout the 13th and 14th centuries. The worst calamity, however, came at the hands of their fellow Christians. In 1326, the town was burnt by the fleet of Robert of Anjou. According to legend, this was an act of revenge carried out by Beltrando Del Balzo for a supposed insult given him by the population of the town. The town managed to partly survive the attack, but soon afterward (1329) a new eruption of Etna forced the people to abandon the old site. The third city arose nearby, located on higher, less vulnerable ground. Held as a fief by the Mastrantonio family since 1488, it returned to direct royal control in 1531. In 1553, the crown attempted to withdraw its privileges and reduce the town once more to the status of a fief. Faced with this loss of status and freedom, the people of the town managed to bribe the king into changing his mind. In 1577, anti-Spanish feelings ran high due to the imposition of a garrison. This lead to a revolt which was only putdown after much loss of life. In the end, 17 of the rebels were hung and the town was forced to pay an amnesty of 15,000 ducati. In 1588, the Church of the Annunziata was given the status of an independent parish, further enhancing the town’s prosperity as a whole. By the latter part of the 16th century the town boasted a population of about 7,000.
                Early in the 17th century, the continued threat from the Turks led to new fortification being built. In 1642, upon the confirmation of Philip IV as king of Sicily, Acireale became a royal holding (hence its modern name meaning “Royal Aci”) and quickly grew into an important commercial center. Disaster struck again in 1693 when the 3rd city was devastated by a great earthquake. The site was temporarily abandoned but its people soon returned to construct the city that stands today. Most of the oldest quarter of the city owes its Baroque buildings to this last reconstruction.
                The bishopric was established in 1844.
                Acireale suffered some damage during the Allied invasion of Sicily in 1943.
                Major earthquakes struck in 1693, 1818, 1879, 1889, 1894, 1905, 1907, 1908, 1911, 1914, 1967, 1975, 1980, 1986, and 1990.

Points of Interest: The violent history of Acireale has left few remains from ancient times. The most important ancient remains are those of a Roman bath and a temple, both dating from Republican times, located near Capo Molini. Remains of another Roman era building are located in the Casalotto district.
                What the city lacks in ancient monuments, it makes up for in the many beautiful 17th-18th century Sicilian-Baroque style religious and secular monumental buildings. Many of the principal monumental buildings surround the Piazza Duomo.
The Belvedere is a public garden laid out in 1848. From here are excellent views of M. Etna and the east coast of Sicily.
                The city also contains an important meteorological observatory, a Seminary, and a teachers’ college. There is also an experimental station for citrus-fruit.
Monuments
: The huge Palazzo Comunale, dating from 1659, includes a fine portal and balconies supported by carved corbels.
The 19th century classical Palazzo Pennisi di Floristella, a work of Mariano Falcini, has a famous numismatic collection of ancient Greek and Sicilian coins (6th– 4th centuries BC).
                The exterior of the 17th century Palazzo Musumeci is noted for its iron balconies and Rococo style windows.
                The neoclassical Thermae di Santa Vénera can be found in a park near the town. Used since Roman times, these hot sulfurous and radioactive springs have been developed as a health spa (the present one dating from 1873) for the treatment of neuritis, gout and respiratory ailments. The remains of a Roman era bath facility have been excavated and are thought to be the Tepidarium and the Calidarium.
In the vicinity of Acireale are sites that, since ancient times, have been identified with mythology including the Cave of Polyphemus and the Grotto of Galatea.
Museums
: The Biblioteca and Pinacotera dell’Accademia Zelantea is a fine-arts museum founded in 1671. It represents one of Sicily’s most important libraries and contains old theological, philosophical and scientific manuscripts and a collection of historical books. Also housed here are archaeological finds (including a 1st century BC bust of Caesar) and a notable coin collection. There is a collection of paintings by 17th and 18th century Sicilian artists.
The Museum dei Pupi dell’Opra houses some interesting puppets and has a theater for performances.
Churches (& other religious sites)
: The roof and windows of the domed Romanesque-Gothic Cathedral of the Annunzi­ata e Venere (constructed between 1597 and 1618) suffered considerable damage during World War II but were later restored. The building is famous for its tiled spires and its Baroque portal. It has an early 20th century neo-Gothic façade created by Giovanni Battista Basile. The doorway that pieces it, however, is a survival of the original 16th century Baroque façade. It also incorporates a 17th century marble portal between two campanili. The interior contains a nave and two aisles. The interior decoration includes frescoes by Pietro Paolo Vasta (1737) and Antonio Filocamo (1711). The left aisle has a holy-water stoup believed to be a 1525 work of Anto­nello Gagini. There is a meridian dating from 1843. The Capella di Santa Venera, in the right transept, contains a 1651 silver statue of the town’s patron saint, S. Venere. There are a number of statues by Blandamonte (1668). On the floor of the transept is an interesting 19th century sundial created by Wolfang Sertorius and F. Peters.
                The Baroque church or Basilica of S. Sebastiano possesses an elaborate early 17th century Spanish Baroque-style balustrade façade decorated with statues and garlands (restored 1705). The balustrade, with its 10 statues of Old Testament figures, is a 1754 work by Giovanni Battista Marino. It has a nave and two aisles. The interior (dome, chapels, and transept) contains frescoes by Pietro Paolo Vasta (1697-1760), depicting the life of St. Sebastian. The roof and windows underwent repair after World War II.
                The church of the Suffragio also suffered damage during World War II.
                The 17th century church of the Crociferi contains some pleasant frescoes.
                The 16th century church or basilica of SS. Pietro e Paolo has a notable early- 18th century façade of pillars, with statues of the patron saints.
                The church of the Filippini is a neoclassical structure.
                The church of S. Domenico has a notable Baroque façade.
Outside of the city is the Grotta del Presepe di S. Maria della Neve. Used both by brigands and fishermen in the 17th century, the cave was consecrated to religious use. In 1752, a manger scene (presepe) consisting of 32 wax figures was created here.
                In the frazione of S. Maria la Scala is an interesting 17th century Chiesa Madre.
Culture
:
Festivals/Feasts/Events
: Acireale celebrates a well-known 5-day Carnevale held in February and March. The festivities include parades of floats with marchers dressed in colorful costumes.
The city’s famous traditional Sicilian puppet theater, at the Opera dei Pupi, gives performances in August and September.
During July dramatic performances are held in honor of the town’s patron saint, Santa Venera. During the 19th century, the English scholar, Augustus Hare, noted that the area around Acireale was devoted to the veneration of Santa Venera, a survival of the ancient worship of Venus.
Acireale’s creche, displayed in a lava grotto during the Christmas season, dates from 1736.
There is an annual cattle fair held every July during which products derived from the local cattle and sheep industries are displayed.
Acireale, Diocese of: Suffragan to the Archdiocese of Catania. Part of the Ecclesiastical Region of Sicily. Area: 665 km²; Inhabitants: 223,722. Parishes: 111. Clergy: 140 (Secular Priests), 176 (Regular Priests), 9 (Permanent Deacons).
                The diocese of Acireale was established in 1844. Its first bishop, however, was not appointed until 1872.

Statistics
(Source: Annuario Pontificio 1951/1981/2001/2005/2006/2007)

Year

Catholics

Total
Population

Percent
Catholic

Diocesan
Priests

Religious
Priests

Total
Priests

Catholics
Per Priest

Permanent
Deacons

Male
Religious

Female
Religious

Parishes

1950

167,000

168,000

99.4%

216

100

316

528

100

467

94

1959

162,300

164,500

98.7%

211

103

314

516

169

425

99

1970

174,793

175,215

99.8%

193

95

288

606

152

482

110

1980

183,504

184,192

99.6%

161

69

230

797

118

453

110

1990

206,000

207,657

99.2%

147

55

202

1,019

2

80

361

111

1999

221,622

223,722

99.1%

141

36

177

1,252

8

66

321

111

2000

221,622

223,722

99.1%

139

36

175

1,266

8

64

321

111

2001

221,622

223,722

99.1%

140

36

176

1,259

9

64

313

111

2002

222,623

224,725

99.1%

138

36

174

1,279

11

58

313

111

2003

223,623

225,725

99.1%

134

36

170

1,315

11

57

311

111

2004

223,623

225,725

99.1%

135

37

172

1,300

10

57

311

111

2006

225,000

227,700

98.8%

135

36

171

1,315

9

54

296

111

Bishops of Acireale
Gerlando Maria Genuardi         1872 – 1907
Giovanni Battista Arista             1907 – 1920
Salvatore Bella                          1921 – 1922
Fernando Cento                       1922 – 1926
Evasio Colli                                1927 – 1932
Salvatore Russo                        1932 – 1964  
Pasquale Bacile                         1964 – 1979 
Giuseppe Malandrino                1979 – 1998
Salvatore Gristina                      1999- 2002
Pio Vittorio Vigo                         2002 –
Aciris, River: A river in ancient Lucania which rose to the NW of Abellinum Marsicum, and empties into the bay of Taranto (Tarentinus sinus) at Agri.
Acis (Grk. Akis): A mythological shepherd of Sicily. According to the myth, Acis was a young and handsome shepherd who tended his flocks in E. Sicily. Although a mortal himself, he was the son of the nature-god Pan-Faunus and the Naiad nymph Symaethis. He met and fell in love with the sea-nymph Galatea, thus incurring the jealousy of the Cyclops Polyphemus, a spurned suitor of Galatea. In a fit of rage, the eye-eyed giant tore a great stone from Mt. Etna and crushed the helpless Acis beneath it. When Galatea prayed for the gods to show mercy to her dead lover, Acis was transformed into a river-god. As his blood flowed from beneath the rock, it miraculously transformed into the stream of water that came to bear his name. The river named for him rose on Aitna near Akion (Acium) and flowed into the Mediterranean.
Acis (or Acinius) (mod. Iaci), River: Ancient river in eastern Sicily. Rising on the slopes of Mt. Aetna, it flows along the foot of that mountain, past Akion (Acium), before emptying into the Sicilian Sea at Acis, at a point between the river Acesinus and Adrix, to the north of Catana. It is named for the mythical youth, Acis, the victim of the Cyclops Polyphemus.
Acis (mod. Castel d’Iaci): An ancient town in eastern Sicily located near the mouth of the river Acis.

Acithis (Acithius, Atys) (mod. Carabi), River: A river in ancient Sicily, located in the W part of the island. It falls into the Africum pelagus, to the N of the Lilybaeum promontory.
Acithius: Ancient name for Birgi, in Sicily.

Acium: an ancient town located in eastern Sicily. Nothing is known of its history but it was known to have been situated on the road between Catana (mod. Catania) and Tauromenium (mod. Taormina), near the small river Acis. It is identified as the modern Acireale (CT).
Acontist: a javelin thrower.
Acqua Alte, Canale: A canal in northern Puglia (province of Foggia). Beginning near Casa Lauro sul Lago di Lésina, it runs for a length of 10 km, emptying into the Adriatic Sea near Torre Mileto.
Acquabella, Punta di (CH): A promontory on the Adriatic coast of the Abruzzo (province of Chieti). It lays S. of Ortona and N. of the mouth of the river Moro. It is sometimes known as the Punta del Moro.
Acqua Bianca, Fosso (MT): A waterway of Basilicata (length: 10 km). It rises at a point (564 m) near Garaguso (MT) and flows from the left into the Torrent Salandrella at Masseria Molino (MT).
Acqua Calda, Torrente: A waterway (length: 8 km) of Campania. Rising on Monte Mutria (1822 m), it flows into the torrente Titerno near Civitella Licinia.
Acqua del Lupo, Fosso (MT): A watercourse of Basilicata (length: 11 km). Beginning at Serra di Gianni (521 m), it flows from the left into the river Bràdano at Masseria Zecchiniello (MT).
Acquacorsari: A small center in Sicily near the city of Palermo. Its name derives from its origins as the site of a watch tower built to guard against Saracen pirates (corsairs).
Acquaformosa (CS): A commune of Calabria, in the province of Cosenza.
Former Names (if any): (Arberesh. Firmoza, Formoza)
Region
: Calabria │ Province: Cosenza.
Coordinates: Lat. 39°43’26″N/Long. 16°5’26″E.
Location/Setting: Located 71 km N of Cosenza, it is situated on the slopes of the Cozzo del Lepre, in the Mula range of mountains, in the basin of the river Esauro, on the road between Castro­villari and Belvedere Marittimo. Much of the territory is covered by vast woods and meadows. Part of the Comunità Montana del Pollino. Part of the Regione Agraria n. 2 – Versante Nord/Est della catena costiera. Part of the Parco Nazionale del Pollino.
Alt.: 756 m.
Area: 22.57 km².
Population: 1,247 (2006e)
Pop. Density: /km².
Frazioni & Localities:
CAP: 87010
Tel. Prefix: 0981
ISTAT:
Name of Inhabitants: Acquaformositani.
Patron Saint(s):  S. Giovanni Battista. Feast Day: August 24.
Economy: The commune has an abun­dance of copper and mercury deposits that have not been exploited.
History: The town probably received its name from the Cistercian monastery church of Santa Maria di Acquaformosa, built on the site in 1195 or 1197 by the Brahalla family of nearby Altomonte. A popular legend, however, disputes this, claiming that the town was given its name by an Albanian princess. While Irene Castriota, princess of Bisignano and the daughter of Skanderberg, was visiting the place accepted a drink from the water at the abbey (then known as Ariosa). Her exclamation of “Che acqua Formosa” (“What wonderful water”) was said to have inspired the new name. Whatever the truth, the monastic complex soon became the center for a small community of houses.
                In 1501, the monastery granted land to a group of 20 Albanian families to establish a center called Firmoza. In return for this gift the settlers agreed to pay the monastery an annual rent based on population, numbers of dwellings, and amount of livestock.
                Major earthquakes struck in 1887, 1905, and 1908.

Points of Interest:
Monuments
: There are some ancient remains of a villa dating from the period of the Roman Empire.
Museums
:
Churches (& other religious sites)
: The Church of Santa Maria Scala Coeli was built by the Cistercians in 1227 on the site of an earlier structure. It is approached through an atrium and a 17th century carved wooden door. The interior has 3 aisles divided by pillars. There is a 16th century Renaissance oil-painted icon depicting Christ and the 12 Apostles.
The Cistercian Abbey of Santa Maria del Leucio, dating from 1500, is today in ruins.
                The Byzantine Church of San Giovanni Battista was founded in 1505 to serve the new Albanian settlers. It has a 17th century wooden door decorated with carved mythical figures of sirens, winged griffons, two-headed eagles, emblems, etc. The interior contains a carved 17th century walnut wood choir and 17th century lecterns carved from chestnut. There are some 16th century tables, one depicting the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, attributed to the painter Marco Pino (1522-1579). In one of the chapels is a 16th century sculpted Madonna and Child.
The Gothic sanctuary of the Madonna del Monte (Santas Maria del Monte) dates to the late 14th / early 15th century. Among the treasures is a 15th century Gothic sculpture of the Madonna and Child. In the apse near the greater altar, there is a 16th century, oil painted table depicting the Assumption of the Virgin Mary with a Glory of Angels and Apostles, a work of Pietro Negrone. There is a fine choir of carved walnut.
In the Church of San Basilio Abate e San Benedetto are some 18th century painted tables and some fine Baroque gild-work.
                In the Church of Santa Maria della Misericordia is an icon of the Teotokos created by the Greek painter Fatima Paula in 1973. The figure is decorated in silverwork by the Greek goldsmith Costapulos
                The chapel of Madonna della Concezione is a largely Byzantine inspired structure. Its treasures include a 1785 fresco of the Immacolata.
                The ruined 13th century oratory of San Leonardo di Sassone, contains several works of art including a 15th century fresco.
The Grotta della Madonna is so-named because of a local tradition claiming that a mysterious bust of the Virgin was discovered there.
Culture
: The town still follows the Greek-Byzantine-Albanian rite, and is part of the diocese of Lungro.
Festivals/Feasts/Events
: Festival of San Francesco–  2nd Sunday after Easter.
Festival and fair of the Madonna della Misericordia– last Sunday in May.
Festival of Santa Maria del Monte (Festa e Shën Mërisë së Malit)- July 20. Drawing visitors from other Albanian towns, the festival includes traditional songs, dances, and costumes.
Festival and fair of the town’s patron saint, San Giovanni Battista, occurs on the last Sunday in August.
Acquaiuolo: a traditional water-seller in old Sicily. A common sight on hot days, the acquaiuolo would set up small brass-mounted tables (about 2 feet long by 18 inches wide by 18 inches high) with large water-jugs shaped like ancient Greek vases.
Acqualadrone (ME): Former name for Acquarone (ME).
Acquappesa (CS): A commune of Calabria, in the province of Cosenza.
Former Names (if any): Casaletto or Casalicchio
Region
: Calabria │ Province: Cosenza
Coordinates: Lat. 39°29’40″N/Long. 15°57’10″E.
Location/Setting: Located 51 km NW of Cosenza, it is situated on a hill near the coastal highway #80 just S. of Cetraro. The communal territory contains the hot springs of Terme Luigiane (alt.146 m.), whose waters, rich in sulfur and iron, are used to treat rheumatic ailments. Part of the Comunità Montana dell’Appennino Paolano. Part of the Regione Agraria n. 9 – Montagna Litoranea di Paola.
Alt.: 80 m.
Area: 14.43 km².
Population: 2,037 (2006e)
Pop. Density: /km².
Frazioni & Localities: Intavolata, Pantana-Santa Rosalia, San Iorio, Terme Luigiane.
CAP:
Tel. Prefix: 0982
ISTAT: 87020
Name of Inhabitants: Acquappesani.
Patron Saint(s):  (Feast Day:).
Economy:
History
: This commune is of relatively recent origins. It appears to have arisen in the late 17th or early 18th century under the name of Casaletto or Casalicchio. The area, however, has been inhabited since ancient times. Archaeologists have discovered Greek pottery dating from the 4th and 3rd centuries BC.
                In 1927, it was annexed by the neighboring commune of Guardia Piemontese, but became autonomous again in 1943.
                Major earthquakes struck in 1854, 1887, and 1905.

Points of Interest:
Monuments
: The Palazzo De Seta has an interesting portal.
There are some archaeological sites in the commune, mostly dating from Greco-Roman times.
Museums
:
Churches (& other religious sites)
: The church of S. Teresa Vergine (in the frazione of Intavolata) has a fine façade and a glass door created by Cesare Baccelli.
                The other religious monument of interest is the 19th century parish church of Santa Maria del Rifugio. Among its treasures is an 18th century silver ostensorium.
Culture
:
Festivals/Feasts/Events
:
Acquarelli: (fl. c1640). Neapolitan painter. An architectural painter, he specialized in depictions of ornamental decoration from churches palaces, and theaters.
Aquaria, Claudio: See Aquaviva, Claudio.
Acquarica del Capo (LE)
: A commune of Puglia, in the province of Lecce.
Former Names (if any):
Region
: Puglia │ Province: Lecce.
Coordinates: Lat. 39°54’43″N/Long. 18°14’46″E.
Location/Setting: Located 59 km. S of Lecce, it is situated in a beautiful valley of the Salen­tine Murge, between the Serra di Pozzo Mauro and the Serra dei Cianci.
Alt.: 110 m.
Area: 18.37 km².
Population: 4,44 (2006e).
Pop. Density: /km².
Frazioni & Localities:
CAP: 73040
Tel. Prefix: 0833
ISTAT:
Name of Inhabitants: Acquaricesi.
Patron Saint(s):  San Carlo Borromeo. Feast Day: Nov. 4.
Economy: The town is a center for wine growing and reed basket making.
History
: The commune was founded in the 10th century as Bonsecolo by the Normans, to replace the earlier town of Pompignano, destroyed by the Saracens. The place was settled by refugees from Pompignano, while other settlers came from the towns of Ceciovizzo and Cardigliano. In 1190, King Tancred awarded the place as a fief to the Guarino family, who maintained control of it, with some lapses, until the end of the 17th century. The town was rebuilt after 1432 when the area was conquered by Giovanni Antonio Orsini, prince of Taranto.
                A major earthquake struck in 1947.

Points of Interest:
Monuments
: The quadrilateral Castle dates to between 1432 and 1445. Some decorative 17th/18th century relief work still survives as does one of the four circular towers included at each corner. The castle is one of the earliest examples of a fortification designed to defend against firearms.
Not far from the communal center is the Masseria di Celsorizzo. It arose in the 17th century around an earlier defensive tower dating from the middle of the 16th century.
Museums
:
Churches (& other religious sites)
: The Baroque Church of San Carlo Borromeo, built in 1661 upon an earlier structure, has a fine 17th century portal. In the sacristy is a 17th century grille of windows of beautiful carved stone.
                The 19th century church of San Giovanni Battista (reconstructed in 1826) has a simple façade and an interesting campanile.
                The church of Madonna del Ponte was built during the 19th century on the site of an earlier structure.
                The small chapel of the Immacolata dates from the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
                Outside the center, the 11th century church of Santa Maria Pannetti (or Panelli) contains some interesting 13th century murals depicting religious themes. The small church has a simple façade and two semicircular apses.
                The church of Vergine Assunta in Cielo (or the Madonna di Pompignano) contains some fine 16th, 17th and 18th century artwork. Among the treasures is 17th century painting of the Madonna with Child and an 18th century canvas of the Annunciation.
Culture
:
Festivals/Feasts/Events
:

Acquaro (VV)
: A commune of Calabria, in the province of Vibo Valentia.
Former Names (if any):
Region
: Calabria │ Province: Vibo Valentia.
Coordinates: Lat. 38°33’20″N/Long. 16°11’16″E.
Location/Setting: Located 27 km SE of Vibo Valentia, it is situated in the basin of the river Marepotamo, to the right of a tributary of the torrent Petriano. Its territory is crossed by the river Amello. Part of the Comunità Montana dell’Alto Mesima. Part of the Regione Agraria n. 3 – Colline Orientali del Mesima e dell’Angitola.
Alt.: 262 m.
Area: 25.32 km².
Population: 3,046 (2001).
Pop. Density: /km².
Frazioni & Localities: Camerino, Fellari, Limpidi, Maiera’, Piani di Acquaro.
CAP: 89832
Tel. Prefix: 0963
ISTAT:
Name of Inhabitants:
Patron Saint(s):  (Feast Day:).
Economy:
History
:

Points of Interest:
Monuments
:
Museums
:
Churches (& other religious sites)
:
Culture
:
Festivals/Feasts/Events
:
Coordinates
:
Location & Setting:
Frazioni: Tel. Prefix: 0963. Postal Code: 89832.
Population Designation: Acquaresi.
Patron Saint (s): S. Rocco. Feast Day: 3rd Sunday in August.
Former Names: .
History: Founded by the Normans, it was a fief for several noble families including the Conclubert (to 1678), the Acquaviva d’Aragona and the Caracciolo di Gioiosa. It became a commune in 1811. In 1928, it formed part of the new commune of Dasa but became an autonomous commune in its own right a year later.
                Major earthquakes struck in 1783, 1791, 1905, 1908, 1947, and 1975.
Historic Population Figures: 2,194(1861); 2,711(1901); 3,115(1921); 4,327(1951); 3,293(1981); 3,046 (2001).
Famous Natives & Residents:
Points of Interest:
Historical Sites and Monuments:
Churches and Religious Sites:
Museums:
Culture:
Events: Feast of the Vijuazzu (pannocchia)- August.
Feast of the Curuijcchia (a local cake-dessert)- December.
Annual embroidery show- August.
Recreation:
Economy: The territory is principally agricultural, with much of the land devoted to vast olive groves, grain fields and vineyards. The chief non-agricul­tural industry is the production of perfume.
Acquavella (SA): A frazione (alt. 230 m.) in the commune of Casal Velino (SA). It is located in the S. Cilento, to the right of the torrent il Fiumicello at the S. foot of M. Forma (alt. 442 m).
Points of Interest: It contains an interesting church.
Acquavella, Dukes of:

  • Michele Sanfelice (1)               1734-1766
  • Giuseppe Sanfelice (1)            1766-1813
  • Michele Sanfelice (2)               1813-1854
  • Giuseppe Sanfelice (2)            1854-1859
  • Francesco Paolo Sanfelice      1859-1884
  • Gustavo Sanfelice    1884-1946

Acquaviva: One of the seven Great Houses of the Kingdom of Naples. Originating in Germany, they were related to the Dukes of Bayer. Coming to Italy in 10th century, they originally centered themselves in and around the Marquisate of Ancona. Under the Swabian-Hohenstaufen dynasty, they acquired several feudal holding in the Abruzzi, including Acquaviva Collecroce (now in Campobasso province, Molise), from which they took their surname. The Sicilian branch of the family survived until 1650, when it was absorbed into the San Framondo family. The Acquaviva della Ratta branch, which held the title of Counts of Caserta, died out in 1511. The Acquaviva- Concublet branch (Marquises of Arena) survived until 1708. The Acquaviva branch which held the titles of the Princes of Caserta and Marquis of Bellante became extinct in 1635, while those who held the title of Dukes of Atri were absorbed into the Strozzi. At the height of their power, the Acquaviva held many fiefs including:
Baronies: Basciano, Bisenti, Cermignano, Corropoli, Castel del Monte, Castrogerardo, Cellino, Colonnella, Forcella, Montesilvano, Montefusco, Montone, Montemaiella, Montebello, Montepagano, Raiano, Rapino, Ripattone, Rocca Santa Maria, Roseto, Sant’Omero, Rocchetta, Sant’Egidio, San Vito, Tortoreto, Scorrano.
Counties: Capestrano, Conversano, Giulianova, Montorio (1383), Palena (1467).
Duchies: Atri.
Princedoms: Caserta (1579], Teramo (1484).
Over the centuries the Acquaviva family produced many great statesmen, ecclesiastical leaders, and military figures.
Acquaviva, Andrea Matteo: (b. 1456, 1458, or 1460 in Naples; d. 1528 or 1529). 8th Duke of Atri. Scholar and patron of letters. In 1486, he was one of the leaders of a conspiracy of Neapolitan barons against the Aragonese dynasty. When the plot collapsed, he received a pardon and later became Grand Seneschal of the Kingdom of Naples. During the war between France and Spain for control of Naples, he changed sides several times before finally becoming a partisan of the French. For this, he was taken prisoner by the Spanish captain Gonsalvo da Cordova. Transported to Spain, he was soon freed thanks to the efforts of his younger brother Belisario. Allowed to retain his fortune, he now devoted himself to literary pursuits. Although he produced at least one book of his own (a commentary on the Latin translation of Plutarch’s Morals), he was better known as a patron to other writers.
Acquaviva, Antonio: (d. between 1393 and 1395). Nobleman. In 1382, Charles of Durazzo made him Count of S. Flaviano and Count of Montorio. After the conquest of Atri, he received the dukedom of that city from Ladislaus (1393).
Acquaviva, Belisario: (b. Naples; fl late 15th and early 16th Centuries). Nobleman and scholar. He was the younger brother of M. Acquaviva. He shared his brother’s love scholarly and literary pursuits but chose to support the Spanish cause in Naples against the French. Because of this, he was able to preserve to family estate after Spain’s conquest of the Regno and was able to secure the release of his pro-French brother. He was the author of several dissertations.
Acquaviva, Francesco: (b. 1665, Naples. d. 1723, Rome). Ecclesiastic and statesman. Born into the family of the Dukes of Atri, he first entered papal service during the reign of Innocent XI (1676-89), and was the first master of the Chamber of Innocent XII (1692-1700). He also held the post of nuncio to the Spanish court. While in Spain he supported King Philip VI, whom he named minister and protector of the Kingdom of Spain. In 1706, Pope Clement XI made him a cardinal with the title of S. Bartolomeo and Bishop of Sabina. He later received the title of S. Cecilia.
Acquaviva, Giovanni
: (b. Feb. 15, 1818, Tricarico (MT)). Ecclesiastic. He became Bishop of Nuscia (SA) in 1871.
Acquaviva, Giovanni Vincenzo
: (d.1566). Ecclesiastic. In 1537, he was made Bishop of Melfi and Rapolla. He became a cardinal-priest of Sylvester and Martin in 1542.
Acquaviva, Giulio
: (b. 1546, Atri or Naples. d. Rome, 1574). Ecclesiastic. He was the son of Giovan Girolamo Acquaviva, Duke of Atri; he was also the nephew of Claudio Acquaviva, and the brother of Ottavio Acquaviva (1). In 1568, he was papal nuncio of Pope Pius V to the court of King Philip II of Spain, with a mission to present condolences to that monarch for the death of Don Carlos, the heir apparent. In 1570, Pope Pius V raised him to the cardinalate. He assisted Pius V on the latter’s deathbed.
Acquaviva, Giulio Antonio
: (d.1481). Nobleman. After taking part in the first conspiracy of the barons against the Aragonese dynasty, he later was reconciled with those rulers. King Ferdinand I honored him with the cognomen of “Aragona.”
Acquaviva, Marcello: (b. 1531, Naples. d. 1617, San Omero (Abruzzo)). Ecclesiastic. In 1586, he became Archbishop of Otranto. After holding the post of apostolic nuncio in the Republic of Venice, he played a similar role in the Duchy of Savoy (1590), involving himself in their dealings with Emperor Henry IV. In 1595, he served as governor and vice-legate of Bologna in 1595.
Acquaviva, Orozio: (fl. late 16th-early 17th Centuries). Ecclesiastic. A participant at the battle of Lepanto (Oct. 7, 1571), he was taken prisoner by the Turks. He was elected as Bishop of Caiazzo in 1641. He was a noted scholar.
Acquaviva, Ottavio (1): (b. 1560, Naples. d. 1612, Naples). Ecclesiastic. He was the son of Duke Giovanni Girolamo Acquaviva of Atri and Margherita Pio di Carpi. The brother of Giulio Acquaviva, he served three popes: Sixtus V, Gregory XIV, and Clement VIII. In 1591, he was created a cardinal and made legate for Campania. In 1593, Pope Clement VIII chose him as legate to Avignon where he aided in the conversion of Emperor Henry IV. In 1605, he became Archbishop of Naples.
Acquaviva, Ottavio (2)
: (b. 1608/9, Naples. d. 1674, Rome). Ecclesiastic. He was a member of the Atri Ducal branch of the Acquaviva family. Between 1638 and 1643, he held several governorships in the Papal States. He was raised to the cardinalate in 1654 by Pope Innocent IX and served as legate, first to Viterbo, and then to Romagna (Bologna) until 1658, where he was instrumental in the suppression of local banditry. In 1655, he received Cristina of Savoy during her visit to Rome and the Papal States.
Acquaviva, Pasquale
: (b. Nov. 3, 1718, Naples. d. Feb. 29, 1788, Rome). Ecclesiastic. A member of the Order of Malta, he became Privy Chamberlain to the Pope in 1739. His subsequent career was as follows: Protonotary apostolic, March 1743; Abbot commendatario of S. Leonardo, Apulia, 1743; Pro-legate in Avignon, 1743-1753; Commissary general of the Navy, 1753; Pro-commissary of War, 1766; President of Urbino from 1767.Pope Clement XIV (r.1769-1775) raised him to the cardinalate in 1773. He participated in the conclave of 1774-75. On April 3, 1775, he received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria in Aquiro. On Dec. 13, 1779, he became Cardinal deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin, and on Sept. 27, 1780, became Cardinal deacon of S. Eustachio.
Acquaviva, Rinaldo d’
: (fl. late 12th century). Swabian nobleman. He was the founder of the great Acquaviva family, which produced so many important figures in the history of the Church, and of southern Italy. In 1195, he received several fiefs from Henry VI.
Acquaviva, Bl. Rodolfo
: (b. 1550, Atri. d.1583, Cuncolium, Goa (W. India); Feast Day: July 25). Jesuit missionary. Son of the Duke of Atri, he was a nephew of Claudio Acquaviva (Aquaviva). Entering the Jesuit Order at Rome in 1568, he was ordained a priest at Lisbon in 1577. Joining the mission to India, he arrived at the Portuguese colony of Goa in 1578, where he became a teacher of philosophy. From 1580 to 1583 he led a mission to the court of the Great Mogul, Akbar. Although he familiarized that ruler with the basic teachings of Christianity he was unable to convert him. Returning to Goa in 1583, he was appointed as director of the mission to the island of Salsette. On his journey to his new post, he, with four other Jesuits, were murdered in the village of Cuncolim (N of Bombay) by Hindu natives. In 1593, he and his companions were beatified.
Acquaviva, Troiano (or Traiano)
: (b. Jan. 15 or 16, 1695, Naples. d. March 20, 1747, Rome). Ecclesiastic. A member of the Atri Ducal branch of the Acquaviva family, he entered the service of the Church. In January, 1721, he became Vice-legate in Ferrara. Later that same year he was appointed Governor of Ancona. Over the next few years he held the positions of Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, Referendary of the Supreme Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, and Protonotary apostolic. On April 17, 1729, he was ordained a priest and, on the following day, was elected titular bishop of Filippopolidi Arabia (consecrated on May 3, 1729 at Benevento by Pope Clement XI). During that same year he also received the appointments of Prefect of the Papal Household (May 14), Assistant at the Pontifical Throne (June 25), and Prefect of the Apostolic Palace (July 6). On August 14, 1730, he was promoted to the titular see of Larissa. On Oct. 1, 1732, he was created a Cardinal priest in the Consistory, receiving the red hat and the title of SS. Quirico e Giulita on November 17, 1732 (on January 13, 1733, he opted for the title of S. Cecilia). In 1734, he was employed as Ambassador of Spain before the Holy See by the Kings of Spain, Philip V and Charles III. In 1738, he became Protector of Naples and Sicily, and, in 1743, was appointed Protector of Spain. At the request of the Spanish King Charles III, he was appointed as Archbishop of Toledo. After serving for a time in this see, he received the post of Archbishop of Monreale (Sicily) (March 4, 1739). On August 17, 1740, he played an important role at the conclave in which Benedict XIV was elected Pope. His last appointment was as Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals (February 3, 1744). He was a loyal supporter of Charles III of Naples, and, in 1741, served that king as representative to the papal court in peace talks.
Acquaviva, Monte (CH): A mountain (2,737 m.) in the northern part of the Maiella.
Acquaviva Collecroce
(CB)(Croatian: Zivavoda-Kruc): A commune of Molise, in the province of Campobasso.
Region: Molise. Province: Campobasso.
Elevation: 425 m. Area: 28.50 km². Population: 754 (2006e); 800 (2001). Population Density: 28.1/km² (2001).
Coordinates: Lat. 41°52’1″N/Long. 14°44’53″E.
Location & Setting: Located 56 km N of Campobasso, it is situated on a hill between the basins of the rivers Trigno and Biferno. Part of the Comunità Montana Monte Mauro.
Frazioni: .
Tel. Prefix: 0875. Postal Code: 86030.
Population Designation: .
Patron Saint (s): San Michele. Feast Day: Sept. 29.
Former Names: .
History: Although the site appears to have been inhabited in ancient times, the earliest remains are of medieval date. During the 12th century it came under the control of the Knights of Malta. From 1446 to 1553 it was a possession of the Cantelmo family. The present commune was founded in the 16th century (1561/2) by a colony of Croatian refugees fleeing from the Turkish conquerors of their Balkan homeland. Judging from the peculiarities in the surviving dialect of the inhabitants, it is believed that the original settlers came from the Dalmatian hinterland in the Neretva area (present-day Bosnia-Herzegovina).
                A major earthquake struck in 1984.
Historic Population Figures: 1,777(1861); 2,212(1901); 2,017(1921); 2,250(1951); 1,017(1981); 883 (1991); 800(2001).
Famous Natives & Residents:
Points of Interest: The modern population of the commune still retains traces of the language, customs, and costumes of the original Croatian settlers. It is the largest of the 3 Slavic-speaking communes in Molise (the others being Montemitro and San Felice).
Historical Sites and Monuments: The Casa di Riposo is also of interest.
Churches and Religious Sites: The principal monument is the church of S. Maria Ester, constructed in the late 16th century by the Knights of Malta. Reconstructed in 1715, the principal treasures are a pair of statues depicting S. Michele Arcangelo and the Concezione, both by Paolantonio di Zinno.
                The church of Santa Giusta, located in the countryside near the center, was a place of refuge for local shepherds.
Museums:
Culture:
Events: Festa del Maja- May 1. A survival from ancient times, the festival is meant as a request for a good harvest. As part of the ritual a fantoccio (puppet) is carried along the along the rural roads to the accompaniment of choral songs.
Festival of S. Michele- Sept 29.
The Smarceka– Christmas time. This Slavic rite involves the lighting of a torch which is then a huge tree trunk near the door of the parish church.
Recreation:
Economy: Agriculture.
Acquaviva delle Fonti
(BA): A commune in the province of Bari.
Region: Puglia. Province: Bari.
Elevation: 300 m. Area: 130.98 km². Population: 21,340 (2007e); 21,478 (2006e); 21,613 (2001).  Population Density: /km² ().
Coordinates: Lat. 40°53’55″N/Long. 16°50’35″E.
Location & Setting: Located 28 km. S of Bari, it is situated on a high terrace in the Murge. The city’s name means “water of the fountain,” deriving from the locally abundant sub-surface water supply. Part of the Comunità Montana Murgia Barese Sud-Est. Part of the Regione Agraria n. 6 – Murge di Castellana.
Frazioni: .
Tel. Prefix: 080. Postal Code: 70021.
Population Designation: Acquavivesi.
Patron Saint (s): Maria SS. Di Costantinopoli. Feast Day: 1st Tuesday in March.
Former Names: .
History: The first mention of Acqua­viva dates from the end of the 7th century AD, although it may have been founded as early as the 6th century. Twice sacked by the Saracens, it attained a degree of importance during the time of the Normans. It was held as a fief by several notable families and individuals: the Del Balzo, the Acquaviva d’Aragona (counts of Conversano), Prospero Colonna (1st part of the 16th century), and the Spinelli (1614). It became the property (with the accompanying title of Prince) of the De Mari family in 1664. In 1799, its citizens made a valiant, but futile, effort to defend their town from the army of Cardinal Ruffo. When it fell, the Cardinal’s troops brutally sacked the center.
                Thanks in large part to the fertility of its soil and the abundant water supply Acquaviva remained prosperous during the 19th century. In the 20th century, Acquaviva’s economy was greatly affected by the jobs created for the construction of the Edificio Monumentale (1909-1915).
                After World War II, the economy received another boost by the enlargement and modernization of the hospital.
                Major earthquakes struck in 1694, 1731, 1857, 1905, 1930, and 1980.
Historic Population Figures: 6,776(1861); 11,113(1901); 10,848 (1921); 14,125(1951); 18,390(1981); 21,613 (2001).
Famous Natives & Residents:
Points of Interest: Acquaviva is the location for one of southern Italy’s most important private hospitals.
                The Mercadente Forest (258 acres) is located 14 km to the W.
                Recently, researchers have discovered a nearby cave with evidence of Paleolithic habitation.
Historical Sites and Monuments: The 17th century Baroque Municipio, formerly the Palazzo dei Principi, was built by the noble De Mari family on the site of an old Norman castle. It consists of about 300 rooms of various sizes and functions. Crowning its loggia are a row of decorative niches and masks spanning the length of the façade. Two towers of the former castle still survive.
Churches and Religious Sites: The original 12th century Romanesque Duomo was founded by the Norman king Roger II. The present structure, a beautiful model of late-Renaissance architecture, dates of the 15th/ 16th century. It is one of the four Palatine Basilicas of Apulia. The building has a bipartite façade inset with an elegant rose window and prominent pilasters. The triangular pediment is topped by statues of the Madonna and Child at the apex and of statues of saints at the ends. Of the original Romanesque building little survives except some freestanding columns with bases carved as lions, supporting a damaged pediment over the tall central door. In the lunette is a bas-relief of St. Eustace with a stag. The interior is decorated with rich stucco work and gilding.
Museums:
Culture:
Events: Feast of Maria SS. Di Costantinopoli– 1st Tuesday in March. The celebration includes fireworks displays.
Sagra della cipolla (Feast of the Onion)- October. The celebrations include the tasting of locally made delicacy, calzone, a cake stuffed with red onions.
Recreation:
Economy: The territory is agricultural, devoted to the cultivation of wine-grapes, olives, fruits, vegetables and almonds. The city is a center for distilling.
Acquaviva d’Isernia
(IS): A commune in the province of Isernia.
Area: 13.73 km². Alt. 730 m. CAP: 86080. Tel. Pref.: 0865. Geographical Coordinates: Lat 41°40’23″16 N/Long 14°8’59″28 E. Population Information: 468 (2006e); 468 (2001); 531 (1991). % Change in Population from 1991 to 2001: . Population Density (2001): / km². Inhabitants Designation: .
Location & Setting: Located 18 km. NW of Isernia, it is situated on a hill to the right of the torrent Rio (Volturno). Part of the Comunità Montana del Volturno.
Economy: Although agriculture still plays a vital economic role, the commune also is a center for animal husbandry (goats) and forestry. Tourism is now also becoming an increasing important factor.
Historic Population Figures: 713(1861); 765(1901); 838(1921); 749(1951); 585(1981); 468(2001).
History: Although the origins of the center are uncertain, archaeological evidence suggests that it has existed at least since the time of the ancient Samnites.
                During the 20th century the town’s population was severely reduced due to emigration.
                Major earthquakes struck in 1456, 1805, 1925, and 1984.
Points of Interest: To the N of the center stands the church of Madonna d’Assunta.
                The Parish Church of S. Anastasio Martire.
                Other churches include those of S.  Maria Asunta and the Oratory of Santa Maria Rosaria.
                There is an interesting castle.
Culture & Religion: Patron Saint(s): Sant’Anastasio (FD- 21/22 Jan).
Festival of S. Anastasio– evening of January 21/22. The ceremonies include the lighting of a big bonfire which is kept burning throughout the night. A procession follows and traditional stories are recited.

Acquaviva Platani (CL)(Arab. Michinese): (see full page)


Acquavona: A mountain pass (alt. 1050 m.) in the chain of M. Reventino, part of the Calabrian Apennines.
Acque Basse, Canale: A canal (length: 12 km) in the province of Foggia (Puglia). Stretching from Masseria Caroppi near Lesina, it captures the waters of the Parata before emptying into the Lago di Lésina near Foce Vecchia Càldoli.
Acquedolci
(ME): A commune in the province of Messina.
Area: 12.96 km². Alt. 15 m. CAP: 98070. Tel. Pref.: 0941. Geographical Coordinates: Lat 38°3’25″56 N/Long 14°34’58″44 E. Population: 5,436 (2004).  5,373 (2001); 5,122 (1991). % Change in Population from 1991 to 2001: . Population Density (2001): / km². Inhabitants Designation: Acquedolcesi.
Location & Setting: located 107 km W of Messina. It is situated on the N. (Tyrrhenian) coast of Sicily about 4 km. W of Sant’ Agata di Militello, to the W of Capo d’Orlando. Part of the Regione Agraria n. 4 – Montagna litoranea dei Nebrodi.
Economy: The economy is based on agriculture (cereals, olives, citrus) and processing factories. Local handicrafts center on marble working and woodworking.
Historic Population Figures: 109(1861); 757(1901); 895(1921); 3,572(1951); 4,925(1981); 5,373(2001).
History: The town’s name, meaning “sweet water”, is believed to derive from the sugar cane introduced into the area by the Saracens in medieval times. This crop survived until c1700.
There is evidence of a harbor existing here in Hellenistic times.
                During the 17th and 18th centuries it was a fief of the Princes of Palagonia.
                In 1922 the center was founded as a frazione after a landslide damaged nearby San Fratello (ME). It became an autonomous commune in 1969.
Major earthquakes struck in 1978 and 1990.
Points of Interest: The Grotta di S. Teodoro (on M. Castellaro) was the site of prehistoric habitation. It measures 60 meters in length, 20 meters in width, and up to 20 m in height. Excavators have discovered artifacts including stone implements and animal remains. The walls are decorated with several drawings. It appears to have been the site of a settlement of the Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic Eras (20,000 to 6,000 BC). Researchers have found what is believed to be some of the earliest skeletal remains of woman ever found in Europe. About 30 years of age at her death, “Thea” (as she has been named) dates to c9000 BC.
                The principal religious monument is the church of S. Benedetto “il Morro”.
                 Other churches include those of Santa Anna and S. Giacomo.
                The commune has remains of a 14th century castle and a fortified tower built by Charles V.
Culture & Religion: Patron Saint(s): S. Benedetto “il Morro” (FD- Apr.5).
Festival of S. Benedetto- Apr. 5.
Cattle Fair- May 14-15
Festival of the Emigrants- summer.
Acquoso, Rio: A waterway of Molise. It is formed from the union of two branches: the Rio San Pietro (length: 7 km) which descends from Monte Marrone (1805 m), and the Rio Molinello (length: 5 km) which originates on Monte Marrone under the name of Rio Petrara. Its waters flow into the River Volturno in the Colli al Volturno at a point 86 km from Campobasso.
Acradina: Ancient name for Capo Santa Panagia (SR), a promontory that forms the S end of the Golfo di Augusta.
Acrae: Latin name for Akrai, a town in eastern Sicily, founded by Syracuse in 664 BC.
Acrae (Acra) (mod. Palazzolo Acreide [SR]). A town in ancient Sicily located to the southwest of Syracuse, between the rivers Anapus and Tellaro. West of modern Palazzuolo Acreide, it sat on a flat-topped, hill. The steep sides of the hill made the place approachable only on one side. The town was founded in 665/664 BC by colonists from Syracuse on a site periodically inhabited since Paleolithic times. The colony was founded as a fortified outpost to guard an important approach to Syracuse. The town appears periodically in history in events linked to Syracuse. Dion stopped here in 357 BC during his expedition against Dionysius II. In 263 BC, Acrae was mentioned in a treaty between Hieron II of Syracuse and the Romans as one of the towns that would come under the jurisdiction of Syracuse. During the 1st Century AD Pliny the Elder mentioned it as having the status of a civitates stipendiariae. Although it disappears from history thereafter, archaeological evidence shows that the town remained active well into the late Empire. The town was probably destroyed in AD 827 during the Saracen invasion.
Acragas (Akragas; Lat. Agrigentum): Ancient Greek name for Agrigento. It was second in power and wealth in ancient Greek Sicily only to its rival Syracuse. At its height of power and wealth, Acragas had a population of about 200,000, although only c20,000 of these held full rights as citizens. Acragas derived its great wealth from exports of grain, wine and olive oil. The origin of the city’s name is uncertain. One of the many theories is that it derives from Akragante, identified in some myths as the city’s founder.
Acragas, River: Ancient name for the small river S. Biagio (formerly Girgenti) in southern Sicily. It emptied into the Africum pelagus below Agrigentum.
Acri (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza.
Region: Calabria. Province: Cosenza.
Elevation: 720 m. Area: 198.58 km². Population: 21,468 (2006e);  21,669 (2004). Pop. Density: 110/km² (2004).
Coordinates: Lat. 39°29’38” N/Long. 16°23’4″ E.
Location & Setting: Located 38 km. NE of Cosen­za, it is situated along the left bank of the river Mucone, at the edge of the Sila. Part of Comunità Montana Destra Crati. Part of Regione Agraria n. 3 – Sila Greca. Part of Parco Nazionale della Sila.
Frazioni: Calamia, Casalinella, Cerasello, Chimento, Cuta, Duglia, Ferrante, Foresta, Gioia, Guglielmo, Macchia, Montagnola, Pagania Vallonecupo, Pagania Vallonecupo II, Pantalia, Pantano d’Olmo, Pertina, Piano d’Arnice, Pietramorella, Pietremarine, Policaretto, Salici, San Benedetto, San Giacomo, San Martino, Seggio, Serricella, Sorvo, Ternita, Timpone Morte, Vagno, Vallonecupo.
Tel. Prefix: 0984. Postal Code: 87041.
Population Designation: Acresi.
Patron Saint (s): Bl. Angelo. Feast Day: Oct. 30.
Former Names: .
History: Acri’s history has been one of numerous battles, the most sig­nificant occurring in 1806. It was long held as a fief by the Princes of Bisignano.
                Major earthquakes struck in 1836, 1887, 1905, 1908, 1913, 1930, 1947, and 1980.
Historic Population Figures: 12,032(1861); 13,132(1901); 14,252(1921); 20,239(1951); 20,615 [1971]; 21,189(1981); 21,891 (2001); 23,190 [2004].
Famous Natives & Residents:
Points of Interest:
Historical Sites and Monuments: Neolithic remains have been discovered in the area.
The center still contains traces of ancient walls. The principal monument is a 17th century Palazzo of the Princes of Bisignano.
                There is a ruined 15th century castle.
The Palazzo dei Sanseverino was built by the Princes of Bisignano during the 14th and 16th centuries. It was extensively restored in 1720 by Stefano Mangerio. It has some interesting frescoes featuring allegorical figures of Time and Eternity.
Churches and Religious Sites: The Romanesque Mother Church of S. Maria Santissimma stands on the sites of an early Christian sanctuary.
                The Chiesa Parrocchiale was reconstructed in the 18th century upon the remains of an earlier structure. Its interior contains some excellent paintings.
Other important churches are those of the 18th century Cappuccini church (formerly of S. Chiara)(18th century), with some fine wooden statues and oil paintings; the 16th century church of  S. Francesco da Paola (restored in the 18th century) and the 15th century church of S. Nicola di Salas.
Museums:
Culture:
Events:
Festival of S. Giuseppe- Mar. 19.
Festival of Bl. Angelo- Oct. 30.
Recreation:
Economy: It is an important agricultural trade center dealing in wine, olives, salted meats (sausage), cattle and pigs. An important hydroelectric station is located here. Acri is a trade center for salted meats (sausage), cattle, swine, olive oil and wine.
Acri, Francesco: (b. 1836, Catanzaro. d. 1913, Bologna). Philosopher. He began his teaching career as a professor at the University of Palermo. In 1871, he taught the history of philosophy at Bologna. He opposed the concepts of Idealism and Positivism, preferring mysticism and Platonic doctrines. His most important philosophical work was the Abbozzo d’una teoria delle idee (1870). Acri also made an important contribution to the study of legends. He produced significant studies of both Italian and classical traditions. He was an expert on the works of Plato. Among Acri’s other works were Videmus in aenigmate (1907), Amore, dolore, fede (1908), Dialettica turbata (1911), and Dialettica serena (posth.1917).
Acrilla (or Acrillae)
: An ancient Sicilian town of uncertain location. It is known to have stood near Syracuse in E Sicily. Some scholars have identified it with modern Giarratana [RG]. The town was mentioned in the writings of the historian Stephanus of Byzantium and is thought to have been the site of Marcellus’s victory over Hippocrates in 214 BC.
Acron (Acrone, Acronis)
: (fl. 5th century BC). A famous Greek physician, he was the son of Xenon, and was a native of Akragus (mod. Agrigento) in Sicily. Many scholars consider him to be the founder of the school of empirical practice. He is known to have moved to Athens where he helped to found a medical and philosophical school. He is credited with stopping a terrible plague in Athens by inventing fumigation (i.e. lighting large smoky fires and purifying the air with perfumes). According to Suidas, he was the author of several medical works written in the Doric dialect.
acropolis
: (=high city). The citadel of an ancient Greek settlement, normally located on its highest elevation.
Acrotatus: (fl. late 4th Century BC). King of Sparta. In 314 BC, he responded to an appeal for help from Akragas, then being threatened by Agathocles, the tyrant of Syracuse. Acrotatus sailed to Sicily and took over the defense of Akragas. The harshness which he used to rule the city aroused the citizens to expel him. He returned home to Sparta and died soon after.
Acton: An English/Irish family, which arose in the 14th century at Aldenham Hall, Shropshire, England. Many of its members were to significantly affect the political and military affairs of the Bourbon Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. Its first member of note was Edward Acton, created an English baron in 1643 as a reward for his loyalty to the Stuarts. A later namesake, who worked as a physician at Besançon, in France, was the father of John Francis Edward Acton, who inherited the title in 1791. The latter’s brother was Joseph Edward Acton (1737-1808), who founded the Neapolitan branch of the family.
Acton, Alfredo
: (b. 1867, Castellammare di Stabia. d. 1934, Naples). Admiral. During his career he participated in several campaigns throughout the world: Mesewa (Ethiopia), Crete (1938), the Far East, and Libya. During World War I, he commanded a combined Italian-English naval force in the lower Adriatic, playing an important role in the naval battle at Otranto (May, 1917). After the war, he became head of the General Staff of the Admiralty.
Acton, Charles (Carlo)
: (b. Aug. 25, 1829, Naples. d. Feb. 2, 1909, Portici). Operatic composer and pianist. His principal work was Una cena in convitto.
Acton, Charles Januarius Edward
: (b.1803, Naples. d. June 23, 1847, Naples). Ecclesiastic. Son of Sir John Francis Edward Acton (d.1736-1811) of Shropshire, England, he was educated in England (London and Cambridge) and at Rome (Academia Ecclesiastica), where he studied for the priesthood. In 1828, he served as papal attaché; to the Nuncio Lambruschini at Paris. After acting as vice-delegate (legate) at Bologna and as an assistant judge of the civil court at Rome, he became papal auditor (1837). In 1842, he became a cardinal under Pope Gregory XVI. After the restructuring of the Catholic hierarchy, he became procurator of the department of England in the eighth apostolic vicariate.
Acton, Ferdinando
: (b. 1832, Naples. d. 1891, Rome). Admiral. In 1860, he transferred with the grade of captain of frigate from the Bourbon Navy to the Italian navy. From 1881 to 1884 he served as Minister of the Navy; later becoming President of the Supreme Council and head of the General Staff of the Admiralty.
Acton, Guglielmo
: (b. 1825, Castellammare di Stabia. d. 1896, Naples). Naval officer and statesman. A Captain of frigate in the navy of the Bourbon Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, after the defeat of the Bourbons he transferred to the Italian navy as a ship’s captain. He served with distinction during the battle of Lissa. From 1870 to 1872 he was Minister of the Navy, becoming a Senator in 1871. In 1879 he was promoted to Vice-Admiral. He served a second term as Minister of the Navy from 1879 to 1881.
Acton, Lord John Emerich Dalberg- (1st Baron Acton of Aldenham)
: (b. Jan. 10, 1834, Naples. d. Jan. 19, 1902, Tegernsee, Bavaria). Historian. He was a grandson of Sir John Francis Edward Acton. After studying under Döllinger at Monaco, he became an important figure in the Liberal Democrat party in Great Britain. He served in the British parliament for 5 years. A close friend of Gladstone (who awarded him the title of baron), he earned a reputation as an historian and book collector. He was the planner for the Cambridge Modern History.
Acton, Sir John Francis Edward
: (b. 1736, Besançon, France. d. Aug. 12, 1811, Palermo). Adventurer and statesman. The son of an English doctor, Edward Acton, he served for a time in the French and Tuscan navies, rising to the rank of Captain. In 1775, he participated as the captain of a Tuscan frigate, in the campaign of Charles III against Algiers. During this action, he distinguished himself by assuming command at a critical moment, thus saving 3 to 4 thousand Neapolitans and Spaniards. A man of ambition, he had a keen sense of opportunity. In 1778, he saw such opportunity in Naples and entered the service of the Bourbon rulers. It did not take him long to the attention of the sovereigns. Driven forward by unbridled ambition, Acton used his innate intelligence and skills to win the favor of the Austrian-born Queen Maria Carolina. His rise to power thereafter was a swift one. By 1779, he was named Minister of the Navy; a year later, he became Minister of War. From 1784 to 1798, Acton held the office of Prime Minister. Queen Maria Carolina had a private agenda to pull Naples out from under the strong influences of Spain and turn it into a puppet of the Austrian Hapsburgs. In Acton, she discovered an ally and weapon in her quest. Left free of any interference, Acton was successful in carrying out the Queen’s wishes. This achievement earned him still more power. In 1789 he became Foreign Minister and President of the Council. With these appointments, added to those he already held, Acton became the effective ruler of Naples in all but name. His determination to gain and hold power by whatever cruel or brutal means necessary established the tradition of repression that so marked the final decades of the Bourbon kingdom. In many ways, Acton can be considered the catalyst, which sparked the series of events leading to the ultimate fall of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. For all of his cunning and scheming ways, Acton was an ardent supporter of the Old Order. He admired the despotism of the Hapsburgs and opposed the concepts of democracy and liberty of the French Revolution. This opposition blinded him to the changes taking place in Europe; changes that were to bring about his own downfall. In 1806, the army of Napoleon entered southern Italy and captured Naples. Acton fled with the Royal family to Sicily to avoid capture and died in exile in Palermo. Through papal dispensation, he was allowed to marry his niece, the eldest daughter of his brother, General Joseph Edward Acton (b. 1737). The marriage produced three children, the two most important being Sir Richard Acton (father of the first Lord Acton) and Charles Januarius Edward Acton (1803-1847).
Acton, Ruggiero Emerich
: (b. 1834, Naples d. 1901, Naples). Admiral. He served with distinction at Palermo during the suppression of the uprising of in Sept. 19-21, 1866. His service as a naval commander at the battle of Lissa earned him the Medaglia d’oro al Valor Militare (Medal of gold to the Military Valor).
Acuto: (fl. 12th century). Sculptor. He produced a number of significant works in his native Abruzzo, including the pulpit of the church of S. Angelo a Pianella and, possibly, the portico of the monastery of S. Clemente di Causauria.

 

Ad Angitulam>: A town in ancient Bruttium located at the mouth of the river Angitula, between Ad Turres and Nicotera, on the Via Aquilia.

Ad Calorem>: A town in ancient Lucania, situated on the river Calor, between Ad Silarum and Marcelliana.

Ad Canales (1)>: (mod. Canile). A town of ancient Messapia, located below Mt. Aulon, to the WNW of Tarentum.

Ad Canales (2)>: An ancient town of the Samnite Pentri, on the Via Trentana, between Ad Pirum and Bovianum.

Ad Decimum>: A town in ancient Calabria, on the Via Egnatina, between Egnatia and Speluncae.

Ad Duodecim>: (mod. Borgogne). A town in ancient Calabria located to the NW of Hydruntum.

Ad Honoratianum>: A town of the ancient Hirpini, in Samnium, located on the Via Numica between Ad Matrem Magnam and Venusia.

Ad Lanarium>: (mod. Campobello). A town in ancient Sicily located SW of Mazara.

Ad Matrem Magnam>: (mod. Villanova). A town of the ancient Hirpini, in Samnium. It was located near the source of the river Cerbalus, on the Via Numica between Equus Tuticus and Ad Honoratianum.

Ad Nonum>:>A town of the ancient Sidicini, in Campania, located between Pons Campanus and Casilinum.

Ad Novas>: (mod. Nova). A town in ancient Campania, located on the Via Appia between Calatia and Caudium.

Ad Octavum>:>A town of the ancient Sidicini, in Campania, located on the Via Appia between ancient Capua and Pons Campanus.

Ad Pinum>: (mod. Spinazzola). A town in ancient Lucania, located between Venusia and Opinum.

Ad Pirum>: (mod. Campolieto). A town in ancient Apulia located on the Via Frentana between Geronium and Ad Canales.

Adalberta: (fl. 2nd part of the 8th century). Wife of Arichis II. When her husband died in 787, she worked to have Charlemagne free Grimoald, the rightful heir to the power in Benevento.

Adam of Rottiwell:(fl 2nd half of the 15th century). Printer. He founded the first publishing house in the Abruzzi at L’Aquila. In 1482, he published a translation of the Lives of Plutarch by B.A. Iaconella of Rieti.

Adami, Gaetano: (b. 1848, Cosenza. d.?). Painter. He attended the Istituto di BBAA di Napoli where he studied under Domenico Morelli.

Adami, Giovanni Matteo: (b. 1574, Mazara del Vallo. d. 1623, Japan). Missionary and martyr. A Jesuit, he was sent to Japan in 1602 to do missionary work. During a persecution of Christian clerics he fled for a time to Macao. Returning to Japan, he was eventually arrested, tried and executed.

Adamucci, Antonio: (b. between 1750 and 1775, Naples. d. 1827, Paris). Physician. One of the forerunners of positivist thinking, he discounted the existence of the soul, the immaterial, or anything that cannot be scientifically examined or explained.

Addamo, Sebastiano: (b. Feb. 18, 1925, Catania. d. July 9, 2000, Catania). Educator and writer. He moved to Lentini [SR] where he became headmaster of the local liceo classico. During his career he contributed several articles of literary criticism to the publications Il Mattino and La Sicilia. His most significant publications are the fiction works Violetta (1963) and Un uomo fidato (1978), and the poetic works La metafora dietro di noi (1980) and Il giro della vite (1983). He spent his later years in his native Catania.

Addaura Caves (PA):An important archaeological complex of 3 caves at the base of the N slope of Monte Pellegrino (an associated cave, Grotta Niscemi, is located on the E slope), located about 8.5 km. NW of Palermo. It was discovered accidentally following the explosion of an ammunition dump towards the end of World War II. Scientific investigation has revealed that the caves were used during the Mid-Upper Paleolithic, prior to 35,000 BC, and in the later Copper and Early Bronze Ages. In 1952, researchers discovered a series of highly artistic Upper Paleolithic wall incisions depicting humans and animals in one cavern. The designs found here are considered the best examples for this type of art south of the Alps. The Addaura designs fall into three distinct styles. The earliest engravings consist mostly of lightly scratched animal figures of good quality.  The middle stage is best represented by a well executed, deeply cut depiction of a deer, as well as one scene containing 17 human figures. Some scholars believe that these latter carvings depict a human sacrifice. One figure is shown lying down and bound. Two other figures are shown with raised arms. Some appear to be wearing bird or dog headed masks. These carvings appear to have similarities to those discovered at sites in the Sahara.

Addolorata (TP)>:>An agricultural community (alt. 9 m) located 4 km NE of Marsa­la, situated on Route #115 between Santa Vénere and Tabaccaro, in a plain to the NW of Capo Lilibeo.

Addone, Niccolo: (b. Potenza; fl. early 19th century). Rebel leader. He is best known for leading an unsuccessful attack against French-occupied Potenza.

> 

Adeiperto>: Bishop of Capua (r 944 – ?).

Adelaide di Monferrato (or di Savona; del Vasto): (b. c1075; d. Apr. 16, 1118). Countess of Sicily. Different sources identify her father as the daughter of the Marchese Manfredo or Boniface del Vasto, Marquis of western Liguria. She was the 3rd wife of Roger I, the “Great Count” of Sicily, marrying him in 1089. By him she became the mother of Sicily’s first king, Roger II. Widowed in 1101, she held the regency of Sicily until 1112, first for her oldest son, Simon, and then for the younger Roger II. King Baldwin of Jerusalem, seeking to possess her vast wealth, married her in 1113. After this marriage was annulled in 1117 she returned to Sicily, without her dowry, and died the following year. She was buried at Patti, in Sicily. Roger II became so incensed at his mother’s treatment at the hands of Baldwin, he refused to give any assistance to the Second Crusade, nearly three decades later.

>Adelaide>’s sister married Roger I’s illegitimate son, Jordan (Giordano), and her brother, Henry del Vasto, became lord of Paternò and Butera.

Adelais of Benevento>:>Duke of Benevento (rAD 730 or 732-33).

Adelchis (or Adelgisus): (d. 878). Prince of Benevento. He was the son of Radelchis I. He was a vassal of Ludovico (Ludwig) II, Lombard king of Italy, and succeeded his brother Radelgar to power in Benevento in 853 or 854. In 866, he issued laws to be enforced within the duchy as a supplement to the Lombard code for use in Benevento. Following an expansionist policy, he eventually gained control of Salerno and was the gastalato of Capua. During his reign he was able to successfully hold off hostile attacks from the Carolingian Franks, the Papacy, and the Saracens. In August, 871, he captured Emperor Louis II, releasing him only when a promise was made guaranteeing Adelchis’s sovereignty to the duchy. Once freed, Louis went to Rome where he was freed from his oath by Pope Adrian II. The Emperor, now seeking revenge on Adelchis, marched south again. Although he scored another victory over the Saracens at Capua, he was unable to harm Adelchis and finally departed again to the north. Despite his success against outside threats, Adelchis could do nothing against those from within and he was assassinated by a group of his own relatives.

Adelfer (Adelferio) of Amalfi:He usurped the Duchy of Amalfi in 984 while his brother, Manso I, was in Salerno. In 986 he and his wife Drosa were forced to flee to Naples when Manso returned to Amalfi.

Adelfia >(BA):A commune (area: 29.73 km². alt. 154 m) in the province of Bari. Located 15 km. S of Bari, the two sections of the town (each formerly an independent center) are divided by a valley called the “lowland” or “marsh” of Montrone. A single bridge spans the chasm to link the two sections, which lie less than a kilometer from one another. Population: 17,070 (2007e); 17,020 (2006e); 16,824 (2004).

 The communal territory is cultivated with vineyards, olive groves, and almond trees. Part of Regione Agraria n. 8 – Pianura di Bari. CAP: 70010. Tel. Pref.: 080. Geographical Coordinates: Lat 41°0’18″72 N/Long 16°52’21″00 E.

Designation: Adelfiesi.

Historic Population Figures

1861

1871

1881

1901

1911

1921

1931

1936

1951

1961

1971

1981

1991

2001

5,628

5,899

6,560

7,762

8,373

8,312

8,852

9,108

10,066

9,535

10,034

10,931

14,779

16,245

History: Adelfia was created on 29 September 1927 by the uniting of the two communes of Montrone and Canneto di Bari. Its name, adapted from the Greek word adelphòs (meaning “brotherhood”), reflects this unification. Montrone (med. Monte Roni) was originally a village founded by the Byzantines in 982 (although the site had been occupied in pre-Roman times by a Peucetican center, possibly Celiae), while Canneto (med. Cane) was a Norman foundation from 1071.

                Throughout most of their history, Montrone and Canneto were feudal holdings. They only received the status of free communes with the abolition of feudalism in 1806.

                During the late 19th and early 20th centuries the communes were largely depopulated due to emigration, mostly to the Americas.

                Major earthquakes struck the area in 1731, 1980, and 1984.

Points of Interest: The Norman Tower is all that remains of a castle constructed from Alfonso Balbiano in 1153.

                The church of the Principle (del Principio), founded if 1086, is so-named for a fresco it houses of la Vergine del Principio, reputedly discovered miraculously drawn on a cave wall.

                The church of S. Nicola contains a painting of S. Francesco di Paola, attributed to Titian.

                The Baroque church of the Concezione immacolata houses a reliquary of S. Vittoriano.

                The church of Santa Maria della Stella, founded in 1186, underwent restoration during the 18th and 19th centuries.

                The 14th century Marchesale Palazzo De’ Bianchi Dottula now houses a Museo delle Arti e Tradizioni Popolari.

                The Castello Fascina is an excellent example of an 18th century fortified manor house from the Baroque period.

                A monument to the Fallen commemorates the local citizens lost during the various campaigns of Italy in past centuries.

                Archaeologists have discovered geometric ceramics dating from the 6th century BC. A pre-roman tomb has also been found dating from the 4th century BC.

Culture & Religion: Patron Saint(s): S. Trifone (FD-Nov10/11). S. Vittoriano (Canneto)- July.

Feast of Madonna della Stella– April.

Festival of S. Vittoriano (Canneto)- July.

Sagra dell’uva e delle Frittelle occurs in September.

Feast of S. Tifone- Nov 10/11. A procession and the lighting of bonfires figure into the ceremonies.

Adelgisus:See Adelchis.

Ademar of Capua>:>Duke of Capua (r999).

Adeodata>:>(fl. end of 6th Century AD). Sicilian noblewoman (inlustris femina). She is known from her correspondence with Pope St. Gregory I “the Great” (r AD 590 – 604) expressing her desire to enter a religious life.

Adeodatus (>Deusdedit) I, St.>: (b. Rome; d. Nov. 8, AD 618, Rome). Pope. (r Oct 19, 615-Nov 8, 618). He succeeded Boniface IV and was succeeded by Boniface V.

 He supported the Roman/Byzantine Governor Eleutherius when the latter marched through Rome on his way south to crush the revolt of John of Compsa at Naples. Feast Day: Nov. 8.

Adeodatus (>Deusdedit) II>: (b. Rome; d. June 17, 676, Rome). Pope (rAD Apr.11, 672-June 17, 676). He succeeded Vitalianus on the papal throne. The son of a Roman named Jovianus, he had been a monk, who was noted for his kindly, benevolent nature. Two of his papal letters are extant, one confirming the privileges granted to the monastery of St. Peter’s at Canterbury, and another granting privileges to the Gallic monastery of St. Martin’s of Tours. He was succeeded by Donus.

Adeona:An ancient Italic goddess of journeys and protector of travelers. The Romans incorporated her attributes into the goddess Juno. She protected children when they took their first steps away from home, watching over them until they safely returned.

Adephagia:A Greek goddess of Gluttony and Discord (or as some sources prefer “Good-Eating and Merriment”). She was worshipped in Sicily in connection with the harvest goddess Ceres.

Aderente, Vincente (aka Vincent Aderente): (b. 1880, Naples. d. 1941, Bayside, Long Island, NY,). Painter. Having immigrated to the United States, he became a nationally known portrait and mural painter. He first achieved fame at the age of 17 when he won several prizes at the Art Students League. As a result of this he was awarded the contract to decorate the Waldorf Astoria Hotel Ballroom. From there he went on to create many works in public buildings in Massachusetts, Indiana, Ohio, New Jersey, New York (Queens), and Washington, D.C. Among his best-known works are the Murals at the Keith Memorial Theater, Boston. MA and the frescoes of angels in the Blessed Sacrament Chapel of the Cathedral of St. Matthew the Apostle, Washington, D.C. In 1935, he designs a series of government bonds using as his theme “Allegiance.”

Aderno (CT):former name for Adrano [CT].

Ades: See Hades.

Adhemar >(Adhemar, Ademar, Ademarius) of Salerno>: Prince of Salerno (r853-861). Son and heir of the usurper Peter of Salerno. An unpopular ruler, he lost considerable authority and territory to the Counts of Capua. In 858, his situation was so threatened that he had to call on the assistance of Guy I of Spoleto, who demanded further territorial concessions. Thus able to survive, Adhemar was forced to turn control of the Liri River over to Guy as compensation.

Adhemar of Capua>:Prince of Capua (999).

Adimari, Lodovico (or Ludovico): (b. 1644, Naples. d. 1708, Florence). Scholar and poet. Having served the Medici at Florence, he was forced into exile after the collapse of their power, living successively at Lucca, Bologna, and Mantua. In 1692, he returned to Florence where he eventually became a scholar of the Tuscan tongue in the Florentine Studio (1697). Adimari was the author of three dramas and several laudatory, sacred, and love poems. His best works are considered to be five Satires, published posthumously in 1716. Other works include Poesie sacre e morali (1696) and Prose sacre (1706). Accused of having killed his wife, he lost a commission from the Captain of Pietrasanta.

Admiral:A high state and military official in the Norman Sicily. The title originated as the Arabic amir al-bahr, meaning “Commander (emir) of the Sea.”

Adonis, Gardens of:In the ancient Greek cities founded in Sicily and Magna Graecia, the worship of the nature/vegetation god, Adonis, was very popular. A ritual to this deity was known as the Gardens of Adonis. These so-called gardens were actually baskets or pots filled with earth, in which wheat, barley, lettuces, fennel, and various kinds of flowers were sown and tended by women for eight days. Although the plants sprouted quickly and flourished, they lacked a root system and withered and died at the end of eight days. The dead plants were then bundled with images of Adonis and brought to the seashore or to a sacred spring, where they were flung into the water. After the rise of Christianity, the ritual of the Gardens of Adonis survived to become part of the Easter celebrations. As the holy day approached, women sowed wheat, lentils and canary seed in plates, which they kept in the dark and watered every two days. When the plants grew tall enough they were tied together in bundle with red ribbons. On Good Friday the plants in their plates were brought to both Catholic and Greek Rite churches where they were then placed on sepulchers with effigies of Christ. This practice, known as the “Gardens of Gethsemane” has survived into modern times in Sicily as well as at Cosenza in Calabria.

Adonis, Scarlet:A bright little flower found throughout Sicily. It received its name from the legend that it originally sprang from the blood of Adonis when he was slain by a wild boar.

Adorno >(RC):>Former name for the commune of Ardoro (RC).

Adorno, Giorgio>: (d. 1558). Navigator. He served as Captain General of the Galleys for the Knights of Malta.

Adorno, Mario:(b. 1773, Siracusa. d. 1837, Siracusa). Lawyer and patriot. He participated in the uprising of the Carbonari in 1820-21. In 1837, he led an unsuccessful revolt in Siracusa against the Bourbon government. He was captured and executed with his son Carmelo.

Adrano >(CT): (anc. Adranon, Adranum, Adranus, Hadranum; Arab. Adornu; formerly Aderno). A commune (Area: 82.51 km². Alt. 560 m) in the province of Catania. Located 36 km NW of Catania, on the SW slope of M. Etna, it is situated in a hilly region near the junction of the rivers Simeto and Salso, on a lava hill above the Simeto valley. Population: 35,984 (2006e); 35,611(2004). The town is a market center for wine, citrus fruit (especially oranges), pistachios, and honey. The surrounding territory is given over to agricultural cultivation (citrus fruits, olives, pistachios, and vegetables) and livestock breeding (cattle and sheep). Part of Regione Agraria n. 1 – Versante Occidentale dell’Etna. Part of Parco dell’Etna.

CAP: 95031. Tel. Pref.: 095. Geographical Coordinates: Lat 37°39’46″08 N/Long 14°50’8″16 E.

Inhabitants Designation: Adraniti.

Frazioni/Localities: Calcerana Marina, Sacro Cuore.

Historic Population Figures: 13,161(1861); 25,689(1901); 40,007(1921); 27,182(1951); 33,220(1981); 34,490(2001).

1861

1871

1881

1901

1911

1921

1931

1936

1951

1961

1971

1981

1991

2001

13,161

14,791

20,160

25,689

30,190

40,007

23,654

24,515

27,182

31,532

32,129

33,220

32,717

34,490

History: The town’s name derives from that of the Sikel god Adranos (or Hadranos). The area around Adrano had been inhabited since Neolithic times. A number of small Stentinello culture villages from the 6th and 5th millennia BC have been excavated.

                The ancient town of Adranon was founded in c400 BC by Dionysius the Elder, tyrant of Syracuse, on the probable site of an earlier Sikel community dating from the Early Bronze Age. It was located near the chief temple of the Sikelian fire/volcano deity (H)adranos, from whom its name is derived. The Greeks soon assimilated Hadranos into their own deity Hephaestus.

                In Greek times, the town was a place of some importance, guarding an important crossroads between Katane (Catania) and Henna (Enna). Timoleon conquered the place from Dionysius II in 343-42 BC. In 263 BC, the town was captured by the Romans. Much of the old town was destroyed at this time and a new settlement called Hadranum arose on the site. Pliny the Elder, writing in the 1st century AD, listed it among the sti­pendi­ariae civitates (cities liable to annual taxation). Diodorus Siculus and Plutarch also mention it as an insignificant place important only for its still-active temple. In spite of its lack of political and military importance, the town thrived economically throughout the Roman era.

                The town survived the fall of the Roman Empire and came under the control of the Byzantines. The Saracens captured it during the 10th century. Called Adornu, the Saracen center flourished. When the Normans occupied the place (second part of the 11th century), the town’s name was altered to Aderno. As a fief (a county) of Count Roger I, Aderno underwent a major reconstruc­tion. During the 14th century, the Aragonese King Federico II gave Aderno to Matteo Sclafani with the title of count. In 1360, it came under the control of the Moncada-Sclafani family. In 1549, ownership passed to the Moncada, Princes of Paterno, who continued to hold it until the abolition of feudalism in 1812. It suffered terrible damage during the terrible earthquake of 1693. In 1929, the town’s name was changed to Adrano.

                The modern town suffered considerable damage during fighting between German and American forces in World War II. Many of its monuments have undergone restoration since the end of the war.

                Major earthquakes struck in 1693, 1818, 1894, 1905, 1908, 1975, 1978, and 1990.

Points of Interest: The town still has many ancient Greek, Sikel, and Roman remains. The earliest remains include Early Bronze Age (8th century BC) pottery (Castellucian) and bronzes from Mendolito (the “Mendolito hoard”), the site of the Sikel settlement. Among these are a necropolis (7th – 5th centuries BC), remains of walls and towers (from the Dionysian city), and some ancient buildings (Roman thermae and temples). Long stretches of the southern stretch of the ancient lava-stone fortification circuit walls still survive in the district of Mendolito, much of it having been incorporated into defensive works of later date. The walls were constructed from isodomic blocks of lava stone. They are also are especially well preserved along their E stretch (in the Cartalemi dis­trict). At the NE end a rectangular tower has been incorporated into the church of S. Frances­co. These walls mark the E and W boundaries of the ancient city. A steep ravine defended the S side. Of the N defenses nothing remains, having been obliterated by modern buildings. Other ancient remains include some houses from the 4th century BC in which were discovered pottery of Italiote manufacture and some coins of the same era. None of the monuments of the city (including the famous sanctuary of Hadranos) have yet been found. Part of an archaic necropolis, located to the SE of the city in Sciare Manganelli, has been excavated. The graves discovered here are unlike those typically found in ancient Sicily. They consist of crude circular edifices built of basalt stone, similar in nature to the tholoi in Mycenaean Greece. The grave goods, including some small bronze artifacts, are now housed in the Archaeological Museum located in the Norman Castello.

                Of the medieval remains, the most important is the rectangular Norman Castello founded by Count Roger I in 1070 upon the ruins of an earlier Saracen fortification. It includes a rectangular keep, modified in the 14th, 15th centuries (1640-56), and 19th centuries (1811). Rising to a height of about 36 m., the complex’s four wings are surrounded by defensive corner turrets. Housed within is the Museo Archeologico Etneo. Among the artifacts included here are pieces of pottery dating from the early Bronze Age. On the first two floors of the museum are collected prehistoric artifacts from the Stentinello and Castelluccio sites. On the 2nd floor are artifacts from Mendolito, including a hanging Ascos and a 6th century BC bronze figurine known as the “Il Banchettante.” A small Norman chapel (2nd floor) has an apse decorated with a fresco (relating the story of Countess Adelasia, granddaughter of Count Roger I [see below]) and contains a collection of coins from the ancient town. On the 3rd floor is a mediocre collection of paintings.

                The Bellini Theater dates to 1846.

                The most important religious monument is the Norman Chiesa Madre, or church of the Maria SS. Assunta, containing some good artworks in its Norman interior. It has three aisles divided by 16 basalt columns taken from an ancient Greek temple. In the N aisle is a 15th century painted crucifix, now in poor condition, and above the W door is a 16th century polyptych of the Messina School. The campanile, built in reinforced concrete, remained incomplete. The church underwent restoration during the 17th century. The transept is decorated by paintings of Zoppo di Ganci.

                The church of S. Francesco contains a beautiful 17th century wooden crucifix created by Fra. Umile da Petralia.

                The church of S. Agostino preserves a fine engraved marble altar.

                Other religious monuments include the churches of SS. App. Filippo e Giacomo, Santa Lucia (founded 1156; rebuilt 1775), and Chiesa del Rosario (18th century), and the Dominican Convent (1596).

                The Norman Countess Adelasia in 1157/8 founded the ex-monastery of Santa Lucia outside the town walls. The present building, dating from 1596, is now used as a school. A second restoration, which includes the façade, occurred in the 18th century. The high 3-storied twin-bell-towered façade of the church dates from 1775. The charming interior has an oval central area.

                To the E of the town, in Contrada Cartalemi, are remains of a 4th century BC temple of Demeter and of the ancient Greek circuit walls.

                In the district of Mendolito, to the NW of the center, are the remains of a Sikel town. Traces of its fortifi­cations can still be seen. One of the most interesting finds here is a long, untranslated inscription in the Sikel tongue.

                About 8 km. W of the center, near Cárcaci, is the 14th century Ponte dei Saraceni, a bridge over the river Simeto.

                To the SW of Adrano, at the foot of a volcanic plateau on the river Simeto is Eurelios. Completed in 1982, it among the largest solar-energy complexes in Europe. It is a combined French-German-Italian enterprise consisting of 182 computer-controlled mirrors to collect solar rays.

Principal Monuments:

Cappella del Castello,

Chiesa Madre,

Chiesa S. Maria della Catena,

Chiesa di S. Francesco,

Chiesa di S. Pietro,

Chiesa del Rosario,

Convento Domenicano,

Chiesa del Salvatore,

Chiesa di S. Agostino,

Chiesa e Monastero di S. Lucia,

Chiesa S. Antonio Abate,

Chiesa S. Antonio di Padova,

Chiesa Di SS. Apostoli Filippo e Giacomo,

Chiesa di S. Chiara,

Chiesa SS. Cristo della Colonna,

Chiesa del Crocifisso,

Chiesa di Gesù e Maria,

Chiesa di S. Leonardo,

Chiesa della Madonna delle Grazie,

Chiesa di S. Maria degli Angeli,

Chiesa di Maria SS. Della Catena,

Chiesa di S. Nicola, Chiesa di S. Paolo,

Chiesa dello Spirito Santo,

Fontana dell’Immacolata.

Culture & Religion: Patron Saint(s): San Nicolò Politi (3 Aug).

Passion Play- Easter time. This is one of the most Passion Plays in Sicily.

Exhibit-Market of Artistic and Commercial Handicrafts- July.

Feast of San Nicolò Politi- Aug 3.

The author of an early 20th century guide book warned travelers that the local inhabitants of the town “had a bad name.”

Adranodorus: (b. Syracuse; fl. 3rd century BC). General. He was the tutor of Hieronymus, the 15-year-old grandson and successor of Hieron II, tyrant of Syracuse. Hieronymous was a member of the pro-Carthaginian faction of Syracuse, opposing the pro-Roman feelings of Hieron. After the death of Hieronymus (214 BC), Andranodorus favored the new republican government formed to replace the tyranny. Later, following an unsuccessful attempt to seize power for himself, he was put to death. He was married to Damarata, daughter of Hieron II.

Adranon >(AG):An ancient settlement, believed to have been of Sikan origins, located on Monte Adranone (1000 m), on the road between Contessa Entellina (PA) and Sambuca di Sicilia (AG). Excavations, begun in 1968, have revealed the remains on a Greek colony established here in the 6th century BC probably established by Selinunte (Selinus). This Greek town was destroyed at the end of the 5th century BC by the Carthaginians who established their own settlement here. Excavations have revealed the remains of a walled sanctuary of Punic design. The site was abandoned after being captured by the Romans in 263 BC. The site has a small museum located near an Iron Age necropolis. Here is found the so-called Tomba della Regina, notable for its interesting entrance. There are several other tombs here dating from the 5th and 4th centuries BC. The site also contains the remains of walls, the S gate of the circuit wall and a sanctuary. Part of the acropolis is located to the NE.

Adranos (or Hadranos):A Sikel god often identified with the Phoenician deity Adramelech. It is believed that Adranos was originally a fire-god connected with Mt. Etna. It is certain that he had some link with the volcano. His name is believed to derive from the Sikel word adar (=fire). According to one legend, Adranos was the father of the Palici, a particular class of Sikel deity. The Greeks later assimilated Adranos into their own fire-god, Hephaistos. The Romans did the same with their god Vulcan. The sacred Sikel shrine of Adranos was located on the slope of Mt. Etna, near the ancient city of Adrano. Although this city was of far later date that the shrine, the coins minted here during the time of Timoleon (2nd half of the 4th century BC) show that the god was still venerated but that he had been changed into a river deity. According to legend the shrine was guarded by 1,000 sacred dogs that would welcome any honest man with friendship but would attack and kill drunkards and thieves.

Adranum (or Hadranum) (mod. Adrano):>An ancient town in Sicily located at the SW foot of Mt. Etna, situated on the river Adranus, near its junction with the river Cyamosurus. Founded by Dionysius the Elder, it was famous for its shrine to the god Adranus (Hadranus), from whom it derived its name.

Adranus, River:A river in ancient Sicily. Rising in the Nebrodes Mountains, it joins with the Cyamosurus to form the river Symaethus.

Adria (1): An ancient name for the Adriatic Sea. In a more narrow sense, it was applied to that part of the Mediterranean Sea, which lies between Crete and Sicily. Also see Adriatic Sea.

Adria (2): Sometimes called Adriatide. A hypothetical land that was said to have connected the Gargano promontory on Puglia to the coast of Dalmatia. Adria supposedly broke up and sank over the eons of geological time. The Tremiti Islands are believed by some to be a remnant of this ancient land.

Adria (or Hadria) (3):Ancient name for modern Atri (TE). Probably founded by the Etruscans in Picenum, it was later a Roman settlement. Adria was hometown of the family of the Roman Emperor Hadrian.

Adria, Giovanni Giacomo: (b. Mazara, Sicily; d.1560). Physician. He was the personal physician to Emperor Charles V, who ennobled him. Charles appointed him as proto-medicus (chief physician) of Sicily.

Adrian: Also see Hadrian.

Adrian, St. (called “the African”): (b. North Africa; d.AD 709 or 710). Monk. He spent much of his life near Naples as the head of a Benedictine abbey at Nerida. His reputation brought him to the attention of Pope Vitalian, who wished to appoint him as Archbishop of Canterbury, in Saxon England. Adrian refused the offer and recommended Theodore, a Greek monk, for the honor. The Pope agreed, but only on the condition that Adrian would accompany Theodore as his advisor. In 668, Adrian and Theodore departed for England. Thereafter, Adrian dedicated much of his time to teaching, making certain that the monks under his care were knowledgeable in Latin and Greek. According to legend, his body remained in perfect condition for centuries after his death. He is often called St. Adrian of Canterbury.

Adrian (Hadrian) I: (b. Rome; d. 795).Pope (rAD Feb. 1/9, 772- Dec. 25/26, 795). The son of a Roman noble named Theodorus, he was orphaned at an early age and received a good education before entering the church. He succeeded Stephan III on the papal throne. Dante incorrectly states that it was Adrianus who crowned Charlemagne as Emperor. Threatened by the Lombard king Desiderius, Adrian successfully appealed to Charlemagne to invade northern Italy. This invasion ended the Lombard kingdom of Italy and secured the temporal power of the Papacy. He was succeeded by Leo III.

Adrian (Hadrian) II: (b. AD 792, Rome; d. Dec. 14, 872). Pope. (rDec 14, 867-Dec 14, 872). A native of Rome, he succeeded Nicholas I. and was succeeded by John VIII.

Adrian (Hadrian) III: (b. Rome; d. cSept. 885, Modena). Pope. (rMay 17, 884-cSept. 885). He succeeded Marinus I and was succeeded by Stephen V.

Adrian (Hadrian) IV (Nicholas Breakspeare): (b. c1100, Hertfordshire, England; d. Sept. 1, 1159, Anagni (FR)). Pope. (rDec 4, 1154-Sept. 1, 1159). The only pope of English ancestry, he succeeded Anastasius IV and was succeeded by Alexander III.

Adrian (Hadrian) V (Ottobuono de’ Fieschi): (b. c1205, Genoa; d. Aug. 18, 1276, Viterbo). Pope. (rJuly 11, 1276-Aug. 18, 1276). He succeeded Innocent V and was succeeded by John XXI.

Adrian (Hadrian) VI (Adriaan Florenszoon Boeyens): (b. Mar. 2, 1459, Utrecht; d. Sept. 14, 1523, Rome.). Pope. (rJan 9, 1522-Sept 14, 1523). He succeeded Leo X and was succeeded by Clement VII.

Adriani, Achille: (b. 1905, Naples. d. 1982). Archaeologist. He became a professor at the University of Palermo in 1948 and later served as director of the Greco-Roman Museum at Alexandria, Egypt. His principal field of study was Greek art, especially that of Alexandria. One of principal projects was the search for the tomb of Alexander the Great. Despite many years of research on the subject, he never published his work. One of his students, Professor Nicola Bonacasa, later studied Adriani’s notes and lectures and postulated that the famed tomb was located in the Latin cemetery in Alexandria.

Adriatic Sea (Lat. Adriaticum Mare; It. Mare Adriatico):Known in Roman times as the Adria or Mare Adriaticum, it is an arm of the Mediterranean Sea that separates the Balkan Peninsula (to the E) and the Italian mainland (to the W and NW). Some Latin writers also called it mare superum (Upper Sea), while Pliny the Elder preferred the name Atriaticum. Landlocked on three sides, it is open only to the S where it connects with the Ionian Sea, through the Strait of Otranto. It measures about 804 km. (or, according to some sources, 783 km) in length and has an area of about 132,085 km². It varies in breadth from a maximum of 225 km, near its center, to only 93 km at the Strait of Otranto on its southern end. It has an average depth of 242 m. with a maximum depth of 1,399 (or 1,280) m. The Adriatic skirts S. Italy along the coasts of Abruzzo, Molise and Puglia. The most significant feature of the coastline is the Golfo di Manfredonia beside the province of Foggia. The Adriatic derives its name from that of Adria, an ancient Etruscan-Roman port city located in the modern Italian province of Rovigo, Veneto region. Adria’s name, in turn probably derives from the ancient Illyrian word adur (= water, sea). Changes in the sea level have now left the site of Adria over 20 km inland.

There are over 1,000 islands in the Adriatic, mostly off the eastern coast. Of the Italian Adriatic Islands, the Tremiti group, off the Gargano Peninsula, is the most significant.

Adryx: An ancient maritime town in Sicily situated between Acis and Catana.

Ad Sabbatum>:>A town in ancient Bruttium located on the river Sabbatus, on the Via Aquilia between Consentia and Ad Turres.

Ad Samarum:a town of the Pentri, in ancient Samnium, situated near the source of the river Tamarus, between Bovianum and Equus Tuticus.

Ad Silarum:An ancient village in Lucania, situated on the river Silarus, between Ad Tanarum and Ad Calorem.

Ad Tanarum: An ancient maritime town of the Picentini, on the river Tanarus, near its mouth, between Picentia and Paestum.

Ad Templum Veneris: A town in ancient Calabria situated on the Via Egnatia between Norva and Egnatia (mod. Monte San Pietro).

Ad Tropea:An ancient town of the Bruttii situated on the Tyrrhenian coast, near Portus Herculis.

Ad Turres: An ancient town of Bruttii. It was situated on the Via Aquilia, between Ad Sabbatum and Angitula (mod. Maida).

Ad Undecimum (Furfane):A town of ancient Apulia situated on the Via Egnatia, between Herdonia and Canusium.

Ad Vicesimum:A town in ancient Lucania, between Cylistarnus and Thurii.

adytum (adito): From the Greek aduton (= a place not to be entered). It was a term used in ancient times for cave-sanctuaries and for the innermost chambers of Greek temples where oracles were received and mystery rites were performed. Such places were off-limits to all but priests and the initiated.

Aeaea (or Aia): An island mentioned in the Odyssey where the sorceress Circe made her home. It is uncertain exactly which island Homer was referring to although it appears to have been either Aegusa (mod. Favignana) or another isle somewhere off the east or west coasts of the Italian mainland.

Aebalia>: An alternate name for ancient Tarentum.

Aecae (Aeca, Aecani, Aecas) (>mod. Troja [FG])>: Ancient name for the Puglian city of Troja (Troia). It lay within the confines of Samnium and originally belonged to the Samnite Hirpini or the Daunian Apulians. The city lay of the Via Traiana between Beneventum and Brundisium (or on the Via Egnatia, between Equus Tuticus and Ad Pirum). Captured by Hannibal in 216 BC during the the 2nd Punic war, it was retaken by the Romans in 214 BC. Under the early Empire, a colony was established there and the city was renamed Colonia Augusta Apula. Its citizens may have been enrolled in the Papiria voting tribe. Pliny the Elder called the place Aecani and Aecas.

Aeclanuii: See Vertumnus.

Aeclanum (sometimes Aeculanum) (It. Eclano; mod. Mirabella Eclano) (AV): An ancient Oscan city of the Hirpini-Samnites, located 24 km E of modern Benevento and 30 km NE of Avellino, in the communal territory of Mirabella Eclano. It was situated on the Via Appia where the Via Aeclanensis split away to later join the Via Traina Nova at Herdoniae. This position on a major road junction made Aeclanum an important market town in Roman times. During the Roman Civil Wars it was attacked and occupied by Sulla (89 BC). Soon recovered from this disaster, it became a municipium. During the 2nd century, it achieved the high status of a colonia. During Christian times a bishopric was established here. Giuliano, a disciple of Pelagius and the opponent of St. Augustine, was born here. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Aeclanum continued to survive until AD 668 the Emperor Constans II destroyed the city during his Italian campaign. After this incident it disappears from history. The city was situated on an irregular promontory overlooking the river Calore to the S. To the N ran the Via Appia along the crest of a ridge. Although excavations have shown that the town was inhabited long before Roman times, most of the surviving remains are Roman constructions. The surviving fortifications consist of circuit walls and towers dating from the 2nd quarter of the 1st century BC. Built of opus quasi-reticulatum, they show signs of significant repair work from a slightly later date. The graffiti left on these walls have proven an important source in the study of ancient Roman epigraphy. One of the most important of the surviving monuments is a bath (thermae) originally built during the time of Augustus and later modified. The excavated building measures about 60 m by 40 m. The surviving walls of the bath rise over 3 meters in height and enclose several bathing rooms, pools, and latrines. A circular area located about 150 meters S of the baths has been identified as the remains of an amphitheater.

Aeculanum (Aeclanum)>: (mod. Le Grotte, near Mirabella Eclano (AV)). Ancient town of the Hirpini, in Samnium. It was situated on the Via Appia, to the ESE of Beneventum.

Aedile: A Roman magistrate who oversaw the running of the public games, public places, and the grain supply for the city of Rome. Four aediles were elected each year, two of which were required to be plebians. The two others, known as curule aediles, might be either plebians or patricians. The aediles were charged with a number of detailed duties. They saw to the general welfare of Rome and its inhabitants, keeping the peace, overseeing public works (buildings, aqueducts, baths, etc) and procuring the necessary food and other provisions for Rome. They were also changed with regulation of weights and measures.

The title of aedile derived from the Latin word aedes (=building), an apparent reference to their original function as overseers of public works. As Roman culture and government spread throughout Italy, aediles were elected in all of the municipal towns.

Aeeae: One of the Aegadian Islands.

Aegadian Islands: See Aegates.

Aegates (>Aegades, Aegusae, Aegadian) Islands >(=>goat islands) (TP): Ancient name for the Isole Egadi, a group of small, rocky islands off the W coast of Sicily. Total area: 70 square miles. They consist of three principal islands: Aegusa (mod. Favignana), Phorbantia (or Bucinna; mod. Levanzo), and Hiera (or Maretima; mod. Marettimo); and two lesser ones, Formica and Marsone. They are now under the jurisdiction of the province of Trapani. The archipelago’s ancient Greek name means “Goat Islands”, so-called for the wild goats found there. In 241 BC the Roman fleet under Lutatius Catulus achieved an important naval victory over the Carthaginians under Hanno in the waters off these islands. This victory brought an end to the First Punic War, leaving Sicily in Roman hands as their first overseas province. In 1874, the Florio family of Palermo purchased the islands from the Genoese family Pallavicini-Rusconi for the sum of 2 million lire. (Also see Egadi, Isole d’). In the early 20th century the islands were the site of the best tuna fisheries in Italy. They were often used as a favorite site for quail-hunting, being on the great migration route of that bird. They would fly north over Levanzo during their summer flight, while passing south over Favignana as winter approached.

                According to Virgil, Anchises, the father of Aeneas died on the Aegates.

Aegesta: See Segesta.

Aegestanum emporium: an ancient port in Sicily, situated at the mouth of the river Simois. It served as the port for the city of Segesta, in western Sicily.

Aegestes: See Acetes.

Aegetini: The inhabitants of ancient Azerium (or Netium), in Peucetia (Apulia).

Aegimius: See Aegimus.

Aegimus (Aegimius): (b. Velia; fl. 5th century BC). Physician. Galen credited him with being the first physician to write a treatise (De Palpitationibus) on the pulse.

aegis: a sash or breastplate associated with both Athena and Zeus. It was said to bear the head of a gorgon. The aegis was made from goat skin, its name deriving from aisk, the Greek word for “goat.”

Aegithallus (Acellum)>: An ancient fortress situated on the Aegithallus promontorium of W Sicily. In 249 BC, during the First Punic War, it was occupied by the Romans under the command of Lucius Junius, as part of the operations against Lilybaeum. It was soon retaken by the Carthaginians under Carthalo and Junius was taken prisoner. Diodorus Siculus called it Acellum.

Aegithallus promontorium >(Aegitharsus) (TP): Ancient name for Capo di S. Teodoro, a promontory on the W coast of Sicily between Marsala and Trapani. Later called Acellus, it was near ancient Lilybaeum.

Aegusa (sometimes Aethusa) (TP): Ancient name for the island of Favignana, off the W coast of Sicily. It lay at the far E point of the archipelago, the closest of the islands to ancient Lilybaeum. It is sometimes identified as the Aeeae mentioned by Homer. Mod. Favignana.

Aegusae>: See Aegates Islands.

Aemilii: A patrician gens (= clan) of ancient Rome. They claimed to be descended from the great Greek mystic philosopher Pythagoras, through his son Mamercus. Several of Rome’s most illustrious families made up the various branches of the Aemilii gens: the Pauli, the Lepidi, and the Scauri. The Roman consul Lucius Aemilius Paullus was one of generals who suffered the humiliating defeat at Cannae at the hands of Hannibal in 216 BC. His son and namesake later obtained the consulship for himself on his own merits, while his daughter, Aemilia, married Publius Cornelius Scipio, the great general who finally defeated Hannibal and forced Carthage to surrender. In 194 BC, the younger Aemilius was appointed to be one of the three Roman commissioners overseeing the creation of colony at Croton. Because of his family’s belief in their descent from Pythagoras, who was closely connected with Croton, this task must have had some special significance for Aemilius. Later in his career, he would achieve fame for his defeat of King Perseus of Macedonia and the annexation of that kingdom into the Roman State.

Aemilius Paulus, Lucius: (d. 216 BC): Roman consul (219 and 216 BC). Co-commander of the Roman forces at the battle of Cannae, he was among those who fell in that disastrous defeat to the Carthaginians.

Aenaria (>Inarime, Pithecusa) (NA): Ancient name for the island of Ischia. Sources attribute the name to the Roman Emperor Augustus who was apparently related the island with the epic of Aeneas.

Aeneas: A mythological hero of the Trojan War, claimed by the Romans as the founder of their race. He was the son of Anchises, King of Dardania, and the goddess Aphrodite (=Venus). According to Roman mythology, as set down in the 1st century BC by Vergil in the Aeneid, Aeneas led the surviving Trojans from the ruins of their city on a seven-year journey in search of a new homeland. Part of his epic story takes place in Sicily and Campania. In the 3rd book of the story, Aeneas’s father, Anchises, died at Drepanum in W Sicily. In the 5th book, during Aeneas’s second visit to Sicily, he is welcomed by Acestes (see which) near Mt. Eryx. In the 6th book, Aeneas meets the Sibyl at Cumae in Campania, who leads him through a cave at Lake Avernus to visit his father in the Underworld.

Aeneid: The epic poem of ancient Rome, created by the poet Virgil. It was the National Epic of the ancient Romans, telling the tale of the Trojan hero Aeneas, who led his followers of a 7-year journey to Italy. There, after several adventures, they settled in Latium and became the ancestors of the Romans. In the third book of the Aeneid, Virgil includes an itinerary of the Sicilian coast from Messina to Syracuse, from Syracuse to Selinunte (Selinus), and then on to Trapani. Nearly the entire fifth book of the epic, describing the funeral games of Anchises, take place in W Sicily, in and around Trapani and Eryx.

Aeolia: In classical mythology, the floating island home of Aeolus, ruler of the winds. Traditionally, Aeolia is identified with one of the Lipari Islands, thus providing that chain with its classical name, Aeoliae Insulae. It was said to have been surrounded by a great bronze wall.

Aeoliae Insulae (Vulcaniae, Hephaestiades, Lipareae, Planctai (?))(ME)>: Classical name for the volcanic Lipari Islands off the NE coast of Sicily. The name derives from that of Aeolus, the mythical god of the winds, who was said to reside there (supposedly on either Strongyle or Lipara). Because one of the islands (Hiera) was supposed to have been the site of the workshop of the fire-god Hephaestus (Vulcan), the chain was also sometimes called the Hephaestiades or Vulcaniae. Occasionally they were also called the Liparenses, after Lipara the largest of the islands. The islands of the chain are actually peaks of a volcanic mountain range connecting Vesuvius in Campania with Etna on Sicily. These isles were Lipara (mod. Lipari), Hiera (Vulcano), Strongyle (Stromboli), Phoenicusa (Felicudi/Filicudi), Ericusa (Alicudi), Euonymus (Panaria), Didyme (Salina), Hicesia (Lisca Bianca), Basilidia (Basilizzo), and Osteodes (Ustica).

>                Archaeologists have found evidence of settlements on a number of the islands- Filicudi: Classical Greek and Roman tombs; Salina: Roman walls, Greek and Latin inscriptions; Basilizzo: Roman house, including a hypogeum, wall paintings and mosaics; Stromboli: millstones and Roman tombs. By far the principal settlement was that on the island of Lipara.

>                Lipara was founded in 580 BC by Knidian Greeks led by Pentathlos.

Aeolian Harp: An early musical instrument, named for Aeolus, legendary ruler of the winds. It has strings of different thicknesses, all tuned to the same note and stretched across a box that create sounds when the wind blows through them.

Aeolus (Grk: “fleet”): (see full page)

Aequa (mod. Equa): An ancient village (vici) in Campania, located on the Cumanaus Sinus, to the east of Surrentum and west of Stabiae.

Aequanus Vicus: an ancient town in Campania, near Surrentum. Mod. Vico Equense [NA].

Aequi: An ancient people of central Italy. Their territory included parts of eastern Lazio and western Abruzzo. Kinsmen of the neighboring Volsci, they were a formidable threat to early Rome. In 418 BC, they lost their stronghold on Mt. Algidus, but were not completely subjugated until 304/303 BC.

Aequus Tuticus (or Aequum Tuticum) (AV): A town of the ancient Irpini, the site of which is thought to have been between Casalbore and Ariano Irpino, near Sant’ Eleuterio. The name means “wide field.” Conquered by the Romans during the 2nd Century BC, it flourished thanks to its location at the junction of the Via Appia and Via Herculia. It survived into the 6th century AD until a series of strong earthquakes and the violence of warfare caused the site to be abandoned. Excavators at the site have discovered remains of buildings, honorary statues, bases and funerary steles.

Aesai: Ancient Oscan deities equivalent to the Etruscan Aiseras (The Shrouded Gods) The name translates to mean “the Hidden Ones.”

Aesarus (Avien) River: A river in ancient in ancient Bruttium which emptied into the Ionian Sea at Croton. (Mod. Esaro).

Aescheion>: (b. Syracuse; fl 1st part of the 1st century BC). His wife, Pippa, was a mistress of the corrupt Roman governor Verres. Dishonest and greedy himself, he willingly carried out Verres’s crimes.

Aeschines>: (b. c389 BC; d. c314 BC). Philosopher and orator. A native of Athens, he was a student of Socrates and a rival of Demosthenes.  He spent several years as part of the court of Dionysius I of Syracuse, later returning to Athens. He advocated a simple life, unencumbered by possessions.

Aeschines the Orator: A famous ancient statue discovered at Herculaneum. A Roman copy of a Greek original from the late 4h century BC, it is now displayed in the National Museum at Naples.

Aeschines (b. c389 BC; d. c314 BC), an Athenian philosopher and orator, he was a student of Socrates and a rival of Demosthenes. He spent several years as part of the court of Dionysius I of Syracuse, later returning to Athens. He advocated a simple life, unencumbered by possessions.

Aeschylus: (b.525/4 BC; d. 461 or 456 BC). Tragic poet. A native of Eleusis, Aeschylus ranks among the greatest tragic poets of classical Greece and is often regarded as the “Father of Greek Tragedy.” In his younger years he served in the Athenian army during the Persian Wars. Wounded at Marathon (490 BC), it is believed that he participated in the battle of Salamis (479 BC) as well. In 484 BC, he won his first victory in a dramatic competition, repeating this feat twelve more times before being defeated in 468 BC by Sophocles. It was because of this defeat that he was willing to accept an invitation from Hieron I to come to Syracuse. Aeschylus made two visits to Sicily. During the first he composed the now-lost play Aetnae (or Aetnaeae), in commemoration of the foundation of the new town of Aetna by Hieron I. Returning to Athens, he won his last competition in 458 BC with the Orestia trilogy of plays. Later returning to Sicily he gave a new performance of his play Persae. A legend, most likely apocryphal, says that Aeschylus was killed when an eagle, believing his bald head to be a rock, dropped a turtle on him. Whatever the cause of his death, Aeschylus died and was buried at Gela. The playwright’s funerary monument at Gela (where he died in 456 BC) was said to have had an epitaph inscription written by Aescylus himself, mentioning his service to Athens at the battle of Marathon but ignoring his literary achievements. During his lifetime, Aeschylus is said to have written 60 plays, of which only 7 are extant: the Persae and the Oresteia trilogy (Agamemnon, Choephoroe and Eumenides), Seven Against Thebes, Prometheus Bound, and the Suppliants.

Aesculapius: An ancient god of medicine. He was very popular in ancient Sicily, where malaria was an endemic problem. He was said to have been the son of Apollo and Coronis, and was a patron god of ancient Messene (Messina).

Aesernia (IS): Classical name for the area now occupied by the province of Isernia (Molise) and for the city of Isernia (CB). It was also the name for center of the ancient Caraceni Samnites, which became a Latin colony was founded here in 263 BC. It was situated on the Via Numicia, between Aufidena and Bovianum. Mod. Isernia.

Aeserus, River: A small river in ancient Bruttium, named for a legendary hunter who drowned there. It emptied into the Ionian Sea just N of Croton. It is identified with the modern river Esaro. Unimportant historically, it was the site of a mythological battle between Herakles (Hercules) and Lacinius.

Aethusa (TP): An ancient name for the island of Favignana (TP).

Aetius>: An ancient physician from Sicily to whom has been ascribed the book De Atrabile. It is believed that the famous physician Galen used Aetius’s writing for source material.

Aetna> (Aitna): An ancient Sicilian nymph and the goddess of the Sicilian volcano Mt. Etna. According to some versions of her myth, she was one of the Oceanides, a daughter of Uranus and Gaea, and, thus, older than the Olympian gods themselves. Other sources say she was the daughter of the Cyclops Briareus. She is known principally as the mediator in a dispute between Hephaestus and Demeter over control of Sicily. She may have been considered the consort of the Sikel fire-god Adranos (see which) (Other sources name Hephaestus or Zeus), as she is named as the mother of the Palici (Palikoi), the gods of thermal geysers and springs.

Aetna (>Inessa)(CT): An ancient town that sat at the S. foot of M. Etna, near modern Paterno, located between Centuripae and Katane. It was originally a Sikel town known as Inessa. In 461 BC, the town was seized by Hiero I’s Doric Greek colonists who were fleeing from Catana. They renamed the place Aetna, after their former home. In 426 BC, the Athenians under Laches unsuccessfully attacked the town. In 415 BC, Aetna supported Syracuse during the war against Athens. During the reign of Dionysius II, a military colony of Campanian mercenaries was established here, later ousted by Timoleon. The Romans later gave the town the status of civitas decumena. It grew in prosperity thanks to the fertility of its soil. In the 1st century BC Aetna was among the towns pillaged by the avaricious Roman governor Verres (73-71 BC). The town never recovered from this desolation and it disappeared from history soon after. The exact location of this last center is uncertain, though believed to be between Paterno and Centuripe.

Aetna, Mons (CT): Classical name for Mt. Etna in the E part of Sicily. Some scholars believe that the name “Aetna” is related to the Phoenician word attuna (= chimney, furnace). The ancient Sikel and Greek inhabitants of the area lived in fearful respect of the mountain. Its extremely fertile lower slopes yielded rich harvests of grapes, one of the most important commodities in the ancient Mediterranean world. Further up the slopes, thick forests provided wood for shipbuilding and other industries. Perhaps to counter-balance these rich gifts, the mountain also exacted a terrible price. The area was, and still is, highly susceptible to volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. It may well have been these natural disasters rather than the invasion of the Sikels that caused the Neolithic Sikans to emigrate to the west. The Classical Greeks put the slopes of the mountain to full use. In c476 BC, Hieron I of Syracuse attempted to found a town (Aetna) on the slopes of the mountain. In 430 BC, the philosopher Empedocles, is believed to have committed suicide by jumping into the volcano’s crater. During the Roman era it was a popular pastime to climb to the top of the mountain. Among those climbers was the Roman Emperor Hadrian (AD 117-138). Roman ruins may still be seen near the summit. The volcano figures in a number of mythological stories both ancient and medieval. It is associated first with the nymph, Aetna (see which). The volcanic nature of the mountain was usually explained away as it being the forge of the fire-god Hephaestos/Vulcan. Whenever the forge was in use, fire would spit forth out of the mountaintop; the earth around would shake to the force of the god’s hammer as he worked. At other times, it was the Cyclopes the filled this role. It was also claimed that a mythological monster, either the giant Enceladus or the hideous Typhon, trapped underneath caused the seismic activity. When the Normans arrived in Sicily in the 11th century they brought with them French troubadours who spread the tales of King Arthur and the Round Table throughout the island. According to one of their legends, King Arthur sleeps in a cave on the mountain awaiting his return to the world of the living. (Also see Etna).

Aetnaeus>: An epithet attached to several deities or mythical beings associated with Mount Etna (anc. Aetna mons). Among these were Jupiter Aetnaeus, to whom a statue and a festival were dedicated on the slopes of the mountain. The name was also attached to Vulcan and to the Cyclopes.

Afan de Rivera, Achille: (b. 1842, Santa Maria di Capua. d. 1904, Naples). Military leader and politician. He loyally served the Bourbons until the fall of Gaeta to the Sardinians in January 1861. Transferring to the new army of the Kingdom of Italy, distinguishing himself during the war against the Austrians in 1866. By 1896, he had risen to the rank of Lieutenant General. Having also begun a political career, he became a Deputy in 1890, served as Undersecretary of War, and, in 1898, had become Minister of Public Works. In 1898, he was awarded the title of Marchese.

Afan de Rivera, Carlo: (b. 1779, Gaeta. d. 1852, Gaeta). Military engineer and civil official. An expert in road construction and land reclamation, he began his career in the military. In 1824, he became Director-General of bridges and roads for the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. Utilizing modern techniques he began an effective program of land reclamation in southern Italy. He began some important hydraulic works including the draining and restoration of the outlet for the Lago Fucino (first begun by the Roman Emperor Claudius in the 1st century AD). He also drew up plans for other projects. De Rivera supported the reforestation of lands that had been earlier clear-cut. A new network of roads was drawn-up to link together the various parts of the Kingdom. In his important work Considerazioni (1832-33) he argued that the great social and economic problems of the Kingdom could only be solved by generating enough funding through taxation.

Afan de Rivera, Fernando: (b. 1570 or 1584, Seville, Spain. d. 1638, Villach, Austria. Duke of Alcala; and Spanish diplomat. A great patron of the arts, he built a collection at his palace at Seville, which included both works of art and codices. He served as ambassador to the court of Pope of Urban VIII, later becoming vicar to the Kingdom of Naples (1629-31) and then to Sicily (1632-35). In 1636, he was appointed vicar-general to Italy. He died while serving as plenipotiary at the congress of Colonia for European peace.

Afan de Rivera, Pedro: (b. c1508; d.1571). Duke of Alcala. Spanish politician. He served as Spanish vicar of Naples from 1559 until his death in 1571. During his term in this office he effectively combated Turkish pirates from without and Calabrian bandits (including the famous Marco Berardi, popularly known as “King Marco”) from within the Kingdom of Naples. One of the few Spanish colonial officials to be truly conscious of the needs of the local people, de Rivera attempted to relieve the terrible suffering of the Neapolitan peasants caused by famine, pestilence, and earthquakes. Despite his persecution of the Waldensians in Calabria, he also refused to allow ecclesiastic authority and privilege to take precedence over civil law in Naples.

Afesa, Pietro (also called Della Basilicata): (fl. mid-17th century). Painter. A native of the Basilicata, he created a number of works still extant in several churches and convents in the city of Naples. Among of his finest works in an altar-piece in the chapel of the convent of Marsico Nuovo depicting the “Assumption of the Virgin Mary.”  He received high praise in Bernardo di Domenici’s “Lives of Neapolitan Painters and Architects” (1744).

Afflitto, Giovanni Maria: (b. Naples; d.1673). A monk and writer. His best-known work is a “Treatise on Fortifications.”

Afflitto, Eustachio d’ (1): (b. 1742; d. 1785). Nobleman (Duke of Roccagloriosa) and scholar. He was a teacher of ecclesiastical hitory at the University of Naples. He also served as directory of the Royal Library and the Royal Museam of Capodimonte.

Afflitto, Eustachio d’> (2): (d. 1790). Dominican monk and historian. He is principally known for the unfinished 2-volume Memorie degli Scrittori del Regno di Napoli (“Memoirs of the Writers of the Kingdom of Naples”) (posth.1792).

Afflitto, Matteo d’ (Lat. Matthaeus de Afflictis): (b. Naples, 1430 or 1448; d. 1510 or 1524). Lawyer. An author of several legal works, in 1469 he became professor of civil and canon law at the University of Naples. He was an advisor to King Ferdinando I. His principal works are Commentarius in Costitutione Siciliae et Neapolis; Commentarius super tre libros feudorum; Decisiones neapolitanae antiquae et novae; Lecturae super consuetudines Neapolitani Siciliaeque regni; and Lecturae super septem libros codicis Justiniani.

Afflitto, Rodolfo: (b. Roccagloriosa [SA]; fl 19th century). Politician. A member of Garibaldi’s expedition against the Kingdom of Naples (1860-61), he refused to accept an offered ministry in the later government. He served as Prefect of Genoa, and later, Prefect of Naples.

Afragola (NA): A town and commune (Area: 17.99 km². Alt. 43 m) in the province of Napoli. (Area: 17.99 km²; Population: 63,486 (2006e); 62,319 [2001]; 60,065 (1991); 57,367 (1981)).  CAP: 80021. Tel. Pref.: 081. Geographical Coordinates: Lat 40°55’37″20 N/Long 14°18’42″12 E. Population Information: 62,319 (2001); 60,065 (1991). % Change in Population from 1991 to 2001: . Population Density (2001): / km². Inhabitants Designation: Afragolesi.

Location & Setting: Located 12 km. NE of Naples in a very fertile area, it is now within the metropolitan area of Naples. Part of Regione Agraria n. 6 – Piano Campano sud-orientale.

Frazioni/Localita: Capo Mazzo, Saggese.

Economy: The economy is based on the cultivation of cereals, fruits and hemp. There is a local industry in the manufacture of straw hats.

Historic Population Figures:

1861

1871

1881

1901

1911

1921

1931

1936

1951

1961

1971

1981

1991

2001

>16,074

17,543

18,909

21,849

22,548

23,069

27,293

29,281

37,477

45,881

50,769

57,367

60,065

62,319

History: The center appears to have arisen during the Middle Ages. The earliest historical mention dates to 1131 when it was known as Afraore. Later documents refer to it as Afragone, Afraolla, Fraolla, and Afrangola. By 1272, the present form of the name, Afragola, had come into use. According to some researchers the name derives from fragile (“strawberries”).

                King Roger II is traditionally credited with having found the center in 1140. There is documentary evidence, however, that the area was settled and being actively farmed in 1025. Likewise, archaeological evidence reveals local settlement by ancient Oscans and Samnites as early as the 4th and 3rd centuries BC.

                The center was fortified as a stronghold sometime in the 12th century. Under the Angevins much of the commune was awarded as a fief to Bernardo Caracciolo, Archbishop of Naples. In 1386 it became the property of the noble Bozzuto family. In 1575, it bought its autonomy with a payment of 27,000 ducati to the Crown. In 1639, however, it was forced to pay a huge ransom to the Viceroy of Naples, duke of Medina, to retain its privileges. Despite this payment, Afragola was dominated by the will of the Spanish Viceroys. It was not until 1809, under the direction of the French administration of the Kingdom, did the center finally free themselves of feudal obligations.

                Major earthquakes struck in 1980 and 1984.

Points of Interest: The principal secular monument, a Castel­lo dating from the reign of Queen Joanna I, is now used as an orphanage.

                The Palazzo Comunale was completed in 1880 and has an irregular rectangular plan.

                The earliest churches are those of Santa Maria d’Ajello, San Giorgio and San Marco in Sylvis.

                The Church of Santa Maria d’Ajello dates to 1131 and has undergone several restorations and remodelings. In 1583 two side aisles were added. Among the treasures are some painted tele dating to 1780.

                There is documentary evidence of the Church of S. Giorgio in 1131. There was a major restoration of the church in 1380. After suffering severe damage from an earthquake in 1688, extensive restoration work occurred during the early the 18th century. A dome was added to the structure in 1741, while the 3-part campanile dates to 1772. Treasures include works by Mozzillo, Cimino, and the school of Murillo.

                The Church of S. Marco in Silvis was founded in c1179 by the Norman king William II. In includes a square campanile with an octagonal pinnacle.

                The church of the Rosario, dating to 1602, has some fine floors of majolica tile and a marble balaustra. Among the tresures is a painted tele by Giovanni Lanfranco (1581-1647).

                The Sanctuary of S. Antonio was built in 1633 by the Frati Minori. Decorations include frescoes by the Severino and 18th century polychrome marble sculptures. Houses in one of the chapels is a valuable 13th century wooden Crucifix. There is an 18th century wooden staue of Sant’ Antonio.

In the territory near Afragola are some tombs dating from the 4th and 3rd centuries BC.

Culture & Religion: Patron Saint(s): S. Gennaro.

Festival of S. Antonio di Padova– June 13. Included is a procession during which the statue of the saint is carried in procession from the church of Sant’Antonio to the Piazza Municipio. There are also musical performances and bonfires.

Afranius, Lucius: (b. c150 BC). Latin Comic poet and playwright. He is best known for his works with southern Italian settings, including one play entitled Brudusinae (“Women of Brundisium”). Another play, Exceptus, set in Naples, deals with a young man whose love is rejected by a local woman. He unsuccessfully attempts to drown himself but is rescued by a fisherman. Afranius’s play, “Bucco Adopted”, shows strong influences from native Oscan productions. The title character, Bucco (=fat fool), is a stock character in Atellan farces. He borrowed much of his work from Menander.

African Sea: The section of the central Mediterranean Sea between southern Sicily and North Africa.

Africo >(or Africo Vecchio) (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.  Area: 51.02 km². Alt. 15 m. CAP: 89030. Tel. Pref.: 0964. Geographical Coordinates: Lat 38°3’6″12 N/Long 16°8’2″40 E. Population Information: 3,465 (2001); 3,223 (1991). % Change in Population from 1991 to 2001: . Population Density (2001): / km². Inhabitants Designation: Africesi.

Location & Setting: Part of Comunità Montana Aspromonte Orientale. Part of Regione Agraria n. 5. Part of Parco Nazionale dell’Aspromonte.

Agapetus I, St.: (b. prob. Rome; d. Apr. 21, 536, Constantinople). Pope (rMay 13, 535-Apr 22, 536). The son of a Roman priest named Gordianus, he was already elderly when he succeeded John II as Pope. An opponent of Arianism, he was the only pope to hold authority over the Eastern Church. He was succeeded by Silverius.

Agapetus II: (b. Rome; d. 955). Pope. (rMay 10,946-Oct/Dec 955). The successor of Marinus II, he was aided, in 953, by King Otto I “the Great” against Berenger. He was succeeded by John XII.

Agasus portus: A port of ancient Daunia, located below Mount Garganus to the NE of Sipontum. It is believed to be the same as the Apenestae mentioned by Ptolemy. Mod. Porto Greco.

Agatha, St.: (d. cAD 251) The patron saint of Catania, Sicily. According her legend, she was a beautiful Christian virgin who refused the proposal of Quintilianus, the Roman Prefect. For this, she was imprisoned, tortured and finally executed. Some sources date Agatha under the later reign of Diocletian (AD 284-305). According to her Acta, her death occurred on February 5.

Ceremonies connected with Agatha’s festival appear to have their origins in the pagan worship of the harvest goddesses Proserpina (Persephone) and Ceres. St. Agatha is often depicted in artwork carrying her severed breasts on a tray. Because these were sometimes mistaken for bread rolls, her followers developed a tradition of blessing loaves of “St. Agatha’s bread” on her feast day. When her cult spread to Spain, the bread loaves took on an even more prominent place in her festivals. A procession of young girls carrying trays of bread on their heads are often included, though few probably remember the original significance of the loaves.

Agatharchus>: (fl. second half of the 5th Century BC). Naval commander. A Syracusan, he commanded a fleet of 12 ships sent by Syracuse, in 413 BC, to visit allies and harass the Athenians. That same year he was among the Syracusan commanders who fought the Athenians in the sea battle in the harbor of Syracuse.

Agathartus promontorium: ancient name for the NW promontory on Sicily located at Cetaria.

Agatho, St. (1)>: (d. AD 306). Martyr. A little-known saint from Triphina, Sicily, he is listed as martyr during Diocletian’s persecution of the Christians. Feast Day: July 5.

Agatho, St. (2)>: (d. Jan. 10, AD 681). Pope (rJune 27, 678 – Jan 10, 681). Born in Palermo to wealthy Greek parents, he led a successful life and may have been married before choosing a religious life as a Benedictine monk. He became noted for his devotion and miracle-working. In 678, he was chosen to succeed Domnus as pope. During his reign, he showed himself as an enemy of Monothelitism. He also played an important role in the role of the Roman church in England, being a supporter of Wilfrid, archbishop of York, during his dispute with Theodore of Tarsus, archbishop of Canterbury. Feast Day: Jan. 10.

Agathocles (Agathokles): (b. 361 BC in Thermae Himeraeae; d. 289 BC in Syracuse). Tyrant of Syracuse (317-289 BC), king of Sicily (304 -289 BC). Of common birth (his father was a pottter by trade), he moved to Syracuse with his father and began a career as a soldier. His exceptional abilities and physical beauty earned him much popularity and he eventually won the patronage of Damas, Syracuse’s wealthiest citizen. Upon Damas’s death, Agathocles married his widow and thus came into possession of vast riches. He used these resources to build a private army and moved to seize power in Syracuse from the ruling aristocratic class. He launched his revolt by ambushing and killing about 400 of the city’s most important citizens. Over the next two days, another 4,000 Syracusans were killed while an equal number were banished. Thus rid of any possible opposition from the aristocracy, he proclaimed himself tyrant and won the support of the city’s commoners by canceling all their debts and dividing up amongst them the confiscated property of his wealthy victims. Despite his obvious cruelty and ambition, Agathocles also sought to return Syracuse to its primacy in Sicily. The legal codes and fiscal regulations of the city were revised and the city’s army and navy were reorganized and strengthened.

                Agathocles sought to extend the supremacy of Syracuse over all of Sicily and, through military and diplomatic coercion, this ambition was nearly achieved. Having taken control of most of Greek Sicily, he turned his attentions westward towards the Carthaginian part of the island. It was then that Agathocles met his match. Hamilcar, Carthage’s principal military leader was sent to Sicily to face Agathocles. In 310 BC, Hamilcar defeated Agathocles and forced him to retreat back to Syracuse itself. The victorious Hamilcar followed with his army and soon laid siege to the city. Syracuse might have fallen at this point, bringing all of Sicily under Carthaginian rule and significantly changing the course of western history. But Agathocles showed a unique shrewdness. Instead of surrender, he counter-attacked, leading a Greek naval squadron out of Syracuse and landing a powerful army in North Africa, seizing several coastal towns and threatening Carthage itself. The plan worked and Hamilcar was forced to break off his siege of Syracuse to oversee the defense of his own city. Agathocles was forced to return to Sicily when Akragas, Syracuse’s principal Greek rival attempted to take advantage of the disputed state of affairs. After restoring order, Agathocles returned to Africa but now found the Carthaginians more formidable defenders. In 306 BC, he suffered a defeat and was forced to retreat back to Sicily. A peace agreement was finally reached with Carthage and the old status-quo on the island was restored. The Carthaginians were secured in their control over western Sicily, while Agathocles remained ruler over the Greek east.

                The defeat Agathocles suffered at the hands of the Carthaginians did nothing to curb his ambition and arrogance. In 304 BC, he began to style himself as King of Sicily and ruled with a heavy hand for years afterwards. In 289 BC, Agathocles finally died under somewhat mysterious circumstances. While many believe that he die cancer of the jaw, there is a theory that he was the victim of an elaborate assassination. One of his kinsman, fearing for his own life, had a toothpick dipped in poison brought to Agathocles’s table. When the tyrant pricked his gum he became paralyzed. His breathing and heart rate slowed to such a weak level as to be undetectable and everyone believed him to be dead. Agathocles, however, was said to be very much alive and aware of what was taking place. Unable to speak or otherwise communicate, he was helpless as his body was lifted on to a hastily built funeral pyre. Thus, the hated tyrant was said to have been burned alive.

Agathyrna (Agathyrsa, Agathyrsum, Agathyrnum): an ancient port town on the N coast of Sicily located between Tyndaris and Aluntium. Its site is located near modern Sant’Agata di Militello [ME]. It was named for its mythical founder Agathryrnus, son of Aeolus, ruler of the Winds. Archaeological evidence dates as early as c1100 BC.

Agathyrnum: Ancient name for Capo d’Orlando [ME] in Sicily.

Agathyrnus>: Mythical founder of the Sicilian city of Agathyrna (Agathyrnum). He was a son of Aeolus, god of the winds.

Agathyrsa>: See Agathyrna.

Agathyrsum>: See Agathyrna.

Agave: (American Aloe; Century plant). It received this last name from the belief that did not bloom until it reached the age of 100 years, after which it died. Whatever the origin of this belief, it bloomed very frequently in Sicily, its blossoms sometimes reaching 20 feet in height or more. Found throughout Sicily, there is a unique variety located at Cefalu, on the N coast of the island.

Agelli (sometimes Ajelli; Lat. Agellius), Antonio: (b. 1532, in Sorrento; d. 1608, in Rome). Commentator and ecclesiastic. Having entered the Teatine order in 1551, he rose to become that order’s head at Genoa (1572) and Cremona (1579). He was a member of the commission which, under Popes Pius V and Clement VIII, designed a version of the Vulgate Bible. He also translated a translation of the Greek Septuagint for Pope Sixtus V. In 1593, he became bishop of Acerno, a seat which he held until 1604. Other works by Agelli include a commentary on the Psalms, the Lamentations of Jeremiah, and several other parts of the Bible.

Agello, Giuseppe: (b. Sorrento; fl. 1st half of the 17th century). Painter. Having settled at Rome, he developed a reputation for his landscapes. He served as an assistant to Roncelli and several other painters.

Ageltrude: (d. Aug. 27, AD 923). Holy Roman Empress and Queen of Italy. Daughter of daughter of Prince Adelchis of Benevento and Adeltrude, she married Guy, then the duke and margrave of Spoleto and Camerino, future Holy Roman Emperor and king of Italy. When, in 891, Guy became emperor, she was also crowned. Ageltrude was a favorite of the army and used this influence to insure the succession of her son Lambert to the imperial throne. She later arranged for the body of her enemy, Pope Formosus (r AD 891-896), to be disinterred, condemned in a trial, and thrown into the Tiber. After the death of Lambert (Oct 15, 898), Ageltrude devoted the remainder of her life to religious pursuits.

Ager Camere: An area of ancient Bruttium, located near the mouth of the river Crathis.

Agerola >(NA): A commune in the province of Napoli. Area: 19.62 km². Alt. 630 m. CAP: 80051. Tel. Pref.: 081. Geographical Coordinates: Lat 40°38’19″32N/Long 14°32’22″92 E.

Population: 7,392(2004); 7,348 (2001); 7,508 (1991). % Change in Population from 1991 to 2001: . Population Density (2001): / km². Inhabitants Designation: Agerolesi.

Location & Setting: Part of Comunità Montana Zona Penisola Sorrentina. Part of Regione Agraria n. 3 – Colline litoranee della penisola Sorrentina.

Economy:

Historic Population Figures: 3,958(1861); 4,625(1901); 4,819(1921); 6,585(1951); 7,111(1981); 7,348(2001).

History: Former Names-

Points of Interest:

Culture & Religion: Patron Saint(s):

Agesias>: An athlete of ancient Syracuse. He was victor in the Apene at the Olympian Games in 468 BC.

Agesidamos>: An athlete of ancient Locri Epizephyri. He was victor in Boy’s Boxing in the Olympian Games in 476 BC.

Aggia, Torrente>: A short torrential stream (length: 4 km) in Basilicata. It rises on the slopes of the Serra Longa (1,097 m) and flows into the river Agri at Casa Palermo near Paterno (PZ).

Agilulf>: (d. AD 616). Duke of Turin (r589-590). King of Italy (r590-616). Assuming the Lombard throne in AD 590, he devoted his energies to the strengthening and consolidation of his kingdom. Having defeated the Byzantines at Ravenna, Agilulf laid siege to Rome. He spared the city from plunder only after the payment of a heavy tribute by Pope Gregory I. Despite these successes, Agilulf was unable to secure control over the autonomous duchies of Spoleto and Benevento.

Agira >(EN): (anc. Agyrium, Agyrion; mod. S. Filippo d’Agiro). A commune (area: 163.1 km²; population: 8,285 (2006e); 8,171(2004); 8,348 [2001]; 9,150 (1991)) in the province of Enna, in eastern Sicily. It sits on a high hill (824 m) overlooking the valleys of the river Salso and the river Dittaino. The modern town sits on the site of ancient Agyrion (Agyrium).  Part of Regione Agraria n. 3 – Colline del Salso.

Historic Population Figures: 11,588(1861); 17,634(1901); 25,717(1921); 16,528(1951); 9,146(1981).

The modern version of its name derives from the belief that St. Philip the Apostle was buried there. The town is of very ancient origins and is connected with the legend and worship of Hercules. Founded by the Sikels, it was first mentioned historically when its tyrant, Agyris, became an ally of Dionysius I of Syracuse against the Carthaginians in 339 BC. Somewhat later (339 BC), another tyrant, Apolloniades, was expelled from Agira by Timoleon, and the people of the town were given Syracusan citizenship. Agira’s most famous citizen was the historian Diodorus Siculus, born there in 50 BC. The town has an interesting castle and a number of churches. In one of these, the Realbatia, can be seen the cell and tomb of St. Philip. Remains of an ancient Greek fortification can also be seen. According to ancient mythology, the hero Hercules passed by here while driving the oxen of Geryon. Marks were left in the ground reputed to have been made the animals’ hooves. The ancient town was said to sit on land won by Hercules after defeating the giant Eryx in a wrestling match.

Aglianico: A red wine grape found throughout much of Basilicata, Campania and Puglia. The grape was originally brought to Italy by the ancient Greeks and Phoenicia. This ancient origin is remembered in the grape’s name which is believed to derive from Ellenico (=Greek). Some sources, however, believe the name derives from Apulianicum (=Apulia).

Aglianico del Vulturno (or Bartolo): a variety of dry, red wine produced by the Aglianico grapes on the vineyards of M. Vulture in Basilicata.

Agliata: a type of garlic sauce or cream of medieval origins.

Agliata, Francesco (1): (fl. mid-15th Century). Government official. He served as protonotary under Queen Joanna II and King Alfonso I “the Magnanimous.” Some of his works has survived under the title of Allegazioni.

Agliata, Francesco (2): (fl. 17th Century). Poet. A native of Palermo, he was the son of the prince of Villafranca. Several members of this noble family became notable writers of poetry and prose. Best-known as the author of Chansons Siciliennes, he is sometimes confused with Gerard Agliata, a 16th Century poet also from Palermo.

Agliata, Gerard: (fl. 16th Century). Poet. A Sicilian probably from Palermo. He composed some verses which were included in the Collection of the Academy of the Accesi at Palermo.

Agliata, Giovanni: (b. Palermo; d. 1675). Lawyer. He held several important government posts, including Protonotary during his career.
Agnana Calabra
>(RC): A commune in the province of Reggio di Calabria.

Region: Calabria. Province: Reggio di Calabria.

Elevation: 210 m. Area: 8.35 km². Population: 673 (2001). Population Density: /km² ().

Coordinates: Lat. º ” ‘ N/Long. º ” ‘ E.

Location & Setting: 117 km from Reggio di Calabria.

Frazioni: .

Tel. Prefix: 0964. Postal Code: 89040.

Population Designation: Agnanesi.

Patron Saint (s): . Feast Day: .

Former Names: .

History:

Historic Population Figures: 1,144(1861); 1,113(1901); 1,297(1921); 1,532(1951); 833(1981); 673(2001).

Famous Natives & Residents:

Points of Interest:

Historical Sites and Monuments:

Churches and Religious Sites:

Museums:

Culture:

Recreation:

Economy:

Agnano, Lago di>: See Agnano Caledra.

Agnano Caldera> (Lago di Agnano): A volcanic crater (6.5 km in circumference) in the Phlegraean Fields, located to the NW of Naples. The Greeks and the Romans enjoyed visiting the local hot springs and believed that witches inhabited the region. By medieval times the crater had filled with water to become a malarial lake, remaining so until finally being drained in 1870 through a tunnel at its SW edge. The recovered land was used for a time for cultivation of crops and is now the site of the Agnano hippodrome and some hotels. At the S rim of the crater is Agnano Terme, a health spa.

>                The crater is the site of the Grotta del Cane (Cave of the Dog). In times past local guides would demonstrate the existence of the deadly carbonic acid gas in this cave by exposing a dog to them.

>                To the E of Agnano caldera is the Parco degli Astroni, another extinct volcano.

Agnelli, Giuseppe>: (b. 1621, Naples; d. Oct. 17, 1706, Rome). Jesuit Scholar and Consultor of the Inquisition. Have entered the Jesuit order in 1637 he served as rector at the Jesuit colleges at Montepulciano, Macerata, and Ancona. Settling in Rome in 1671, authored several sermons, treatises on the “Spiritual Exercises” and a commentary on the Sunday gospels. He also served as Consultor, or advisor, of the Inquisition of the Rome.

Agnelli (or Agnello), Salvatore>: (b. 1817, Palermo; d. 1874, Paris or Marseilles). Operatic Composer. Having received his musical education at Palermo and Naples (where he studied under Giovanni Furno, Niccolo Antonio Zingarelli, and Gaetano Donizetti), he produced several works in the style of Rossini and Donizetti. He lived at Naples from 1834 to 1842 and at Marseilles, in southern France, from 1849 to 1860. In 1856, he visited Paris where he wrote a cantata entitled L’apoteosi di Napoleone I. His works include: I due pedanti (1837 Napoli Fo); La jacquerie (1849 Marseilles); Léonore de Médicis (1855 Marseilles); and Cromwell. His works of church music include a Stabat Mater.

Agnellus, St.>: (d. ?AD 596). Having lived as a hermit for many years he eventually became abbot of the Benedictine monastery of San Gaudioso, near Naples. He is one of the traditional patron saints of Naples who was invoked for protection from invaders. (Feast Day: Dec. 14.

Agnesi (or Agnese), Astorgio degli>: (b. 1391, in Naples; d. 1451, in Rome). Ecclesiastic. He became bishop of Melito in 1411, bishop of Ravello in 1413, and bishop of Melfi in 1418. He served as bishop of Ancona and Numana from 1418 to 1436. He was Pontifical commissioner and Inquisitor General for Marca d’Ancona in 1426, governor of Romagna in 1435, and archbishop of Benevento in 1436. In 1448 he was elevated to cardinal.

Agni da Lentini, Tommaso>: (b. Sicily; d. 1277). Ecclesiastic. Having entered the Dominican order, he founded the convent of S. Domenico Maggiore in Naples in 1231. It was here, in 1243, that he received St. Thomas Aquinus into the Dominican order. He later became bishop of Bethleham, of Cosenza (1267), and, in 1272, became Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem. He supported the crusades and union with the Greek church at the Council of Lyon in 1274.

Agnifilo della Rocca, Amico>: (b. 1393 in Roccadimezzo, Abruzzo; d. 1476 in L’Aquila). Ecclesiastic. He became bishop of L’Aquila in 1431 and was elevated to cardinal in 1464. He served as a counselor to King Alfonso V “the Magnanimous” of Naples and Aragon and, later, to King Ferdinand “the Catholic” of Spain.

Agnolo, Gabriele d’>: (b. Naples; d. 1510). Architect. He designed the beautiful Renaissance Palazzo Gravina and the church of Santa Maria in Naples.

Agnomen>: a name added by the Romans to those of a person to commemorate his services, or an aspect of his character. For example, the Roman triumvir, Pompey “the Great” (Pompeius Magnus) was so-called because of his abilities as a general. In some circumstances the descendents of such individuals retained the agnomens at part of their own names. One example of this is the agnomen Caudinus which was used by the descendants of Lucius Cornelius  Lentulus, the general who, in 324 BC, avenged the Roman disgrace at the hands of the Samnites at the battle of Caudine Forks (2nd Samnite War).

Agnone (IS): A commune in the province of Isernia.

Region: Molise. Province: Isernia.

Elevation: 850 m. Area: 96.27 km². Population: 5,628 (2006e); 5,667 (2005). Population Density: /km² ().

Coordinates: Lat. 41°48’37″N/Long. 14°22’42″E.

Location & Setting: It is situated on the W slope of the Apennines, 22 miles NW of Campobasso.

Frazioni: Castelverrino, Fontesambuco, Villacanale.

Tel. Prefix: 0865. Postal Code: 86081.

Population Designation: Agnonesi.

Patron Saint (s): San Crinstanziano. Feast Day: May 13.

Former Names: .

History:

Historic Population Figures: 10,637(1861); 10,189(1901); 10,142(1921); 9,664(1951); 6,324(1981); 5,842(2001).

Famous Natives & Residents:

Points of Interest: Known as “Città d’Arte”.

Historical Sites and Monuments:

Churches and Religious Sites:

Museums:

Culture:

Events:

Recreation:

Economy: Center for iron and copper industries.

Agnozzi, Nicola: (b. Nov. 5, 1911, in Fermo). Ecclesiastic. Ordained as a priest in 1934, he became auxiliary bishop of Ndola, Zambia, in 1962, rising to full bishop of that see in 1966. Resigning from that post in 1975, he returned to Italy and was appointed bishop of sees of Ariano and Lacedonia in the following year. In 1986, he became bishop of Ariano Irpino-Lacedonia. He retired on June 11, 1988.

Agora> (Grk= assembly): The market-place or main square of an ancient Greek town. In ancient Sicily, the term was used by the Greek-speaking inhabitants in place of “forum” as the political, religious, and commercial center of a city or town. In several cases an agora was built with covered porticoes along the sides.

Agosta: Former name for Augusta (SR).

Agostino, S.: Bishop of Capua (rAD 252-260).

Agostino, Giuseppe: (b. Nov. 25, 1928, Reggio di Calabria). Ecclesiastic. Ordained a priest in 1951, he rose to be appointed archbishop of Santa Severina and bishop of Croton in 1973. In 1974, he was ordained archbishop of Santa Severina. In 1986 he became Archbishop of Crotone-Santa Severina, and, in 1998, Archbishop of Cosenza-Bisignano. He retired on Dec 18, 2004.

Agraz, Antonio: (b. 1640, in Palermo). Judge. Raised to the level of a justice by Don Pedro Téllez-Girón, 3rd Duke of Osuna, the Spanish viceroy of Naples (1616-1620), he filled a similar position under popes Clement IX (1667-1670) and Clement X (1670-1676). He published two Latin treatises.

Agresti, Filippo: (b. 1797 in Naples; d. 1862 in Naples). Patriot. An officer in the Bourbon army of Naples, he participated in the unsuccessful constitutional revolt of 1820. He escaped into exile in 1821, only returning home in 1848. In 1850, he was arrested and condemned to death as an associate of the Unita italiana. The sentence was commuted to imprisonment, from which he was only released in 1860.

Agri, River: (anc. Aciris). A river (length: 109.4 km) located in the region of Basilicata. It rises in the Apennines about 19 km S of Potenza, on the Piana del Lago (1,290 m) to the south of Monte Maruggio (1,576 m). Flowing first to the south, it passes Marico Nuova. Turning E, it empties into the Gulf of Taranto at Torre Mozza, about 26 km SE of Pisticci. Along its course. its waters are blocked by dams to create the reservoirs of Lago di Gannano and Lago di Pietra del Pertusillo. In 1937, an aqueduct system was opened which allows the river’s waters to irrigate much of the province of Matera.

                The Agri River captures the waters of 16 smaller watercourses.

Agricola, Christophe Ludwig: (b. Nov. 5, 1667, in Augsburg or Ratisbon; d. 1719, in Augsburg or Ratisbon). German landscape painter. He traveled throughout his career, spending much time in Naples and elsewhere in Southern Italy.

agriculturi: Sicilian term for “farmer.”

Agrigento, Province of: A province of Sicily. It measures 3,042 km² in area.

<

Population of the Province of Agrigento

<

1936

418,265

<

1951

 

<

1961

447,000 (est)

<

1971

454,045

<

1981

462,807

<

1991

476,158

<

2001

448,053

<

2005

456,612

<

2006

457,039

<

2007

455,227

Communes of Agrigento Province

Commune

Area

(km²)

Population

(2007e)

Population

(2006e)

Population

(2001 census)

Population

(1991 census)

Agrigento

244.57

59,082

59111

54,619

55,283

Alessandria Della Rocca

61.93

3,271

3348

3,787

5,153

Aragona

74.43

9,730

9840

10,065

10,416

Bivona

88.60

4,091

4086

4,225

5,076

Burgio

42.22

2,923

2964

3,157

3,562

Calamonaci

32.57

1,403

1428

1,522

1,541

Caltabellotta

123.58

4,195

4254

4,448

5,059

Camastra

16.27

2,101

2096

2,185

3,034

Cammarata

192.03

6,374

6391

6,403

6,332

Campobello Di Licata

80.90

10,324

10525

11,075

12,275

Canicatti’

91.42

33,769

33604

31,713

32,344

Casteltermini

99.51

8,618

8669

8,782

10,132

Castrofilippo

17.96

3,162

3182

3,247

3,581

Cattolica Eraclea

62.14

4,312

4573

4,959

6,188

Cianciana

37.70

3,695

3776

4,073

5,103

Comitini

21.69

978

962

955

1,046

Favara

81.02

33,433

33558

31,098

32,237

Grotte

23.86

6,023

6050

6,208

7,449

Joppolo Giancaxio

19.10

1,230

1220

1,286

1,460

Lampedusa E Linosa

25.48

6,127

6078

5,725

5,624

Licata

178.91

39,016

39091

37,976

41,300

Lucca Sicula

18.41

2,002

2016

2,090

2,299

Menfi

113.21

12,915

12914

12,783

13,251

Montallegro

27.35

2,617

2637

2,732

3,515

Montevago

32.46

3,052

3043

3,108

3,325

Naro

207.51

8,553

8670

8,770

10,071

Palma Di Montechiaro

76.36

24,081

23927

21,563

24,077

Porto Empedocle

23.99

17,052

17123

15,957

16,755

Racalmuto

68.31

9,107

9443

10,051

10,752

Raffadali

22.19

13,264

13398

13,336

13,952

Ravanusa

49.58

13,260

13428

14,115

16,369

Realmonte

20.41

4,479

4480

4,435

4,393

Ribera

118.67

19,612

19669

20,186

21,004

Sambuca Di Sicilia

95.88

6,330

6328

6,158

6,797

San Biagio Platani

42.41

3,708

3678

3,785

4,128

San Giovanni Gemini

26.30

8,071

8080

8,169

8,420

Santa Elisabetta

16.17

2,832

2840

3,073

3,417

Santa Margherita Di Belice

67.06

6,661

6649

6,564

6,784

Sant’angelo Muxaro

64.55

1,583

1600

1,730

2,007

Santo Stefano Quisquina

85.92

5,144

5233

5,405

5,628

Sciacca

191.01

40,849

40868

40,240

38,256

Siculiana

40.58

4,728

4716

4,786

5,070

Villafranca Sicula

17.68

1,470

1493

1,509

1,693

Total

3,041.90

455,227

457039

448,053

476,158

Agrigento (anc. Akragas; Acragas; Agrigentum) (AG): A commune and provincial capital of the province of Agrigento. One of the principal cities of Sicily.

Region: Sicilia. Province: Agrigento.

Elevation: 230 m./755 ft. Area: 244.57 km². Population: 59,082 (2007); 59,111 (2006e); 59,111(2005); 59,031 (2004); 54,619 (2001); 55,283 (1991); 51,325 (1981).  Population Density: /km² ().

Coordinates: Lat. 37°19’18″N/Long. 13°35’22″E.

Location & Setting: Located 72 km. from Caltanissetta, 199 km. from Catania, 107 km. from Enna, 295 km. from Messina, 139 km. from Palermo, 136 km. from Ragusa, 217 km. from Siracusa, 182 km. from Trapani., situated in a hilly area near the southern coast of Sicily, between the rivers San Biagio and Sant’Anna (or Drago).

Frazioni: Fontanelle, Giardina Gallotti, Monserrato, Montaperto, San Leone, Villaggio La Loggia, Villaggio Mosè, Villaggio Peruzzo, Villaseta.

Tel. Prefix: 0922. Postal Code: 92100.

Population Designation: Agrigentini, Girgentani.

Patron Saint (s): San Gerlando. Feast Day: Feb. 25.

Former Names: (Grk. Akragas, Acragas), (Lat. Agrigentum), (Arb. Karkint, Kerkent)(Byz. Girgentum), (Normans/It/Sic. Girgenti).

History:

                Ancient Akragas (Acragas) was founded in c582 BC or c579 BC by Dorian Greeks, led by Aristonoos and Pystilos, from the city of Gela. The name apparently derives from the Greek word meaning “high land.” According to a foundation myth, the original Greek name, Akragas (or Acragas), comes from that of Akragante, a daughter of Zeus, often credited as the city’s founder.  The original settlers were originally from the islands of Rhodes and Crete. The original Greek colony, situated on the site of the earlier Sican town of Camicus, sat on a steep hill, three sides of which were sheer cliffs of tufa rock. Only the south side of the hill offered a gentler approach. The colony was first governed by an oligarchy but power was soon concentrated in the hands of the cruel tyrant Phalaris. Ambitious by nature, Phalaris desired to turn Akragas into the dominant power of central Sicily.  The military power of the city was turned principally against the native Sikan towns.  Akragaean power spread so far to as to even threaten the security of Himera on the island’s north coast. It grew in power and wealth to become second only to Syracuse in Sicily. Pharlaris was eventually overthrown and killed in c554 BC. This did not diminish the status of the city. By the second part of the 6th Century BC Akragas was a leading center for the production and export of Sicilian grain, wine and olives. The city’s pastures provided livestock for export throughout the Mediterranean world. A mint was established that produced excellent silver coinage. It was under Theron (r488 -473 BC) that Akragas reached its height in power and wealth. Theron had taken Himera, much to the dislike of that city’s Carthaginian allies. When the Carthaginians launched an invasion, however, they suffered a major defeat at the hands of a Greek army led by Theron of Akragas and Gelon of Syracuse. Theron returned to Akragas with a great amount of Carthaginian booty. With this wealth he set about beautifying his city with great temples such as that of Olympian Zeus. He also improved Akragas with a new system of aqueducts designed by the architect Phaiax. Theron also became noted as a patron of the arts. Among those who frequented his court was the famous poet Pindar, who called Akragas “the most beautiful city of mortals.” Following the period of tyrants, Akragas was governed by a semi-aristocratic regime which gave way to a constitutional democracy. It was during this area that Akragas was the home of the extraordinary philosopher Empedocles. With the exception of a short period during the Sikel revolt led by Ducetius in the mid-5th Century BC, Akragas continued to enjoy a high level of prosperity. Unfortunately, Akragas became too tempting a prize for the Carthaginians when they renewed their assault on Greek Sicily in the late 5th Century BC. After the capture of Himera and Selinus, they marched on Akragas and laid siege to the city. Akragas held out valiantly for some time but, when all hope of relief was finally gone, the city fell in 406 BC. The great city with its beautiful temples, sumptuous homes, aqueducts, and fine streets was sacked and burned. Akragas was left abandoned and overgrown for nearly 70 years after. In 338 BC, Akragas was restored by Timoleon who recolonized the city with a new population from Greek population drawn from Elea. A new democratic government was restored led by Megellus and Pheristos. Although much reduced from its former glory, Akragas was able to maintain a certain prosperity. The tyrant Phintias (r286 -280 BC), having taken power now attempted to rebuild Akragas’s old power. His attempts, however, failed and a new threat from the Carthaginian emerged. In 276 BC, Pyrrhus of Epirus occupied Akragas in an attempt to unite the Greeks of Sicily in his war against the Carthaginians. When his campaign fell apart, Pyrrhus withdrew from Sicily leaving Akragas helpless and exposed. The city found itself once more under Carthaginian control. During the 1st Punic War, it was besieged by the Romans in 262 BC and 255 BC. The ultimate Roman victory in that war freed Akragas from the Carthaginian threat once and for all. Anti-Roman sentiments, however, led the Akragans to revolt in 210 BC during the 2nd Punic War. Besieged and captured by the Romans, the city was incorporated into the province of Sicily. Although no longer a political power, Akragas, or as it was now called by the Romans, Agrigentum, enjoyed a new extended period of prosperity. The old Greek population was soon supplemented by Roman colonists in 207 BC and under Augustus. Despite a degree of romanization, the local government remained Greek in structure. Besides abundant agricultural pursuits, Agrigentum’s economy expanded to include textile industry and sulfur mining. It had an excellent harbor and a notable emporium. Under the later Christian era, Agrigentum rapidly declined. The famous temples of the city were either abandoned or converted into Christian churches. By the time of the Saracen invasion of Sicily, the old city was reduced to the status of a village. Occupied by the Saracens in AD 827, who called the place Karkint or Kerkent, a certain degree of prosperity returned. A number of mosques were erected during this era.

                In 1087, the town was taken by the Normans and became a feudal holding. A number of prominent families held title to the place, renamed Girgenti, including the Chiaramonte and the Montaperto. Once more reduced to a poor place, it was only freed from its feudal status in 1860.

                Prior to 1927, the city was called by its Arabic name, Girgenti, a distortion of the Roman Agrigentum.

Historic Population Figures: 17,838(1861); 20,180(1871); 21,219(1881); 24,872(1901); 26,147(1911); 30,074(1921); 28,677(1931); 32,951(1936); 40,491(1951); 47,919(1961); 49,213(1971); 51,325(1981); 55,283(1991); 54,619(2001).

Famous Natives & Residents:

Empedocles: Greek philosopher.

Points of Interest:

Historical Sites and Monuments:

                The zone where the city’s ancient glories can be best seen is the Valley of the Temples. The principal monuments of the area include:

                Temple of Olympian Zeus (Jupiter): erected in thanks to Zeus for the Greek victory over the Carthaginians in 480 BC.  The original temple measured 113 meters in length and 56 meters in width.

                Temple of Castor and Pollux (Dioscuri): erected in the 5th century BC.

                Temple of Heracles (Hercules):

                Tomb of Theron: a pyramid-shaped structure, it was actually a memorial to those soldiers who fell during the 2nd Punic War.

                Temple of Concord: One of the most complete of the ancient temples, it was built in 430 BC. It is uncertain to whom the building was dedicated. The assumption that it was dedicated to Concord comes from a nearby inscription which may have been unrelated.

                Temple of Hera Lacinia (Juno): built in the 5th century BC, it was burned by the Carthaginians when they captured the city in 406 BC. Its altar is located to the east of the building.

Churches and Religious Sites: The Cathedral was founded in the 11th century by bishop Gerlando. A chapel in the structure is still dedicated to that prelate.

                The church and monastery of Santo Spirito is one of the oldest Christian complexes in Sicily.

                The 17th century Chiesa del Purgatorio is decorated with eight allegorical statues representing the Virtues.

                The 13th century Church of St. Mary of the Greeks (Chiesa di S. Maria de Greci) sits on the foundations of a 5th century BC temple.

Museums: The Archaeological Museum is located in the former 13th century church of San Nicola.

Culture: Patron Saint: S. Gerlando (Feast Day: Feb. 24).

Events:

Almond Blossom festival: 1st half of February.

Festival of San Calogero: First and second Sundays in July.

Garden mass and craft show: July.

Piranddello festival: August.

Persephone festival: August.

The Efefo d’Or: a competition of composers of film music: September.

Recreation:

Economy: Agriculture: Almonds, cereal crops, citrus, olives.

Agrigento, Metropolitan Archdiocese of:

Type: Metropolitan Archdiocese

Rite: Latin/Roman

History: Date of foundation is uncertain. Most sources claim the see was created in either the 1st century or 4th century. There is much evidence, however, which indicates that it dates to the late 5th century.

                It was elevated to the status of a Metropolitan Archdiocese on Dec. 2, 2000.

Conference Region: Sicilia

Metropolitan (if applicable):

Suffragans (if applicable): Caltanissetta, Piazza Armerina

Area: 3,041km² (1,174 sq. miles).

                In 2006 the diocese had a population of 461,000, 449,000

 (97.4%) of which are Catholics. There are 194 parishes, 286 priests (237 Diocesan and 49 Religious), 34 permanent deacons, 59 male religious, and 443 female religious.

Agrigentum: Ancient Roman name for Agrigento.

Agrippa, Marcus Vipsanius: (b. 63/62 BC; d. 12 BC). Roman Statesman and general. He was the principal supporter of Octavian, and it was his talents as a general which allowed Caesar’s nephew to become Augustus, the first Roman emperor. Agrippa was the commander in charge of Octavian’s fleet which defeated that of Antony and Cleopatra at Actium (32 BC). He also defeated and drove Sextus Pompey from Sicily (38 BC), and was responsible for the development of the great Roman naval port at Misenum on the coast of Campania. Agrippa held the consulship 3 times and was governor of Syria twice. He married Julia, the daughter of Augustus.

Agrippa, Menenius: Roman consul (503/502 BC). He was noted for his defeat of the Sabines and Samnites.

Agrippina the Elder>: (d. AD 33, Pandataria (mod. Pantellaria)) Roman noblewoman. She was the daughter of M. Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia (daughter of the Roman Emperor Augustus). Having married Germanicus, she shared the affection given to her husband by the Roman people. This incurred the jealousy of Augustus’s successor, Tiberius, who, in AD 30, had her arrested and exiled to the small island of Pandataria. She starved herself to death there in AD 33. Her son, Gaius Caligula, succeeded Tiberius as Emperor in AD 37. One of her daughters, Agrippina the Younger, became the wife of Emperor Claudius and the mother of Emperor Nero.

Agrippina the Younger: (d. AD 59) daughter of Agrippina the Elder and Germanicus. She was both niece and wife of the Roman emperor Claudius and was the mother of Nero. History remembers her as a cruel and ruthless, yet highly intelligent and courageous woman who was able to obtain the Roman throne for Nero by poisoning Claudius (AD 54). During the first few years of Nero’s reign, she was a powerful force behind his throne. Nero finally sought to free himself from his mother’s control by having her assassinated (AD 59) in her villa in Campania.

Agrippina, St.>: (d. c.AD 256 or 262). Martyr. Born into a good family in Rome, she fell victim to the persecution under Emperors Valerian and Gallienus. Either tortured to death or beheaded, her remains were brought to the Sicilian town of Mineo by three Christian women, Bassa, Paula and Agatonica. Her shrine at Mineo remains a popular pilgrimage site because of the many miracles attributed to her intercession. According to an alternate version of her story, her remains were brought to Constantinople. Feast Day: June 23.

Agrippino (Agrippinus) (or Arpinus), St.>: (dates uncertain). Ecclesiastic. Bishop and former patron saint of Naples.  He was renowned for his virtue and miracle-worker and his relics are preserved in the high altar in the Cathedral of Naples. His dating his uncertain with sources putting him anytime between the 2nd and mid-4th Centuries AD. His term is sometimes placed between St. Paulus and St. Eustatius. Feast Day: Nov. 9.

Agrippinus, St.>: (fl. AD 2nd and 3ed Centuries). Ecclesiastic. He served as bishop of Naples, in whose cathedral his remains are preserved. According to some sources, he was the 6th bishop of Naples. Feast Day: Nov 9.

Agrolas>: An architect from ancient Sicily. With Hyperbius, he built most of the walls surrounding the Acropolis at Athens.
Agropoli 
>(SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.>

Region: Campania. Province: Salerno.

Elevation: 24 m. Area: 32.51km². Population: 20,246 (2005). Population Density: /km² ().

Coordinates: Lat. 40°20’52″N/Long. 14°59’50″E.

Location & Setting: Part of Parco Nazionale del Cilento e Vallo di Diano.

Frazioni: Fuonti, Moio, Mattine, Frascinelle, Madonna del Carmine.

Tel. Prefix: 0974. Postal Code: 84043.

Population Designation: Agropolesi.

Patron Saint (s): . Feast Day: .

Former Names: .

History:

Historic Population Figures: 2,038(1861); 3,228(1901); 4,093(1921); 7,774(1951); 14,329(1981); 19,949(2001).

Famous Natives & Residents:

Points of Interest:

Historical Sites and Monuments:

Churches and Religious Sites:

Museums:

Culture:

Events:

Recreation:

Economy:

Agùglia, Mimì>: (b. Palermo, Dec. 21, 1884; d. July 31, 1970). Actress. She was a notable entertainer who performed in the theater using local Sicilian dialect.

Aguilèra, Emmanuele>: (b. Licata, 1677; d. Palermo, 1740). Jesuit historian. He was the author of a history of the Jesuits in Sicily from 1546 to 1672.

Aguirre, Francesco>: (b. 1682, Salemi [TP]; d. 1748 or 1753, Milan). Canonist.

Agyris: A tyrant of the ancient Sikel town of Agira. Second in power and wealth in Sicily only to Dionysius I of Syracuse, he formed an alliance with the latter against the threat of the Carthaginians.

Agyrion (Agyrium): (mod. Agira [EN]). A town in ancient Sicily situated on a hill overlooking the Cyamosorus (mod. Salso) and the Chrysas (mod. Dittaino), northwest of Centuripe and about 25 km northeast of Enna. It is best-known as the birthplace of the historian Diodorus Siculus. According to tradition, Herakles (Hercules) passed through the place during his tenth labor. To him was ascribed the foundation of the districts known as Iolaos and Geryon, as well as the creation of a nearby lake.

                The city’s population was enlarged when Timoleon settle 10,000 Greeks there in c339 BC. This sparked a new period of growth which included a beautiful theater, believed to lie beneath the churches of S. Pietro and SS. Trinità, and of strong city walls fortified with towers. Little is known of the history of the city in Roman times.

Agyrium: See Agyrion.

Ahenobarbus, Lucius Domitius: (fl. early 1st Century BC). Roman politician. A member of an important Roman family, he served as praetor in Sicily in 96 BC, obtaining the consulship in 94 BC. A supporter of Sulla, he was murdered in Rome in 82 BC by order of Marius.

Ahima as ben Palti’ el (or Achimaaz du Oria): (b. 1017, at Capua). Hebrew chronicler. While residing at Oria, near Brindisi, he wrote an important chronicle of the events of the 9th and 10th centuries. His principal work, “Megillat ‘Ahima’az” (The Scroll of ‘Aħima’az) was originally titled “Sefer Yuħasin” (The Book of Genealogy).

Ahmad ibn Ya’qub ibn Fezara: Aghlabid governor of Sicily (r861-2).

Ahmad ibn Ya’qub ibn Modha ibn Sawada ibn Sufian ibn Salim: Aghlabid governor of Sicily (r872).

Aidone (EN): A commune in the province of Enna.

Region: Sicilia. Province: Enna.

Elevation: 800 m. Area: 209.58 km². Population: 5,380 (2006e); 5,462 (2004). Population Density: /km² ().

Coordinates: Lat. 37°24’59″N/Long. 14°26’45″E.

Location & Setting:

Frazioni: .

Tel. Prefix: 0935. Postal Code: 94010.

Population Designation: Aidonesi.

Patron Saint (s): San Lorenzo. Feast Day: Aug. 10.

Former Names: .

History:

Historic Population Figures: (1861); (1901); (1921); (1951); (1981); 6,057(2001).

Situated on a mountain above Piazza Armerina, in the province of Enna, Sicily. It was settled by Lombard soldiers in the army of King Roger II. The modern inhabitants have retained a unique Lombard based local dialect. Some sources identify Aidone with ancient Herbita or Trinacia.

Aielli >(AQ): A commune in the province of L’Aquila.

Region: Abruzzo. Province: L’Aquila..

Elevation: 1,021 m. Area: 34.70 km². Population: 1,506 (2006e); 1,506 (2005); 1,477 (2001). Population Density: 42.6/km² (2001).

Coordinates: Lat. 42°4’54″N/Long. 13°35’29” E.

Location & Setting: On a hill overlooking the Fucino basin, it is part of Comunità Montana Valle del Giovenco.

Frazioni: Aielli Stazione.

Tel. Prefix: 0863. Postal Code: 67041.

Population Designation: Aiellesi.

Patron Saint (s): . Feast Day: .

Former Names: med. Castrum Agelli..

History: Aielli was surrounded by walls in the 14th century, it was later annexed to the County of Celano. In 1915, it was severely damaged by a major earthquake.

Historic Population Figures: (1861); (1901); (1921); (1951); (1981); 1,477 (2001).

Famous Natives & Residents:

Points of Interest:

Historical Sites and Monuments: 14th Century cylindrical tower: once part of a larger fortified structure, it was built by Ruggero, Count of Celano.

Churches and Religious Sites: Chiesa di S. Rocco.

Chiesa di S. Adolfo (at Aielli Stazione), built in the 1930s, contains sculpture by Arturo Dazzi.

Ruined hermitage below Mount Etra.

Museums:

Culture:

Events: Sagra of amaretti (typical almond biscuits): August.

Recreation:

Economy:

Aiello (or Ajello): A surname and placename found throughout much of southern Italy. According to one theory, the name comes from the Latin agellus (= small farm, small field) which suggests an origin connected to a small farmstead. Other sources suggest that the name is derived from ayal, the Arabic word for “deer.”

Aiello, Giambattista: See Giambattista Ajello.

Aiello, Giuseppe: See Giuseppe Ajello.

Aiello Calabro >(CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza.

Area: 38.56 km². Alt. 502 m. CAP: 87031. Tel. Pref.: 0982. Geographical Coordinates: Lat 39°7’6″96 N/Long 16°10’3″00 E. Population Information: 2,234 (2006e); 2,446 (2001); 3,079 (1991). % Change in Population from 1991 to 2001: . Population Density (2001): / km². Inhabitants Designation: Aiellesi.

Location & Setting: Part of Comunità Montana del Savuto. Part of Regione Agraria n. 18 – Colline Litoranee di Amantea.

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History: Former Names-

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Culture & Religion: Patron Saint(s):

Aiello del Sabato >(AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 3,701 (2007e); 3,548 (2006e).

Area: 10.83 km². Alt. 425 m. CAP: 83020. Tel. Pref.: 0825. Geographical Coordinates: Lat 40°53’24″36 N/Long 14°49’18″12 E. Population: 3,548 (2006e) 3,219 (2001); 2,740 (1991). % Change in Population from 1991 to 2001: . Population Density (2001): / km². Inhabitants Designation: Aiellesi.

Location & Setting: Part of Comunità Montana Serinese Solofrana. Part of Regione Agraria n. 8 – Colline di Avellino.

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History: Former Names-

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Aieta (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza.

Area: 47.97 km². Alt. 524 m. CAP: 87020. Tel. Pref.: 0985. Geographical Coordinates: Lat 39°55’43″68N/Long 15°49’27″48E. Population: 868 (2006e); 892 (2001); (1991). % Change in Population from 1991 to 2001: . Population Density (2001): / km². Inhabitants Designation: Aietani.

Location & Setting: Part of Comunità Montana Dorsale Appenninica Alto Tirreno. Part of Regione Agraria n. 7 – Montagna Litoranea del Lao. Part of Parco Nazionale del Pollino.

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History: Former Names-

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Ailano >(CE): A commune in the province of Caserta.

Area: 15.49km². Alt. 260 m. CAP: 81010. Tel. Pref.: 0823. Geographical Coordinates: Lat 41°23’29″04N/Long 14°12’21″24E. Population: 1,424 (2006e); 1,466 (2001); (1991). % Change in Population from 1991 to 2001: . Population Density (2001): / km². Inhabitants Designation: Ailanesi.

Location & Setting: Part of Comunità Montana Zona del Matese. Part of Regione Agraria n. 3 – Colline di Monte Maggiore.

Economy:

History: Former Names-

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Aimnistos: (fl. late 5th century BC). Tyrant of Enna (c403 BC).

Ainemolo >(Aniemolo), Vincenzo: (aka Vincenzo da Pavia or Vincenzo il Romano). A painter (b. late 15th Century; d. 1540 or after 1557) from Palermo (although some sources say that he was a native of Pavia). After studying at Rome, he fled in 1527 when the Spanish captured that city. He settled for a time at Messina before returning to his native Palermo. Many of his works can be seen in the Palermo Museum, as well as in the Gancia and the church of S. Domenico in that city. He is best-known for his ability to make the characters in his paintings seem genuinely human. Among his most important works are: “Virgin and Child between Four Saints” in the church of S. Pietro Martire, “Virgin of the Rosary”  in the church of S. Domenico, and “Sposalizo”, in the church of Santa Maria degli Angeli.

Aio I: See Aiulf I.

Aio II: See Aiulf II.

Aione I: See Aiulf I.

Aione II: See Aiulf II.

Airola >(BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 7,973 (2007e);  7,860 (2006e); 7,622 (2001). Area: 14.49 km². Alt. 270 m. CAP: 82011. Tel. Pref.: 0823. Geographical Coordinates: Lat 41°3’43″20N/Long 14°33’33″48E. Designation: Airolani.

Location & Setting: Part of Regione Agraria n. 3 – Monti del Taburno e del Camposauro.

Economy:

History: Former Names-

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Culture & Religion: Patron Saint(s):

Airoldi, Alfonso: (b. 1729, Palermo; d. 1817, Palermo). Scholar and ecclesiastic. He served as Archbishop of Eraclea. An expert in the study of Arabic Sicily, he published four Dissertations on Sicilian history [publ. posthumously 1840-42].

Airoldi, Cesare: (b 1774, Palermo; d. 1858, Florence). Politician and naturalist. He took part in the Sicilian Parliament which formulated the 1812 constitution. He was president of the Camera dei Comuni (July 1813) and director of the Ministry of the Inland (Oct. 1813). When England withdrew its support from the Sicilian constitutional government, King Ferdinand IV quickly reinstated his control of the island. To escape arrest and prosecution for treason, Airoldi fled to Milan. From there he continued on to Paris, and finally settled at Florence. Although an exile, he continued to love his native Sicily and, upon his death, willed his precious scientific collections and library to the University of Palermo.

Aisclittino: See Asclettin.

Aita: Etruscan god of the underworld. He was the counterpart of the Greek Hades and Roman Pluto.

Aiulf (Aione; Aio) I: (d. AD 646). Duke of Benevento (AD 641-646). The son and heir of Arechis I, he suffered from mental instability to such an extent that it was necessary to name his adopted brothers Radoald and Grimoald as co-regents. In 646, southern Italy was attacked by Slavic raiders who landed at Siponto on the Adriatic coast. Despite his problems, Aiulf possessed military ability and led his troops against the invaders. While making a reconnaissance of the Slavic camp his horse fell into a pit trap. Discovered by the Slavs, he was surrounded and killed. He was succeeded by his brother Radoald (Radwald).

Aiulf >(Aione, Aio) II of Benevento>: Prince of Benevento (r. AD 884-890).

Ajello (>Aiello), Giambattista>: (b. 1815?, Naples; d. 1860). Scholar and educator. A disciple of B. Puoti, he joined with him in opening a private studio. Dieing in his mid-forties in poverty, he was the author of two notable works: Della muliebrita delle volgar letteratura dei templi di mezzo (1841) and Discorsi di storia e letteratura (1841).

Ajello (>Aiello), Giuseppe>: (b. fl. 19th Century; Palermo). Italian patriot. He was a member of Garibaldi’s Mille (“Thousand”).

ajri: A form of Albanian-Calabrian multi-part song.

Akragas>: Ancient name for Agrigento (See which).

Akrai>: See Acrae.

Akudunniad: the Oscan name of an ancient Samnite town. It is identified in some sources with Aquilonia.

al-Aghlab ibn Muhammad ibn al-Aghlab>: (fl. 2nd part of the 9th century). Saracen usurper who seized power in Sicily for a short time in AD 878.

Alabon (Alabus): (mod. Cantaro). An ancient river and town located to the north of Syracuse. The river emptied into the Sicilian Sea at Megara, between Xyphonia and Thapsus.

Alabus, River: See Alabon.

Alabus (Alabon) River (modern Cantaro): An ancient river of Sicily which emptied into the Sicilian Sea at Megara, between Xyphonia and Thapsus.

Alaca, River: A river of Calabria (length: 21 km). Rising from the Lago di Lacina in the Serra d’Assi (1,048 m), it flows eastward into the Gulf of Squillace near San Sostene (CZ).

Alaesa (Halesa, Halaesa): An ancient town situated on the N coast of Sicily between Calacta and Cephaloedium. It was founded by Arconides of Herbita in 403 BC. According to tradition, in the vicinity of the town was a foundation whose waters were said to “dance” to the sound of a flute. Mod. Pittineo.

Alaesus (Halesus) River: A river in ancient Sicily which emptied into the Tyrrhenian Sea at Alaesa.

Alagna (Span. Alaña), Jose Saverio: (b. Jan. 11, 1707, Palermo; d. 1767, Havana, Cuba). Jesuit missionary. Entering the Jesuit Order in 1722, he served as a teacher of mathematical sciences and languages (Greek and Engllish) at the Jesuit college at Belen. Among his student was the noted historian Fr. Alegre.

                In 1743, Alagna participated in the unsuccessful experition led by Fr. Jose Maria Monaco to colonize Florida. The diary which he kept during this expedition, which includes several astute scientific comments and maps of the Florida Keys, is an exceptional historical resource. Alagna returned to Cuba where he remained for the remainder of his life as a teacher of classical languages.

Alagna (or Alagno), Lucrezia d’: (b. c1430, Amalfi; d. 1478, Rome). Noblewoman. It is believed that she became the mistress of King Alfonso I “the Magnanimous” of Naples (d.1458) during the last years of his life. Lucrezia was described as a young woman of great beauty, born into a noble, but impoverished, family. Despite her denial to any involvement with the king, it seemed to have been something of an open secret. After Alfonso’s death, she left Naples and lived for a time in Dalmatia. After spending some time at Ravenna, she eventually moved to Rome where she died.

Alagona: A noble family of Sicily which rose to attain much power and wealth from the 14th to 17th centuries. Apparently of Aragonese origins, they played an important role in the conflicts in Sicily during the reign of Queen Maria and Martin I “the Younger.”

Alagona, Artale di (1): (d. 1389, Catania). Nobleman. Serving as baiulo (guardian) of Queen Maria of Sicily, he became one of the four vicar-governors early in the queen’s reign. Realizing the danger to Maria if she remained in Sicily, Alagona helped the Queen to escape to Aragon and to marry Martin of Aragon. Despite this, he spent the remainder of his life attempting to prevent Martin from seizing power in Sicily. He was the uncle of Artale di Alagona (2).

Alagona, Artale di (2): (fl. late 14th century). Nobleman. The nephew of Artale di Alagona (1), he seized control, in 1392, of the city of Catania in resistance to King Martin I and Queen Maria. When Martin finally captured the city in 1394, Alagona fled to Milan.

Alagona, Pietro: (b. 1549, Syacuse; d. Oct. 19, 1624, Rome). Jesuit scholar. His principal work was Enchiridian, seu manuale confessariorum. He also wrote compendiums of the works of Martin Aspelcueta (uncle of St. Francis Xavier), of the Summa of St. Thomas Aquinas, and of canon law.

Alaimo (sometimes Alaymo or Alcaimo), Marcantonio: (b. 1590, Regalbuto [EN]; d. 1662). Physician. Having established himself at Palermo, he earned the reputation as the greatest physician of his time in Sicily. Among his many works was Diadecticon (1637), an account of various medicinal substances.

Alaimo di Lentini: (d. 1287). Sicilian nobleman and patriot. A supporter of the Guelf party, he was banished by King Manfred of Sicily. After Manfred’s defeat and death at the hands of Charles I of Anjou, Alaimo returned and was placed in high office. In 1282, when the revolt of the Sicilian Vespers broke out, Alaimo turned on the Angevins and organized the defense of the city of Messina for the Aragonese. In reward, the new Aragonese government of Sicily appointed him as a judge (1283-84). Soon afterwards he fell under suspicion of conspiring to turn control of Sicily over to the Papacy. King James ordered his arrest and execution by drowning.

Alangi, Accurzio (Span. Acurio Alongo): (b. Sicily; fl. early 18th Century). Vicar and ecclesiastical judge. In 1695, he arrived in Puerto Rico, having received approval to come to the New World by the Church. Not, however, having received similar permission from the Spanish king, he was in violation of royal law regarding the restriction of Sicilians and other non-Castilians from immigrating to the Americas. In 1712, Alangi moved to the mainland, settling in the Valley of Amilpas, Mexico. In 1719, he was appointed as vicar and ecclesiastical judge for that region by Archbishop Jose de Lanciego y Eguilaz. In 1737, he finally received royal dispensation and naturalization.

Alanno >(PE): A commune in the province of Pescara.

Area: 32.51 km². Alt. 307 m. CAP: 65020. Tel. Pref.: 085. Geographical Coordinates: Lat 42°17’47″04N/Long 13°58’19″20E. Population Information: 3,667 (2007e); 3,742 (2001); (1991). % Change in Population from 1991 to 2001: . Population Density (2001): / km². Inhabitants Designation: Alannesi.

Alardo: See Erard de Valéry.

Alaric (Alaricus, Athalaric): (b. cAD 370; d. AD 410.). Visigoth king. He was born into the illustrious Balthi family of the Gothic Trevingi. He was only a child at the time of the great Gothic victory over the Romans at Hadrianople. It is uncertain at what stage in his life that he became an Arian Christian. First rising to notoriety as the commander of Gothic auxiliaries in the army of Theodosius I, he distinguished himself at the battle of the Frigidus in 394. In 398, he was elected king by the Visigoths. In AD 402-3, he invaded Italy and was defeated by the Romans under Stilicho at Pollentia. In 408, he launched a second invasion which proved far more successful. His most famous exploit was the capture of Rome on Aug. 24, AD 410. Proceeding south from there, with a great treasure, he marched through Campania and Bruttium, sacking more rich towns. Having intended to cross the Strait of Messina to Sicily and Africa, he was thwarted due to a lack of transport ships. What ships that were available were wreaked by a storm at Rhegium. Turning northward again, he suddenly became ill and died near Consentia (mod. Cosenza) in Bruttium, probably a victim of malaria. The Visigoths had the course of the river Busento diverted and Alaric’s body buried in the now-dry river-bed together with a vast treasure of plunder taken from Rome. The river was then returned to its normal course to cover the tomb and the slaves who performed the burial were quickly executed so that no one would know the location of the burial. To this day, his burial site, together with is treasure, has never been discovered. After Alaric’s death, the kingship of the Visigoths was inherited by his brother-in-law Ataulphus (Athaulphus, Adaulphus) who quickly led them north out of Italy into southern Gaul.

Alasa: Etruscan goddess of love and the underworld. She was usually depicted as naked.

Alba (Sicily): See Allava.

Alba Adriatica >(TE): A commune in the province of Teramo.

Area: 9.50 km². Alt. 5 m. CAP: 64011. Tel. Pref.: 0861. Geographical Coordinates: Lat 42°49’41″88 N/Long 13°54’54″00 E. Population Information: 11,549 (2007e); 10,389 (2001); (1991). % Change in Population from 1991 to 2001: . Population Density (2001): / km². Inhabitants Designation: Albensi.

Location & Setting: Located at the mouth of the river Vibrata. Part of Unione Comuni Città-Territorio Val Vibrata.

Alba Fucens: An ancient city in the Abruzzo near modern Albe. It is situated on an oblong hill overlooking the Piana del Fucino, and at the crossroads of two Roman roads. In 303 BC, a colony of 6,000 Romans was founded here on land formerly belonging to the Aequi. It remained an important Roman stronghold throughout the Samnite and Punic Wars. A number of defeated enemies of Rome (Syphax of Numidia, Perseus V of Macedonia, and Bituitus of Gaul) were exiled here. In the early 1st Century BC, Alba Fucens remained loyal to Rome during the Social War. Besieged by the Italian rebels, it was relieved by a Roman army in 89 BC. The town prospered for several centuries thereafter. Only in the 3rd Century AD, as the Roman Empire began to face serious economic and political instability, did Alba Fucens show signs of decline. Though a much poorer place, the town was still in existence in AD 537, Roman troops wintered there during the Roman-Gothic War. After this it disappears from history.

                Alba Fucens is a rich archaeological site. The well-planned street grid network can still be clearly seen. Temples, fortification walls, baths, markets, basilicas, porticoes, an amphitheater, private homes, etc. can all be visited. Many artifacts, including bronze and marble statuary and inscriptions, from this site can be seen at the National Museum of the Abruzzi at Chieti.

Albamonte, Guglielmo: (b. Palermo; fl. early 16th century). Man-at-Arms. He was one of the 13 Italian knights who fought an equal number of French knights at the contest known as the Disfida di Barletta (Feb 13, 1503).

Albanella >(SA): A commune in the province of Salerno. Area: 39.84 km². Alt. 205 m. CAP: 84044. Tel. Pref.: 0828. Geographical Coordinates: Lat 40°28’47″64N/Long 15°7’1″56E. Population Information: 6,343 (2007e); 6,317 (2001); (1991). % Change in Population from 1991 to 2001: . Population Density (2001): / km². Inhabitants Designation: Albanellesi.

Location & Setting: Part of Comunità Montana Zona del Calore Salernitano. Part of Regione Agraria n. 7 – Medio Sele.

Albanese, Enrico: (b. 1834, Palermo; d. 1889, Palermo). Surgeon. Professor of clinical surgery at the University of Palermo, he was one of the first physicians in Italy to make use of antiseptics. Albanese participated in the campaigns of 1860, 1866, and 1867, and was the physician who treated Garibaldi’s at the battle of the Aspromonte. He was the author of Notizie di chirurgia practica (1869).

Albanese, Giacomo: (b. July 11, 1890, Geraci Siculo [PA]; d. June 8, 1947, at Sao Paolo, Brazil). Mathematician and physicist. He taught geography and algebra at the University of Catania, Palermo, and Pisa.

Albanese, Licia: (b. July 22, 1913, Bari). Soprano. A student of Baldassare Tedeschi, she won a national singing contest held by the Italian government in 1935. She made her operatic debut in Parma, in the role of Cio-Cio-San in Madama Butterfly, and repeated that role when she debuted as Violetta in La Traviata. Coming to the United States, she joined the New York Metropolitan Opera. She became an American citizen in 1945. In 1974, she became director of The Licia Albanese-Puccini Foundation. On October 5, 1995, President Clinton presented her with the National Medal of Honor for the Arts. In 2000, she received the prestigious cultural Handel Medallion from New York City.

Albanese, Manfredi: (b. 1867, Palermo; d. 1912, Pavia). Pharmacologist. He served as a professor at the University of Pavia, and was noted for important research on various chemical bases including xanthine and morphine.

Albanesi, Carlo: (b. Oct. 22, 1856 or 1858, Naples; d. Sept 21, 1926, London). Pianist and composer. He was the son and student of Luigi Albanesi. In 1893, he became a professor at the Royal Academy of Music in London. He composed 6 piano sonatas, a string quartet, trio, songs, and several other works.

Albanesi, Luigi: (b. Mar. 3, 1821, Rome; d. Dec. 4, 1897, Naples). Pianist and composer. The father and teacher of Carlo Albanesi, he wrote several piano pieces, church music, and an oratorio Le Sette Parole di Gesu Cristo.

Albanians: See Arbëresh.

Albanian Uniate Church: A Christian denomination centered in Sicily and the Southern Italian mainland. Its members consist of descendants of Orthodox Albanians who fled to Italy to escape the Ottoman Turks in the 15th Century.

Albano, Marcello: (b. Naples; fl. 1601-1616). Composer.

Albano di Lucania >(PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

Area: 55.27 km². Alt. 899 m. CAP: 85010. Tel. Pref.: 0971. Geographical Coordinates: Lat 40°35’8″16N/Long 16°2’13″20E. Population Information: 1,550 (2007e); 1,612 (2001); (1991). % Change in Population from 1991 to 2001: . Population Density (2001): / km². Inhabitants Designation: Albanesi.

Location & Setting: Located 35 km from Potenza, it is situated on a mountain of the Lucanian Dolomites. Part of Comunità Montana Alto Basento.

                The principal religious monument is the 13th Century church of S. Maria Assunta. It contains several 13th and 14th Century frescoes, and a 17th Century painting of the Madonna del Rosario by Pietrafesa.

Alberada (or Aubrey) of Buonalbergo: (b. c1033; d. July 1122)). The daughter of Lord Girard of Buonalbergo, she became the first wife of Robert Guiscard in 1051 or 1052, bringing with her a dowry of 200 knights. Although she was divorced by him because of “consanguinity” (i.e. close blood relationship), her tomb was still placed near his in the Abbey of Holy Trinity at Venosa.

Albergo dei poveri> (“poor house”): A traditional institution common in southern Italy and Sicily for centuries. The albergo dei poveri was more than just a shelter and kitchen, but also provided employment and training for the poor.

Alberi, Torrente: A waterway (length: 10 km) in Sicily, located in the province of Palermo. Rising on the Cozzo Salifizi (795 m), it flows into the river Imera Meridionale.

Alberico Da Barbiano (Alberico il Grande): (b. c1348, Barbiano di Cotignola; d. Apr. 26, 1409, Città della Pieve). Nobleman and condottiere. Count of Cuneo, he belonged to a well-established noble family of the Romagna, which claimed connections to the Carolingians. He was one of the earliest of the famous mercenary captains of Renaissance Italy, the Condottieri. After service in the company of the English captain, John Hawkwood, during the 1370s, Alberico formed his own force, the Compagnia di San Giorgio (“St. George Company”). At first only numbering about 200, it would eventually grow to between 4,000 and 7,000 (depending on the source). Alberico would become the first of the great-Italian-born captains, replacing the foreign mercenaries who previously dominated Italy’s battlefields.

                Alberico’s first great feat was the capture of Cesena (1377). On April 23, 1379, while commanding his force in the pay of Pope Urban VI, he defeated the mercenary Gascon/Breton army of the antipope Clement VII. He dealt the same force another defeat near Rome on June 29, 1379.

                Soon Alberico became involved in the struggles over the crown of Naples. As the captain of Charles of Durazzo, he defeated Otto of Brunswick on June 18, 1381, and soon took Naples. Charles, now King Charles III, appointed Alberico gran conestabile” (“chief of staff”). During the two years of peace that followed, he returned to Tuscany. In 1383, Alberico was recalled by Charles to face a new threat when Louis I of Anjou invaded the Kingdom of Naples with an army of 40,000. Over the next few years, as the rule of Naples was fought over, Alberico’s fortunes waxed and waned, but he continued to be victorious in battle. Following the death of Charles III in 1387, Alberico gave his loyalty to Charles’s son, Ladislaus. After a period of time in the Romagna, he was recalled by Ladislaus to deal with the invasion of the kingdom by Louis II of Anjou. It was during this conflict that Alberico suffered his first defeat. On Apr. 10, 1392, he was captured and imprisoned at Ascoli Piceno. He was eventually ransomed of 3,000 florins by Gian Galeazzo Visconti, Lord of Milan. Alberico now gave his military talents to that ruler, expanding his power for the next several years.

                In 1403, he returned to the service of Ladislaus. In 1409, as Ladislaus was preparing for an invasion of Tuscany, he sent word to Alberico to meet him at Città della Pieve, in Umbria. While enroute, however, he died.

                Alberico Da Barbiano is often consider the first of the true Italian condottieri, and later mercenary captains used him as their model.

Alberico il Grande: See Alberico Da Barbiano.

Alberico of Montecassino (1): (b. 1008; d. 1088). Benedictine monk. He resided at the monastery of Montecassino from 1057 to 1086, under the abbot Desiderius. He has been credited by some as the creator of the manual ars dictaminis. In 1086, he was created a cardinal (SS. Quarto Coronati).

Alberico of Montecassino (2): (b. 1101, Settefrate, Campania; d. after 1146). Monk. Becoming a monk in 1115, he and the Deacon Pietro wrote (1127) an account of a visionary journey through hell, purgatory, and heaven, guided by St.Peter and two angels. This work predates the similar, far more famous, Divine Comedy of Dante, by two centuries.

Alberobello >(BA): A commune in the province of Bari.

Area: 40.34 km². Alt. 428 m. CAP: 70011. Tel. Pref.: 080. Geographical Coordinates: Lat 40°47’12″84N/Long 17°14’16″80E. Population: 10,971 (2007e); 10,996 (2006e); 10,859 (2001); (1991). % Change in Population from 1991 to 2001: . Population Density (2001): / km². Inhabitants Designation: Alberobellesi.

Location & Setting: Part of Regione Agraria n. 6 – Murge di Castellana.

Alberona >(FG): A commune in the province of Foggia.

Area: 49.30 km². Alt. 732 m. CAP: 71031. Tel. Pref.: 0881. Geographical Coordinates: Lat 41°26’1″32N/Long 15°7’26″04E. Population Information: 1,066 (2007e); 1,093 (2006e); (2001); (1991). % Change in Population from 1991 to 2001: . Population Density (2001): / km². Inhabitants Designation: Alberonesi.

Location & Setting: Part of Comunità Montana Monti Dauni Settentrionali.

Economy:

History: Former Names-

Points of Interest:

Culture & Religion: Patron Saint(s): San Giovanni Battista.

Alberti, Adamo: (b. 1809, Cremona; d. 1885, Naples). Actor. A famous comic and character actor, he spent much of his career at the Teatro dei Fiorentini at Naples. In 1878, he published his autobiography Quarant’ anni di storia dei Teatro dei Fiorentini.

Alberto of Montecorvino, St.: (d. 1127). Ecclesiastic. Of Norman birth, he accompanied his father to Montecorvino Pugliano [SA], where he eventually became bishop. He is credited with being a miracle-worker. Despite suffering from blindness, Albert was said to have visions. As Alberto aged and his blindness worsened, he was forced to rely on his coadjutor, Crescentius. An ambitious man, Crescentius wanted Alberto to to name him as successor. Alberto refused and was subjected to increased levels of abuse. Despite the torment, Alberto never complained and eventually died without succumbing to Crescentius’s demands. Feast Day: Apr. 5.

Alberto of Trapani, St.: (b. Trapani; d. c1307). Monk and hermit. Having entered the Carmelite Order, he was ordained and sent to Messina. After a career as a missionary-preacher and miracle-worker, he entered a monastic hermitage in the mountains near Messina. There he remained until his death. Alberto is best-known for converting many of the Jews in and around Messina to Christianity. His cult was approved by Pope Sixtus IV in 1476. Feast Day: Aug. 7.

Albertolli, Il Cavaliere Gioconda: (b. 1742; d. 1840). Architect, designer. Among his most notable works are the interiors of the Palazzo Reale in Naples and the Villa of Maria Theresa at Monza.

Albi >(CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro.

Area: 28.86 km². Alt. 710 m. CAP: 88055. Tel. Pref.: 0961. Geographical Coordinates: Lat 39°1’33″60N/Long 16°35’49″92E. Population Information: 1,062 (2006e); 1,105 (2001); (1991). % Change in Population from 1991 to 2001: . Population Density (2001): / km². Inhabitants Designation: Albesi.

Frazioni/Localita: : Buturo, San Giovanni d’Albi.

Location & Setting: Part of Comunità Montana della Presila Catanzarese. Part of Regione Agraria n. 3 – Sila Piccola Meridionale. Part of Parco Nazionale della Sila.

Albidona >(CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 1,671 (2006e). Area: 63.71km². Alt. 810 m. CAP: 87070. Tel. Pref.: 0981. Geographical Coordinates: Lat 39°55’24″96N/Long 16°28’15″60E. Population Information: 1,484 (2001); (1991). % Change in Population from 1991 to 2001: . Population Density (2001): / km². Inhabitants Designation: Albidonesi.

Location & Setting: Part of Comunità Montana Alto Jonio. Part of Regione Agraria n. 15 – Colline Litoranee di Amendolara.

Albina, St.: (d. AD 250). Martyr. A young Christian girl, she was executed at Formiae, near Naples, during the persecution of Decius. Little else is known about her. Feast Day: Dec. 16.

Albina, Giuseppe: (b. c1550, at Palermo; d. 1611). Painter, sculptor, architect. He lived and worked his entire career in his native city.

Albino, Giovanni (Lat: Joannes Albinus): (b. Naples; fl. late 15th Century). Statesman and historian. He was a counselor on military and civil affairs to King Ferdinand (Ferrante) II of Naples (r.1495-1496). He also wrote a history of his contemporary times.

Albinus (or Albus), Spurius Postumius: (fl. 4th Century BC). Roman politician and military leader. Consul in 344 and 321 BC. In 321, he lead a Roman army against the Samnites but was defeated in the battle of the Caudine Forks. Forced to surrender, his army was humiliated by being forced to march under a yolk. On the advice of Albinus himself, the Roman Senate refused to ratify the terms of his surrender. It was further resolved that Albinus and all of those had accepted the surrender should be turned over the Samnites. To the credit of the latter, the Samnites refused to accept the prisoners.

Alboin: (d. AD 574, Verona). King of the Lombards. After destroying the Gepids, he invaded northern Italy carving a kingdom for the Lombards out of territory taken from the Byzantines. His career was cut short by an assassination carried out by his wife and her lover.

Alburno (anc. Alburnus mons): A limestone ridge of the southern Apennines situated between the rivers Tanagro (anc. Tanager) and Calore (anc. Calor). In ancient times it was within the confines of Lucania; today it is in the Campanian province of Salerno. The massif has a number of karstic phenomena, mostly created by the many springs found here. The best-known of these caves are the Grotto di Pertosa and the Grotta di Castelcivita. The principal peak is M. Panormo (alt. 1,742 m) whose slopes are mostly covered by woods.

Alburnus mons: See Alburno.

Alburnus Portus: A port located near ancient Paestum. It was situated at the mouth of the river Silarus (mode. Sele).

Alcadinus (Ital. Alcadino): (b. Syracuse; fl. early 13th Century). Physician to the Holy Roman Emperors Henry VI and Frederick II.

Alcala (Parafan de Rivero), Duke of: (d. 1571). Viceroy of Naples under King Philip II of Spain and Naples. He succeeded the Duke of Alva, noted for his excessively stern rule. Alacala, in contrast, exercised a mild approach and quickly won the hearts of the population. He was a strong opponant of the establishment of the Spanish Inquisition at Naples. Through Alacla’s efforts, King Philip was convinced to issue a decree banning the Inquisition from Naples in perpetuity. During Alacala’s term as viceroy he successfully repealed Turkish attacks, outbreaks of plague, and the ravages of famine. He adorned Naples with many fine building projects during the 12 years of his term.

Alcamo>(TP): A commune in the province of Trapani, on the west coast of Sicily, 24 miles SW of Palermo.

Area: 130.76 km². Alt. 258 m. CAP: 91011. Tel. Pref.: 0924. Geographical Coordinates: Lat 37°59’57″84N/Long 12°57’26″64E.

Population Information: 43,890 (2001); (1991). % Change in Population from 1991 to 2001: . Population Density (2001): / km². Inhabitants Designation: Alcamesi.

Location & Setting: Part of Regione Agraria n. 2 – Colline litorale di Erice.

It was originally founded in AD 828 atop Monte Bonifato (2,713 ft) by the Saracens and named for their leader Al-Kamuk. In 1233 the Saracen population was driven out by the Emperor Frederick II. The present settlement was established at the foot of the mountain. Alcamo’s distinctive Eastern flavor is due, in large part, to its abundant Saracen-Norman remains. It had a population in 1856 of 15,500.

Alcamo, Ciullo d’: See Vincenzo Alcamo.

Alcamo, Vincenzo (Ciullo) d’: (fl. late 12th Century). A Sicilian poet from Alcamo. A contemporary of Emperor Frederick II, he was one of Sicily’s first song-writers and he is often considered the first poet of the Sicilian School.

Alcantara, Gola di: A large, deep gorge cut into a hillside by the river Alcantara, near the town of Gaggi (CT). It measures about 20 meters in depth and 3 meters in width.

Alcantara, River> (anc. Acesines): A river (length: 48 km) in E Sicily (provinces of Catania and Messina), on which Naxos, the first Greek city in Sicily was founded. The city was located not far from the river’s mouth. The river rises on the S slopes of the Monti Nebroni (Serra di Barletta [1,395 m]), near Foresta, and it marks part of the border between the provinces of Messina and Catania. Flowing eastward along the base of Mt. Etna, it finally empties into the Ionian Sea at a point 3.2 km S of Capo Schiso. During its course it captures the waters of the torrente Roccella, and, near Randazzo, receives waters from Lago Guarrida. The Alcantara produces hydroelectric power at a dam near Francavilla di Sicilia, and is vital to the irrigation of much of NE Sicily.

The name Alcantara derives from the Arab term el kantara (=the bridge). It probably refers to a now-ruined Saracen bridge located farther up the river from Naxos. Alcantara gave its name to an order of knighthood in Spain.

Alcara li Fusi >(ME): A commune in the province of Messina.

Area: 62.32km². Alt. 400 m. CAP: 98070. Tel. Pref.: 0941. Geographical Coordinates: Lat 38°1’22″80N/Long 14°42’6″12 E. Population Information: 2,308 (2006e); 2,473 (2001); (1991). % Change in Population from 1991 to 2001: . Population Density (2001): / km². Inhabitants Designation: Alcaresi.

Location & Setting: Part of Regione Agraria n. 2 – Nebrodi nord-orientali.

Alcibiades: (b. 450 BC; d. 404 BC). An Athenian general and statesman who rose to power in Athens after the death of Cleon. He was appointed as a co-commander, with Nicias and Demothenes, to lead the Athenian expedition against Syracuse in 415 BC. A far superior commander to the other two generals, it is likely that the ill-fated expedition would have succeeded had he not become involved in a scandal (the defacement of the Hermae of Athens). Although Alcibiades was probably innocent of the charges of sacrilege brought against him, he was forced to flee for his life. Taking refuge at Sparta, he helped that city’s army as an advisor against his home city. He later stayed for a time with the Persian Tissaphernes before being allowed to return to Athens in 407 BC. In 406 BC, he was again forced to go into exile. While in Persian-controlled Phrygia, he was killed by an assassin. With the departure of Alcibiades from the Athenian expedition, the project was ultimately doomed to failure. The loss of the expedition ultimately led to the defeat of Athens in the Peloponnesian War.

Alcimus: See Alkimos.

Alcmaeon of Croton>: (b. c535 BC, Croton). Natural Philosopher, physician, scientist, and medical theorist.  Believed by many to have been a pupil of Pythagoras, he wrote principally on medical topics and injected Pythagorean aspects into his writing. There is some controversy as to whether he actually practiced medicine or was a purely a theorist. Regarding of this, he was a true pioneer in medicine, and is often called the true “Father of Greek Medicine” in opposition to that title being given to the later Hippocrates. He can be said to be the founder of empirical psychology and is one of the earliest known scientists to practice dissection on animals. There is some speculation as to whether he extended his dissections to human cadavers, a practice forbidden at that time. Particularly interested in the working of the eyes, he has been credited with the discovery of the Eustachian tubes and the optic nerve through dissections. He believed that the eyes were connected to the brain through pores. He appears to have been the first physician to differentiate between veins and arteries, and was the first to study the trachea. Alcamaon also helped to spark the study of embryology and theorized about the origin and nature of sperm. He was also the first to study internal causes of illnesses. He believed that good health was a matter of maintaining equilibrium between opposing humors. Illnesses were caused by factors in the environment, nutrition and lifestyle. Alcmaeon believed that the brain was the true center of intellect, opposing the prevalent belief of that time that this was located in the heart.

>Alcmaeon’s interests were not limited solely to medicine. Other subjects covered in his writings include astrology and meteorology. Only a scant few fragments of his writings have survived.

Alcmena, The: A painting said to have been the most famous picture in the ancient world. Painted by Zeuxis, this now-lost wonder was located in the temple of Heracles in Acragas/Agrigentum.

Alcuri: A surname found in Sicily. It is of Saracen origin, deriving from the Arabic al-kurah (=town, country).

Aldemar “the Wise”, St.: (b. 1080?, Capua). Ecclesiastic. After studying at Montecassino, he was chosen to become the abbot of a new convent at Capua by Princess Aloara. There he became famous for his wisdom and miracle-working. Finding himself caught in a dispute between Aloara and the abbot of Montecassino, Aldemar resigned from his post and resettled in Boiana (CB). While there he escaped an assassination attempt at the hands of one of his companions. He fled into the Abruzzi where he founded a monastery at Bocchignano and several dependent houses.

Alderighi, Dante: (b. July 7, 1898, Taranto), Pianist and composer. Having studied piano from Giovanni S. Gambati and composition from G. Francesco Malipiero, he composed a symphony, an overture, a piano concerto, a piano trio, and several other works.

Aldimari, Biagio: See Biagio Altomare.

Aldingh, Henry: The man who established the first printing press in Sicily in 1473.

Aldisio, Salvatore: (b. Dec. 29, 1890, Gela; d. July 27, 1960, Rome). Politician. He served as a Deputy of the People’s Party from 1921 to 1924. In 1925, he temporary retired from politics. In 1943, he helped to organize the Christian Democratic Party in Sicily. After serving as Interior minister at Salerno in the 3rd Badoglio Cabinet, he became High Commissioner for Sicily. In this position, he was deeply involved in legislation for granting autonomy to Sicily. In 1946, he became a Deputy in the Costituente (Assembly). He became state minister for the Merchant Marine during the 2nd and 3rd De Gasperi cabinets (July 1946-June 1947). In 1948 he was elected as Senator in the first legislature of the Republic. In the 6th and 7th De Gasperi cabinets (1950-53), he served as minister for Public Works. He was reelected to the Senate in 1953. In 1954 (Jan-Feb), he was minister for Public Works for the 1st Fanfani Cabinet.

Aleandro, Girolamo: (b. Feb. 13, 1480, Motta di Livenza, near Venice; d. Feb. 1, 1542, Brindisi). Ecclesiastic. Cardinal and Archbishop of Brindisi (1524-1541). He was appointed a Cardinal-Priest in 1538 (in pectore, 1536), and was strongly opposed to reformation in the Church. While with the French king, Francis I, at the battle of Pavia (Feb 24, 1525), he was taken prisoner by the Spanish. He wrote a Greek lexicon and grammar, and a Latin dictionary (Lexicon Graeco-Latinum (1512)).

                Alleandro was the first cardinal to be appointed (Dec. 22, 1536) in pectore, a form of secret appointment which was created by Pope Paul III. This was presumably done because an open appointment at that time would have endangered his life. He was openly pronounced a cardinal on December 22, 1536.

Aleatico: Name of a wine grape and of the red dessert wine made from it. Now produced throughout southern and central Italy, it is native to Puglia.

Alecce, Pasquale: (b. 1888, Motta San Giovanni [RC]; d. Mar. 20, 1955, Rome). Industrialist. He was one of the best known of the founders of the Istituto Farmacoterapico Italiano (Rome), one of Europe’s most important and modern centers of pharmaceutical research and production. He was awarded the honor of Cavaliere del Lavoro.

Alènto, River (1): A river (length: 35 km) of the Abruzzo in the provinces of Chieti and Pescara. Rising as the torrent Capo d’Acquq, on the N slope of the Maielletta at Passo di Lanciano (1,338 m), it takes the name of the Alènto at a point about 100 m in elevation, near the Sanctuary of Madonna della Mazza. Flowing to the NE, it empties into the Adriatic Sea at a point N of Francavilla al Mare. Its principal tributaries are the Rio Fontechiaro and the Torrente Valige.

Alènto (anc. Heles) , River (2): A small torrential river (length: 36 km) of the Cilento in the southern part of the province of Salerno, Campania. It rises on Monte Corne (895 m) and flows first to the W and then to the S before emptying into the Tyrrhenian Sea at Marina di Ascea, at a point to the W of Castellammare de Velia, near the site of ancient Velia. During its course it receives the waters of the river Palistro and the torrente Il Fiumicello.

Aleramici: The surname of a noble family of medieval Sicily. Originally of northern Italian origins, the family became closely associated with the Norman dynasty. King Roger II was related to them through his mother, Adelaide.

Alesi, Giuseppe d’: A Sicilian revolutionary assassinated in 1647.

Alessandri (or d’Alessandro), Alessandro (Lat. Alexander ab Alexandro): (b. c1460, Naples; d. 1523). Writer and jurist. He was a student of Francesco Filelfo (1398-1481) at Rome, where he became developed into a humanist. Primarily interested in the law, he authored several legal works including Dies Geniales (or Genialium dierum) (1522). Based on the Attic Nights of Aulus Gellius, this work attempted to separate the original meaning and language of the Twelve Tables of Roman Law from the additions added in medieval times.

Alessandri (or d’Alessandro), Antonio: (b. c1420, Naples; d. Oct. 26, 1498 or 1499). Jurist. A noted lawyer, he became a professor at the University of Naples and occasionally served as a royal agent on diplomatic missions. He wrote several commentaries, as well as works on Neapolitan law and a treatise on inheritance when there is no will.

Alessandri, Vincenzo: (d. 1657). Navigator. An Italian Knight of Malta. He had the misfortune of being captured and enslaved.

Alessandria del Carretto >(CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 654 (2006e).

Area: 39.20 km². Alt. 1,000 m. CAP: 87070. Tel. Pref.: 0981. Geographical Coordinates: Lat 39°57’32″76N/Long 16°22’49″08E. Population Information: 745 (2001); (1991). % Change in Population from 1991 to 2001: . Population Density (2001): / km². Inhabitants Designation: Alessandrini.

Location & Setting: Part of Comunità Montana Alto Jonio. Part of Regione Agraria n. 10 – Colline di Oriolo. Part of Parco Nazionale del Pollino.

Alessandria della Rocca >(AG): A commune in the province of Agrigento.

Region: Sicilia. Province: Agrigento.

Elevation: 520 m. Area: 61.93 km². Population: 3,271 (2007e); 3,348 (2006e). Population Density: /km² ().

Coordinates: Lat. 37°34’3″N/Long. 13°27’15″E.

Location & Setting: located 56 km from Agrigento, situated in a hilly area.

Frazioni: .

Tel. Prefix: 0922. Postal Code: 92010.

Population Designation: Alessandrini.

Patron Saint (s): Maria SS. della Rocca. Feast Day: last Sunday in Aug.

Former Names: .

History: The town’s name derives from that of Alessandro Presti, the owner of the land on which the place was founded by the nobleman Blasé Bares in 1570. It was originally called Alessandria della Pietra. In 1862 or 1863, the suffix  was changed to “della Rocca” to honor the local Santuario di S. Maria della Rocca. Shortly after its foundation, it became a possession of the Barresi family.

                The town became a possession of the Napoli family in the 18th century with the marriage of Elisabetta Barresi to Lord Girolamo Napoli.

Historic Population Figures: (1861); (1901); (1921); (1951); (1981); 3,787(2001).

Famous Natives & Residents:

Luigi Genuardi: 1882-1935. Jurist and historian.

Points of Interest:

Historical Sites and Monuments: Medieval castle.

Churches and Religious Sites: The Chiesa del Carmine was founded in 1589.

                The Chiesa di S. Francesco was founded by baroness Elisabetta Barresi in 1610.

                The Sanctuario di Santa Maria della Rocca (sanctuary of Saint Mary della Rocca), located 1 km S of the center, dates to 1800. According a local legend, the sanctuary was built on the site where a statue of the patron saint was discovered.

Museums:

Culture:

Events:

Recreation:

Economy: Agriculture: almonds, olives, wheat, citrus, peaches. Livestock: cattle.

Alessandro: Bishop of Capua (rAD 500-516)

Alessano >(LE): A commune in the province of Lecce.

Area: 28.48 km². Alt.140 m. CAP: 73031. Tel. Pref.: 0833. Geographical Coordinates: Lat 39°53’22″56N/Long 18°19’54″48E. Population Information: 6,615 (2006e); 6,556 (2001); (1991). % Change in Population from 1991 to 2001: . Population Density (2001): / km². Inhabitants Designation: Alessanesi.

Alessi, Giuseppe (1): (fl, 18th century). Artist. His best known work is the façade of the Sicilian church of Santissima Annunziata in Avola [SR].

Alessi, Giuseppe (2): (b. 1905, Caltanissetta). Politician. A member of the Christian Democratic Party, he served as the first President of the region of Sicily, from Apr. 1947 to Jan. 1949.

Alessio (called Marchis): (b. in 1700, at Naples; d. c1740, Rome). Painter. Best-known for his landscapes, he imitated Tempesta in style.

Aletium: (mod. Alezio [LE]). A Messapian/Salentinian town in ancient Apulia. It was situated between Uxentum and Neretum, to the NW of the Iapygium promontory. Archaeological evidence shows that it enjoyed a prosperous economic life, reaching a peak in the 4th Century BC. It benefited from the close proximity of Kallipolis. Under the Romans, it enjoyed the status of a municipium.

Alex (Halex) River: A small river in ancient Bruttium. Emptying into the sea at Peripolium, it formed the boundary between the territory of Rhegium and of Locri Epizephyrii.

Alexander I (Alexander Molossus): (b. c370 BC; d. 331/0 BC). King of Epirus. Son of Neoptolemus, he was the brother of Olympias, with of Philip II of Macedonia. He came to the throne of Epirus in 342 BC with the help of Philip of Macedon (father of Alexander the Great) whose daughter Cleopatra he married (336 BC). Responding to a plea for help from Taras/Tarentum, Alexander came to Italy with his army to confront an alliance of the Lucanians and Bruttians. In 332 BC, after defeating an army of Samnites and Lucanians near Paestum, he concluded a treaty with the Romans. Thus freed from any possible intervention, Alexander was able to concentrate on continuing his war. He now saw an opportunity to turn his campaign to fulfill his own ambitions. His original sponsors, the Tarentines, disassociated themselves from his further actions. Hoping to carve his own empire in southern Italy, he continued to win victories, capturing Heraclea from the Lucanians and Terina and Sipontum from the Bruttians. In 331 or 330 BC, he faced the Bruttians near Pandosia on the river Acheron, in modern Calabria. On the verge of yet another victory, Alexander was struck down as he was crossing the river by a Lucanian exile who joined his army. Tradition states that the assassin stabbed him in the back.

Alexander the Great: (b. 356 BC; d. 323 BC). King of Macedonia. Conqueror of the Persian Empire. He was the son and heir of Philip of Macedon and his first wife Olympias, and was the brother-in-law of King Alexander I of Epirus. After completing his conquests, Alexander settled at Babylon where, in late 324 BC, he received embassies from a number of western peoples including the Etruscans, Bruttians, and Lucanians of Italy, as well as the Carthaginians.

Alexander: (fl. 12th Century). Monk and historian. Alexander is known as the author of an account of the life and reign of the Norman Roger II, the first King of Sicily.

Alexander I, St: Pope (r.AD 105/107 – 115/116). A native of Rome, he succeeded St. Evaristus and was succeeded by St. Sixtus I.

Alexander II (real name: Anselmo Badagio): (b. in Milan; d. 1073). Pope. (rSept 30, 1061-Apr 21, 1073). He played an important role in the history of the Normans, giving his approval to both the invasion of England by William the Conqueror (1066) and that of Sicily by Robert Guiscard (1071).

Alexander III (real name: Rolando Ranuccio): (b. Siena; d. 1181) Pope. (rSept 7, 1159-Aug 30, 1181).

Alexander IV (real name: Renaldo de’ Conti di Segni): (b. 1199, Anagri; d. May 25, 1261, Viterbo). Pope. (rDec 12, 1254-May 25, 1261). He was elected pope at Naples on Oct. 25, 1254. A member of the noble Signi family, he was the nephew of Pope Gregory IX. Hostile to the Hohenstaufen King Manfred of Sicily, who he considered a usurper, Alexander sought his own candidate for the Sicilian throne. He made an unsuccessful offer to Edmond, the son of King Henry III of England. Manfred responded to Alexander’s trouble-making with some of his own, stirring up factional unrest in Rome. In 1260, Rome had become so unsafe that Alexander was forced to flee to Viterbo where he died the next year.

It was by Alexander’s command that the Inquisition was established in France. He was a strong supporter of medicant friars, especially the Franciscans.

                Alexander was said to have been a man of weak character.

Alexander V (real name: Pietro Filargo): (b. 1340, d. 1410, Bologna). Antipope. (r1409-1410).

Alexander VI (real name: Roderigo Lanzol y Borja [Borgia]): (b. c1431, Jativa [Xátiva], Valencia, Spain; d. Aug 18, 1503, Rome) Pope. (rAug 11, 1492-Aug 18, 1503). Originally an enemy of King Ferdinand (Ferrante) I of Naples, he concluded a treaty of alliance with him. As part of the terms of this agreement, Alexander’s son, Goffredo, was to marry Ferrante’s daughter, Sancia. In 1494, when the French King Charles VIII invaded Italy, Alexander formed a defensive alliance with Alfonso II, Ferrante I’s son and successor on the throne of Naples. Despite this treaty, Alexander soon betrayed his allies and opened the gates of Rome to the French. He took refuge in the Papal Castel Sant’Angelo during the French occupation. After Charles concluded a treaty with Alexander, the French king was free continue south and launch an invasion of the kingdom of Naples that would ultimately prove disastrous to the future of the Regno.

                After the withdrawal of the French, Alexander sought a new alliance with Naples. In July 1498, Alexander’s daughter, Lucretia Borgia, married King Alfonso’s natural son, Alfonso, duke of Bisceglie. This union proved to be a happy one with the two young newlyweds genuinely falling in love with one another. Changes in the political necessities of the Papacy ultimately doomed this marriage. Alexander’s son, Cesare, who did not approve of the alliance with Naples, ordered his henchmen to murder his brother-in-law on Aug. 18, 1500. This assassination doomed the Papal-Naples alliance and opened up the opportunity for Cesare to develop closer ties with France.

                Alexander died on Aug, 18, 1503, succumbing to apoplexy and malaria.

Alexander VII (real name: Fabio Chigi): (b.1599; d. 1667 ) Pope. (rApr 7, 1655-May 22, 1667).

Alexander VIII (real name: Pietro Ottoboni): (b. 1610; d. 1691). Pope. (rOct. 6, 1689-Feb 1, 1691).

Alexander Severus: (b. AD 205d. 235) Roman Emperor (rAD 222-235).

Alexis: (b. c394 BC, Thurii; d. c288 BC, Athens). Comic poet. A Greek from Magna Graecia. Alexis was said to have died at a very advanced age, perhaps 106 years according to Plutarch. After establishing himself at Athens, he earned a reputation as a master of Middle Comedy. He may have been the uncle of Menander, founder of New Comedy. Although it is known that he wrote 245 plays (including one dealing with the emancipation of women), all that has survived are about 140 titles and 340 fragments (totaling about 1,000 lines).

Alexius I Comnenus (Grk. Alexios Komnenos): (b. 1048; d. Aug. 15, 1118, Constantinople). Byzantine Emperor (r1081-1118). Born into the noble Komnenos family, he was the son of John Komnenos and Anna Dalassene. He served as a general under the emperors Michael VII Ducas (r 1067-78) and Nicephorus (Nikophoros) III Botaneiates (r1078-81). In association with his brother, Isaac, Alexius revolted against Nicephorus on Feb. 14, 1081. The rebels seized control of Constantinople on April 1 and, on April 8, Alexius was crowned as the new emperor.

Although Alexius had the support by other political and military powerful families like the Doukai, he soon found the security threatened by aristocratic conspiracies from within and powerful enemies from outside the imperial borders. Although two of the latter, the Seljuk Turks and the Pechenigs of the Danube region seemed to pose the most imminent threat, the greatest danger proved to be the Normans of southern Italy under the leadership of Robert Guiscard. When Guiscard crossed the Adriatic and invaded Byzantine territory, intent on seizing the imperial throne for himself, he initially won some significant victories. Alexius, however, was able to utilize his considerable military and diplomatic skills to turn back the Norman invaders. Once the Norman threat ended, Alexius was able to also defeat invasions by the Seljuk Turks and the Pechenigs.

                Eventually, Alexius realized that he could only hope to turn back the increasing threat from the Turks by seeking help from the West. His request for aid ultimately touched off the religious wars known as the Crusades.

Alezio >(anc. Aletium; med. Picciotti.) (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce.

Area: 16.53 km². Alt. 75 m. CAP: 73011. Tel. Pref.: 0833. Geographical Coordinates: Lat 40°3’44″28N/Long 18°3’32″40E. Population Information: 5,233 (2006e); 5,084 (2001); (1991). % Change in Population from 1991 to 2001: . Population Density (2001): / km². Inhabitants Designation: Aletini.

History: Originally a town of the ancient Messapians, a new center called Picciotti arose around the church of S. Maria della Lizza.

Points of Interest: The site of the ancient town is marked by the church of S. Maria della Lizza.

Monuments: Several remains from ancient Aletium can still be seen including tombs with Messapian inscriptions.

Museums:

Municipal Library: The collection includes several Messapian inscriptions from ancient Aletium.

Culture & Religion: Patron Saint(s): Our Lady of the Assumption.

Alfani, Francesco: See Francesco Alphanus.

Alfani, Orazio: (b. c1510; d. Dec. 1583, Perugia). Painter, stucco-worker, architect. Between 1539 and 1544, he worked in Sicily, producing several notable works, including a painted taburnacle and a marble tomb in the church of the Annunziata at Trapani, as well as stucco decorations in the Cathedral of Palermo.

Alfano >(SA): A commune in the province of Salerno. Area: 4.7 km². Alt. 260 m. CAP: 84040. Tel. Pref.: 0974. Geographical Coordinates: Lat 40°10’42″60 N/Long 15°25’33″60E. Population Information: 1,308 (2001); (1991). % Change in Population from 1991 to 2001: . Population Density (2001): / km². Inhabitants Designation: Alfanesi.

Location & Setting: Part of Comunità Montana Zona del Lambro e Mingardo. Part of Regione Agraria n. 12 – Colline del Bussento.

Alfano (Alfanus or Alpuhans), St.: (d. 1085 at Salerno). Ecclesiastic. Having joined the Benedictine order and receiving an excellent education, he became a noted translator, writer, theologian and physician at the Montecassino monastery. In his capacity as a physician, he was one of the first doctors at the famous School of Medicine at Salerno (Schola Medica Salernitana). It was he who invited the great translator, Constantine the African, to Salerno to join him in the task of translating Arabic medical texts into Greek.

                In 1058, he became archbishop of Salerno, a post he held until his death in 1085. His feast day is October 9.

Alfano, Andrea: (b. Apr. 6, 1879, Castrovillari [CS]; d. Sept. 9, 1967, Rome). Painter and poet. He was noted for his light landscapes and radiant images. His paintings at exhibited at the Uffizi. As a poet he composed several collections including Pars parva (1936), Solitudini (1948), and Sillaba (1950).

Alfano, Angelo: (b. Oct. 31, 1970 at Agrigento). Politician. Having obtained a law degree, he was elected (for first constituency of Sicily) to the Italian Chamber of Deputies (Camera dei Deputati) as a member of the Forza Italia party in 2001. He served as that party’s regional secretary.

Alfano, Franco: (b. Mar. 8, 1875 at Posillipo, near Naples; d. Oct. 27, 1954 at San Remo). Composer and pianist. After receiving private instruction, he graduated from the Conservatory of San Pietro a Majellan in 1885 at Naples. He received further training at Leipzig. There he composed several piano and orchestral pieces. During his career he wrote a number of operas and librettos.  In 1918, he became director of the Conservatory of Bologna, and, in 1923, he directed the Turin Conservatory. Among his works were the operas Risurrezione (1904), La leggenda di Sakùntala (1921), and Cyrano de Bergerac (1936). In 1926 he completed Puccini’s unfinished opera Turandot.

Alfano, Ignazio: (b. June 29, 1892, Palermo). Naval engineer. As inspector general of naval engineering, he developed the Capitani Romani type of light cruiser in 1939.

Alfanus, St.: See St. Alfano.

Alfano da Termoli: (fl. 1st part of the 13th Century). Sculptor. He was a native of Termoli (CB).

Alfedena (AQ)>: A commune in the province of L’Aquila.>

Region: Abruzzo. Province: L’Aquila.

Elevation: 914 m. Area: 40.27 km². Population: 787 (2006e); 716 (2001). Population Density: 17.8/km² (2001).

Coordinates: Lat. 41°44’14” N/Long. 14°2’21” E.

Location & Setting: Located in the upper Sangro Valley.Part of Comunità Montana Alto Sangro Cinque Miglia. Part of Parco Nazionale d’Abruzzo, Lazio e Molise.

Frazioni: .

Tel. Prefix: 0864. Postal Code: 67030.

Population Designation: Alfedenesi.

Patron Saint (s): SS. Maria Salomè and Pietro the martyr  . Feast Day: 2nd Sunday in July.

Former Names: anc. Aufidena.

History: The center is of pre-Roman Samnite origins. In medieval times it was part of the County of Sangro. During World War II it suffered major damage.

Historic Population Figures: (1861); (1901); (1921); (1951); (1981); (2001).

Famous Natives & Residents:

Points of Interest:

Historical Sites and Monuments: Ancient remains of megalithic walls, an Italic temple, and an acropolis.

Excavations at the Campo Consolino necropolis have revealed Samnite artifacts from the 9th to 6th centuries BC.

Remains of a castle with an octagonal tower.

Churches and Religious Sites: The 13th century Church of SS. Pietro e Paolo was rebuilt after World War II. It retains its original portal.

Museums: The Museo Civico Aufidenate “A De Nino”. It contains finds from the local archaeological excavations including Samnite armor, jewelry, ceramics, and bronze statuary.

Culture:

Events: The Feast of Sant’Antonio, with the traditional bonfires- Jan. 17.

Feast of SS. Maria Salomè and Pietro the martyr- 2nd Sunday in July.

Alferius, St.: (b. AD 930, at Salerno;  d. Holy Thursday, 1050): Ecclesiastic. Born into the noble Pappacarbone family, he entered into the service of Duke Gisulf I of Salerno. In c1006, he was dispatched to France as the duke’s emissary to Emperor Otto III. While enroute, however, he became seriously ill and sought refuge at the abbey of S. Michel de Cluse at Chiusa, in the Tyrol. Upon his recovery, he resumed his mission but resolved that, upon its completion to renounce his secular life and devote himself to religion. Once freed from his duty Alferius went to Cluny where he received religious training from Saint Odilio. He was later recalled to Salerno by Gisulf so that he could reorganize and oversee the duchy’s monasteries. Despite his best efforts, however, the corruption he found was too much for him to eradicate. Seeking solitude, he left Salerno and, in 1011, and became a hermit on nearby Mount Fenestra. It was there that he his religious reputation brought him a multitude of disciples. In 1025, he chose twelve of his followers and founded the Benedictine abbey of the Holy Trinity of La Cava. This abbey would eventually grow to become one of the most important religious forces in southern Italy and Sicily. Alferius remained abbot at La Cava until his death at the reputed age of 120.

                Alferius’s cult was approved by Pope Leo XIII in 93. Feast Day: Apr.12.

Alfiero (Alfieri), Giuseppe: (b. 1630, Naples; d. Jan 21, 1665). Operatic composer. His principal works were La fedeltà trionfante (1655) and Il trionfo della pace (1658).

Alfio, St.: (fl. AD 3rd / 4th centuries). Martyr. Since his first historical mention only dates from the 8th or 9th centuries, there is a good probability that he is fictitious. His story also suffers from the fact that these earliest sources are unreliable and give conflicting facts about him. In general, his legend states that he traveled from Rome to Puteoli (Pozzuoli), and then continued on to Sicily. On the island he visited Tauromenium (Taormina), Catane (Catania), and Leontinoi (Lentini). In most sources, it is claimed that he died in Leontinoi during the reign of the Emperor Licinius (r308-324). An alternate version, however, believes that he martyred in AD 251.

                Alfio is usually mentioned with his brothers S. Filadelfio and S. Cirino. In 1517, three ancient burials discovered near Lentini were identified by the church as those of the brothers. Alfio is a patron saint of the Sicilian towns of Lentini (SR) and Trecastagni (CT).

Alfio’s cult has wide popularity in eastern Sicily. As part of the ceremonies connected with cult, on the night of May 9/10followers traveled from Catania up the slopes of Mt. Etna to a site near Trecastagni. They made their return trip to Catania in the afternoon in a procession of traditional decorated carts.

Alfonsino: a name given to various Neapolitan coins struck under those kings of Naples named Alfonso. The alfonsino d’oro, a 1 ½ ducat gold piece weighing 5.34 grams, was introduced at Gaeta in 1437 by Alfonso V “the Magnanimous.” After securing the throne, he introduced the coin again in Naples in 1442. This alfonsino was worth 24 carlini in Naples and 12 taris in Sicily.

Alfonso: Prince of Capua (r1135-1144). He was the candidate of King Roger II.

Alfonso of Bisceglie: (b. c1481; died Aug. 18, 1500, Rome). Duke of Bisceglie. Contemporary accounts described him as “the most beautiful youth in Italy.” He was the illegitimate son of King Alfonso II of Naples and Trogia Gazzela, and brother of Sancia (b. 1478), the wife of Jofre Borgia, younger son of Pope Alexander VI. As part of the terms of a treaty between Naples and the Papacy, the 17 year old Alfonso was married (July 21, 1498) to the young Lucretia Borgia, daughter of Pope Alexander VI. Lucretia’s brother, Cesare Borgia, was a strong supporter of French interests in Italy and, thus strongly opposed to the Papacy’s alliance with Naples. He sought a way of destroying the treaty by wrecking his sister’s marriage with Alfonso. In 1499, Cesare was finally able to put his plans into effect. Alfonso realized that his life was now in danger if he remained in Rome. Leaving his pregnant wife, with whom it appears he shared a truly loving relationship, the young man fled seeking to return to Neapolitan territory. Enroute, however, he received a request from Alexander to please return and a guarantee that he would remain safe. In autumn of that year, Alfonso returned to Rome and it seemed that the threat he feared would not materialize. He did not reckon, however, with Cesare’s determination. On July 15, 1500, Alfonso was attacked by a gang of thugs at the gate of St. Peter’s. Seriously wounded he was able to escape and staggered back into the Vatican. There, through the tender care of his wife, Alfonso was able to begin to heal. Although there were no arrests made in the attack, Alfonso was well aware that Cesare was behind the attack. The young man even attempted to fight back by unsuccessfully trying to shoot his brother-in-law from his bedroom window. Cesare, knowing that he could not risk letting Alfonso recover, ordered another attack on the young man. On August 18, 1500, assassins burst into Alfonso’s room and strangled him. Again, no arrests were made although Cesare’s part in the murder was an open secret. Alfonso’s death succeeded in breaking the alliance between the Papacy and Naples, and encouraged the French to make new military and political adventures in Italy. 

Alfonso I of Naples and Sicily: See Alfonso V of Aragon.

Alfonso II of Naples: (b. Nov. 4, 1448; d. Dec. 18, 1495). King of Naples (r1494- Jan 23, 1495). He was the son of Ferrante (Ferdinand) I, king of Naples, and Isabel de Cleremont (Isabella di Chiaramonte), daughter of Tristan, Count of Capertino. Alfonso began his military career as a youth of 14 years, fighting as part of his father’s army. He successfully campaigned against the rebellious barons and rival Angevin claimants who contested his father’s claims to the throne of Naples. He also fought as the standard-bearer (gonfaloniere) for the Papacy against the supporters of the Pazzi Conspiracy, triumphing over the Florentines at Poggio in 1479. In 1481, he commanded the Neapolitan army who besieged the Turks at Otranto. Although the withdrawal of the Turks from Otranto was due principally to the death of the Turkish Sultan Mehdmet II, Alfonso always claimed that it as a personal victory. Nonetheless, he was justified in his reputation as a talented military leader. In 1482-84, he led the defense of Ferrara against the forces of the Papacy and Venice.

                In 1484, Alfonso was made co-ruler of Naples by his father Ferrante I. Unfortunately, the talents he displayed on the battlefield did not translate well in the political arena. He faced threats both from Pope Innocent VIII and from the hostile barons of his own kingdom. Ruling with a cruel and heavy hand, he forced the barons into rebellion in 1485. He could now treat these nobles as military enemies and crushed them without mercy. Those who surrendered to him on the promise of amnesty suffered execution. The families of the rebels were turned out and the properties confiscated to the crown. The cruelty which he displayed would one day be remembered when he needed to loyalty and help of his subjects against the French.

                Alfonso attempted to create diplomatic ties with Milan by giving his daughter Isabella a bride to Gian Galazzo Sforza, Duke of Milan. When Isabella realized that Gian Galazzo’s rule was under the domination of his uncle, Ludovico il Moro, she appealed to Alfonso for help. Learning of this, Ludovico sent his own appeal for help to the French, advising them that Alfonso wished to seize control of Milan. He reminded the French king of his own dormant claim to the throne of Naples.

                On January 25, 1494, Ferrante I died, leaving Alfonso as the sole ruler of Naples. Very soon after this, he found himself facing an invasion by the French king, Charles VIII, who had finally been convinced by Ludovico il Moro of Milan to press his claim to Naples. Alfonso began to try forming an anti-French alliance with the Orsini, the Florentines, and with the Papacy. He receives a favorable response from Pope Alexander VI who, also fearing the French, officially crowned Alfonso at Rome.

                The alliance which Alfonso tried to create ultimately collapsed. The French army had little trouble in sweeping into Italy. Rome fell easily and Alexander VI was quick to form an alliance with them. Alfonso was now facing the invaders alone. As Charles VIII invaded the kingdom of Naples, Alfonso dispatched an army to face them under the command of his two sons, Ferrante and Federico. The Neapolitans had no hope of victory and suffered defeat. As his army fell back towards Naples, Alfonso realized that he could not hope for any help from his people. The cruelties of his past repressions now left him friendless. He attempted to save himself, or at least his dynasty, by abdicating the throne (Jan. 23, 1495) in favor of his son who became Ferrante II. This son was Alfonso’s opposite, as much beloved by the people as Alfonso was hated. The tactic was ultimately successful, at least in the short-run. The dynasty was able to survive the French invasion and lasted a short time afterwards.

                Following his abdication, Alfonso, withdrew to a monastery at Mazzara, Sicily, where he died a few monthes later.

Alfonso V of Aragon (I of Naples, Sicily, and Sardinia) “the Magnanimous”: (b. 1394 or 1396, Medina Del Campo, Valladolid, Castile, Spain; d. June 26/27, 1458, Naples). King of Aragon (1416-1458), Sicily (1416-1458), Naples (1441-1458), and Sardinia (1420-1458); Count of Barcelona (1416-1458). He was the son of Ferdinand I the Just whom he succeeded as king of Aragon and Sicily in 1416. His mother was Eleanor of Alburquerque. In 1420, Queen Joanna II of Naples chose him as her heir, but revoked the decision in 1423 in favor of Louis III (and then his brother Rene) of Anjou/Lorraine. When Joanna died in 1435, Alfonso challenged Rene for the Neapolitan throne. Initially, Rene had a definite advantage, having the support of the Papacy and Genoa. The Genoese fleet intercepted that of Alfonso, defeating his fleet and taking him prisoner. Alfonso was transferred to the control of Duke Filippo Maria Visconti of Milan, another supporter of Rene. Alfonso was successful in not only convincing Philip to free him but won over the duke as his own ally. Alfonso continued his war against Rene for another 5 years but finally capturing Naples and being recognized by the Pope. In 1443, Pope Eugenius IV threw his support to Alfonso and, in the following year, he confirmed Ferrante (Ferdinand), Alfonso’s illegitimate son, as the rightful heir to the throne of Naples. In return for this, Alfonso agreed to support Eugenius against the Council of Basil.

                Once Alfonso’s claims in Italy were secured he chose to devote his energies to them, naming his mother and brother, John (the future John II of Sicily), as regent’s over his Spanish domains. Alfonso now became one of the principal military and diplomatic leaders in Italy. In 1455, he was instrumental in the election of Alfonso Borja as Pope Calixtus III.

                Alfonso was not content with his control over Naples and Sicily. He also pressed his claim to Milan as the supposed heir of his old benefactor Duke Filippo Maria Visconti. This claim, however, was based on documents widely believed to be forgeries and his claim was refused. A new war now broke out in which Alfonso found himself facing Pope Nicholas V. Nicholas knew that if Alfonso gained possession of Milan, he would become the de facto ruler of Italy. Ultimately, Alfonso’s claim to Milan was defeated by Francesco Sforza.

                In 1457, Alfonso abdicated the throne of Naples in favor of his son Ferrante. He advised the new king to be content with Naples and not attempt to press any claims to the Spanish territories. He also advised Ferrante to avoid the mistakes that he had himself made, and to give preference to Italians over Spaniards in filling important positions. As a last piece of advice, he told his son to keep the peace with the Papacy.

                After leaving the throne, Alfonso crossed over to Sicily and spent the remaining 10 months of his life at Messina, devoting himself to prayer and penance. Upon his death, his body was interred in the Cathedral of Messina. While Ferrante remained king in Naples, the rest of Alfonso’s empire, namely Aragon, Sardinia, and Sicily, came unfer the rule of John II.

                During Alfonso’s reign, Naples became the sanctuary for many Byzantine scholars who had fled from Constantinople when that city fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453.  He was a great believer in justice and a patron of the humanities. His generosity and ability to show honor and respect to friend and foe alike, earned him the epithet “the Magnanimous.” During his reign he created a fund of 20,000 florins for the support of the artists and scholars who flocked to his court. He was personally a devoted to scholarship, traveling everywhere with a library of classical works.

                Despite his troubled relationships with the Papacy, Alfonso was a devote Catholic. He regularly heard Mass three times each day and enjoyed listening to biblical passages.

Ali’ >(ME): A commune in the province of Messina. Area: 16.69 km². Alt. 450 m. CAP: 98020. Tel. Pref.: 0942. Geographical Coordinates: Lat 38°1’42″24 N/Long 15°25’6″60 E. Population Information: 881 (2006e); 933 (2001); (1991). % Change in Population from 1991 to 2001: . Population Density (2001): / km². Inhabitants Designation: Aliesi or Alioti.

Location & Setting: Part of Regione Agraria n. 6 – Montagna litoranea dei Peloritani.

Ali, Luciano: (b. Siracusa; fl 1755-99). Architect. His principal work was the rebuilding of the Palazzo Beneventano del Bosco in Siracusa (1778-1788).

Ali, Salvatore d’: (fl. early 19th century). Artist. He created the façade for the Sicilian church of S. Bartolomeo at Scicli (RG).

Ali’ Terme> (MT): A commune in the province of Matera. Area: 6.15 km². Alt.9 m. CAP: 98021. Tel. Pref.: 0942. Geographical Coordinates: Lat 38°0’21″96 N/Long 15°25’24″60 E. Population Information: 2,585 (2006e); 2,569 (2001); (1991). % Change in Population from 1991 to 2001: . Population Density (2001): / km². Inhabitants Designation: Aliesi or Alioti.

Location & Setting: Part of Regione Agraria n. 6 – Montagna litoranea dei Peloritani.

Alia >(PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.

Area: 45.68 km². Alt. 726 m. CAP: 90021. Tel. Pref.: 091. Geographical Coordinates: Lat 37°46’51″60 N/Long 13°42’52″92 E. Population Information: 4,184 (2001); (1991). % Change in Population from 1991 to 2001: . Population Density (2001): / km². Inhabitants Designation: Aliesi.

Location & Setting: Part of Regione Agraria n. 2 – Montagna interna – Madonie Occidentali.

Economy:

History: Former Names-

Points of Interest: It is known as the Città Giardino.

Culture & Religion: Patron Saint(s):

Alianelli, Nicola: (b. 1803, Missanello (NA); d. 1886, Missanello). Jurist and historian. A proponent of Liberalism, he was expelled from his magistracy and imprisoned by the Bourbons. After the collapse of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, Alianelli became the director of the University of Naples. An expert in business affairs, he was also an historian and the editor of a version of the Tavole d’Amalfi, the historically important medieval/Renaissance maritime code.

Aliano >(MT): A commune in the province of Matera.

Area: 96.29 km². Alt. 498 m. CAP: 75010. Tel. Pref.: 0835. Geographical Coordinates: Lat 40°18’50″76 N/Long 16°13’54″84 E. Population Information: 1,234 (2006e); 1,284 (2001); (1991). % Change in Population from 1991 to 2001: . Population Density (2001): / km². Inhabitants Designation: Alianesi.

Location & Setting: Part of Comunità Montana Collina Materana.

Alibrandi, Francesco: (b. Messina; d. 1711). Jesuit and casuist.

Alibrandi, Girolamo (“Raffaello da Messina”): (b. 1470, Messina; d. c1524, Messina). Painter. Known as the “Raffaello da Messina” (Raphael of Messina), he received his first formal training from Salvo d’Antonio and later became the pupil of Antonello at Venice, and of Leonardo da Vinci at Milan. At Rome he became familiar with the works of Raphael. His masterpieces include a Purification of the Virgin and a now-lost Presentation in the Temple (1519, church of Cadelona). Among his other extant works is a landscape of Randazzo in that town’s cathedral.

                Alibrandi died of the plague at the age of 59.

Alicata: The Saracen name for Licata in Sicily.

Alicudi (or Alicuri): (anc. Ericusa) the westernmost of the Lipari Islands. Located in the Tyrrhenian Sea (Lat. 38º 55’ N Long. 14º37’ E), it has a maximum altitude of 675 m.

Alife >(CE): A commune in the province of Caserta.

Area: 63.87 km². Alt. 110 m. CAP: 81011. Tel. Pref.: 0823. Geographical Coordinates: Lat 41°19’37″56 N/Long 14°20’5″64 E. Population: 7,357 (2006e); 7,164 (2001); (1991). % Change in Population from 1991 to 2001: . Population Density (2001): / km². Inhabitants Designation: Alifani.

Location & Setting: Part of Comunità Montana Zona del Matese. Part of Regione Agraria n. 4 – Medio Volturno.

Alife, Former Diocese of: A former diocese erected in the 5th century AD. On Sept. 30, 2000, it was united with the diocese of Caiazzo to create the diocese of Alife-Caiazzo.

Alife-Caiazzo, Diocese of

Suffragans:

Metropolitan: Napoli.

Conference Region: Campania.

Area: 580 km²/ mi²

Total Population:63,417.

Catholic Population:

Total Priests: 57(Diocesan: 48; Religious: 9)

Permanent Deacons: 4

Male Religious:

Female Religious:

Parishes: 44

History:

Alimena >(PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.

Area: 59.39 km². Alt. 740 m. CAP: 90020. Tel. Pref.: 0921. Geographical Coordinates: Lat 37°41’40″92 N/Long 14°6’52″20 E. Population Information: (2001); (1991). % Change in Population from 1991 to 2001: . Population Density (2001): / km². Inhabitants Designation: Alimenesi.

Location & Setting: Part of Regione Agraria n. 9 – Colline interne – Colline di Alimena.

Alimenta, Torrente: A waterway (length: 12 km) in Campania, located in the provinces of Caserta and Benevento. Rising near Calvisi, it flows into the river Volturno at Scafa S. Domenico.

Alimentus, Lucius Cincius: (fl. late 3rd Century BC). Roman statesman, historian, soldier, and jurist. Having served as Tribune of the People in 214 BC, he was appointed as praetor in Sicily for 210/ 209 BC. He commanded the two legions which had been sent to Sicily as punishment for their defeat by Hannibal at Cannae. Alimentus continued his military career after returning from Sicily and, sometime after 208 BC, was captured by Hannibal. During his captivity, he was treated with great respect by the Carthaginian general.

In his later years, Alimentus devoted himself to writing a number of works including those on grammar and law. His greatest work, however, was the “Annales”, a Greek history of Rome from its foundation through the 2nd Punic War. Although little of Alimentus’s writings survive, he received high praise from Livy.

Alimera, Bernardino: (b. 1861, Cosenza; d. 1915, Modena). Penalist and legal philosopher. A professor at the University of Cagliari and Modena, he was an important advocate of prison reform, writing several important works on this subject.

Aliminusa >(PA): A commune in the province of Palermo.

Area: 13.71 km². Alt. 450 m. CAP: 90020. Tel. Pref.: 091. Geographical Coordinates: Lat 37°51’54″00 N/Long 13°46’55″56 E. Population Information: (2001); (1991). % Change in Population from 1991 to 2001: . Population Density (2001): / km². Inhabitants Designation: Aliminuensi.

Location & Setting: Part of Regione Agraria n. 7 – Colline interne – Colline del San Leonardo.

Aliotta, Antonio: (b. 1881, Palermo; d. 1964). Philosopher. In 1919 he became a professor at the University of Naples. From 1924 to 1943, he was director of the Neapolitan magazine Logos. Philosophically, he advocated Experimentalism, supporting the value of scientific experimentation to gain an understanding of the universe.

Al-Kamuk: The Emir who led the Saracen invasion of Sicily in AD 828. The Sicilian city of Alcamo is named for him.

Alkimos (Lat. Alcimus): (b. Sicily; fl. mid-4th century BC). Greek historian and philosopher. His History of Sicily was the first historical work to mention the legend of Romulus and the account of his founding of Rome. In another work, a 4-book philosophical and mathematical study entitled Ad Aminta, he supported the view that the doctrines of Epicarmus had a strong influence on Platonism.

Allacciante esterno (or meridionale), Canale (AQ): A canal (length: 40 km) in the Bonifica del Fucino. It connects S. Pelino di Avezzano with the river Giovenco

Allava (Alba, Allaba): a town of ancient Sicily, located on the river Allava. Mod. Ribera [AG].

Allava (Alba, Allaba) River: a river in ancient Sicily, rising in the Cratas mons, and emptying into the African Sea (Africum pelagus) to the E of Thermae Selinuntiae.

Allegra, Salvatore: (b. 1898, Palermo; d. 1993, Florence). Composer. During his career he wrote several operas and operettas.

Allerius, St.: (b. 930 in Salerno; d. 1050). Born into the noble Pappacarboni family, he vowed to follow a religious life if he would be cured of a serious illness. After recovering his health he became a monk at the monastery of Cluny, France. He was later ordered by Duke Gisulf of Salerno to return home to reorganize and reform the religious houses there. The corruption he found there proved too great and he eventually retired to a hermitage outside the city in 1011. He later joined with 12 other hermits to found the Benedictine Abbey of La Cava. Sources claim that he lived for 120 years. Feast Day: April 12.

Alli, Torrente (1): A torrential stream (length: 46 km) in Calabria (province of Catanzaro), rising at an altitude of 1,270 m in the Sila Piccola, at a point near the border with the province of Cosenza, between M. Bruno and M. Ianni. It flows to the SE, passing Taverna, and emptying into the Gulf of Squillace, to the NE of Catanzaro Marina.

Alli, Torrente (2): A torrential stream (length: 12 km) in Basilicata. It rises on Monte Cugno della Bambagia (1,430 m) and flows into the river Agri in the Piane della Mattina, near Viaggiano (PZ).

Alliata (or Agliata): A prominent Sicilian family. Originally from Pisa, they established themselves in Sicily during the 14th century, receiving the title of Barons of Villafranca in 1413. In 1609, one of their members, Francesco Alliata, received the title of Prince. In 1625, he also became the Duke of Salaparuta. The family produced many distinguished members, including Girardo Alliata (Protonotary of the kingdom of Sicily during the 2nd part of the 15th Century); Giuseppe Alliata (marshal of the camp for Charles VI), who was awarded the position of Grande of Spain 1st Class in 1721; and the patriotic leader Giuseppe Alliata.

Alliata, Giuseppe: (b. 1787, Naples; d. 1844). Politician and patriotic leader. Holding the title of Prince of Villafranca, he was a member of the Sicilian Parliament. In 1810, he was delegated to deliver Parliament’s grievances to the Bourbon government. As a result of this, he was arrested and sent as a prisoner to the island of Pantelleria in 1811. This arrest created such a vehement protest from the English government that he was released. Returning to Sicily, he became President of the Camera dei Pari and Foreign Minister of the Sicilian Constitutional government. During the 1820 revolution, he became president of the State junta.

Allifae (Alifae; mod. Alife [CE]): an ancient town of the Pentrian Samnites, located on the Via Numicia, between Ebritiana and Sepinum. It was noted for its manufacturing of large drinking cups. A Roman colony was established here in the 1st century BC.

Alliste >(LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Area: 23.47 km². Alt. 54 m. CAP: 73040. Tel. Pref.: 0833. Geographical Coordinates: Lat 39°56’58″56 N/Long 18°5’22″56 E. Population Information: 6,581 (2006e); (2001); (1991). % Change in Population from 1991 to 2001: . Population Density (2001): / km². Inhabitants Designation: Allistini.

All Souls’ Day (Festa dei Morti): Observed on November 2nd, this holy day is devoted to the memory of all departed souls. A rite of purification is performed as part of observance. A priest, holding an aspersorium (a vessel holding holy water) and censer containing burning incense, leads a procession to the cemetery (campo santo) while singing a Miserere, (a piece of a cappella religious music based on the 51st Psalm). Reaching a point where he can overlook the burial ground, he offers up prayers to those whose remains lie there. Holy water is sprinkled on the ground and the incense is waved through the air. Scholars state that this ceremony is a survival of that performed during the ancient Roman festival of Feralia. Although celebrated at a different time of year (Feb. 21/22), this ancient ceremony also honored the spirits of the dead this a nearly identical ceremony.

Almari: A Sicilian surname of Saracen origins. It derives from the Arabic al-mari (=brave, courageous).

Almensa, Girolamo: (b. Naples; fl. 2nd part of the 15th century). Ecclesiastic, diplomat. A Dominican, he rose to become bishop of Policastro in 1485. Under Pope Alexander VI (r1494-1503), he served as paple ambassador to the Kingdom of Naples.

Almirante: A family of notable actors who flourished during the 19th and 20th centuries. Among their best-known members were Pasquale Almirante (b. 1799, Capua; d. 1863, Sant’Angelo), Nunzio Almirante (b. 1837, Collesano [PA]; d. 1906, L’Aquila), Guiseppina Almirante (1826-1865), Giacomo Almirante (b. 1875, Palermo), Luigi Almirante (b. 1886, Tunis), and Italia Almirante Manzini (1890-1941).

Almirante Manzini, Italia: (b. 1890, Taranto; 1941, Sao Paolo, Brazil). Actress. Born into a famous southern Italian acting family, she became a celebrated actress in the Italian silent film industry from 1912 to 1923. After 1924, she gave up her movie career in favor of the stage.

almonds: One of the principal exports of Sicily. Travelers in the early the 20th century wrote that the blossoming almonds orchards found in Sicily rivaled the cherry groves in Japan.

Aloara: Co-Duke of Capua (r982-992).

Aloisio, Gian-Francesco: (b. Campania; d. 1564). Poet. He was executed in 1564 for heresy.

Aloja, Giuseppe: (b. Naples; fl. c1750). Engraver.

Alpan: Etruscan goddess of love and the underworld.

Alphaeus, River: A river in E Sicily which fed the famous fountain of Arethusa in Syracuse. According to ancient legend, it was actually the same river as its namesake in western Greece. According to Greek mythology, the river god Alphaeus fell in love with the nymph Arethusa and pursued her until, in an effort to escape from him, she swam across the Adriatic Sea to Sicily where she was turned into a fountain. Relentless in his pursuit, Alphaeus plunged deep into the earth and burrowed beneath the Adriatic to emerge again in Sicily. There he dove into Arethusa’s Fountain, forever blending their waters together. Ancient writers claimed that it was a proven fact an object tossed into the Alphaeus River in Greece (whose waters do indeed disappear underground) would eventually reemerge in Arethusa’s fountain.

Alphanus (or Alphani), Francesco: (b. Salerno; fl. late 16th Century). Medical writer.

Alpheias: A water nymph associated with the fountain of Arethusa in Sicily.

Alphius, St.: (b. Vaste; d. AD 251). Martyr. According to his legend, he and his siblings were natives of Vaste (LE). With his two brothers, Philadelphus and Cyrinus, his sister, Benedicta, and several other Christians, he was arrested during the persecution under Emperor Decius. After being tortured at Rome, they were transported with other Christians to Puteoli (mod. Pozzuoli). There one of their companions, Onesimus, was executed. Of Benedicta’s ultimate fate, there is no record. The brothers, however, were taken on to Sicily where, at Leontini [mod. Lentini], they were executed. Alphius was killed by having his tongue torn out, Philadelphus by burning, and Cyrinus boiled to death. The three brothers are patron saints of Lentini [SR]. Although most Roman Catholic sources now admit that Alphius and his siblings were fictitious, they are still officially listed as saints and martyrs. Feast Day: May 10.

Alphonse: (d.1144). Duke of Capua (r1135-37; 1137-1144).

Alphonso III: (b. 1265; d. 1291). King of Aragon (r1285-91). He fought both the Papacy and Venice on behalf of the claims of his brother, James II, to the throne of Sicily. In 1291, he signed the treaty of Tarascon and withdrew his support from James.

Alphonso IV: (b. 1299; d. 1336). King of Aragon (r1327-36). The son of James II, under his reign he faced a revolt in Sardinia, and found himself entangled in a prolonged war with Genoa for control of that island.

Alphonso V: See Alfonso V of Aragon (I of Naples, Sicily, and Sardinia) “the Magnanimous”.

Alphonsus Marie Liguori, St. (original name: Alphonsus Marie Antony John Cosmos Damien Michael Gaspard de Liguori): (b. Sept. 27, 1696 at Marianella (NA); d. Aug. 1, 1787 at Nocera de Pagani). Ecclesiastic and Doctor of the Church. Patron saint of theologians. Born into a good family, his superior intellect enabled him to study for a legal degree at the age of 13, attaining it three years later. Soon after, he was admitted to the bar at Naples and, by age 24, was considered one of Italy’s greatest legal minds. After losing a case in 1723, he became disgusted with the legal profession and turned to the study of religion. In 1726 or 1732, he was ordained a priest, and, in 1731/1732, founded the missionary Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer (Redemptorists). He dedicated the Order to aiding and converting the world’s poor. From c1756 (or 1762) to 1775, he served as bishop of Sant’Agata dei Goti, near Benevento. From 1770 to 1783, he defended the Redemptorists when the Spanish government claimed that they were actually simply another form of the outlawed Jesuits. In 1775, ill health forced him to resign from his see, but remained active in the Church. In 1777, he was duped into submitting a false constitution to King Ferdinand IV of Naples, for which he was denounced by Pope Pius VI. The pope also excluded him from the Redemptorist Order. It was not long, however, before he was restored to papal favor and spent his last years in retirement in his convent. In 1839 he was canonized and, in 1871, was declared to be a Doctor of the Church.

During his lifetime, Alfonsus wrote many works on theology, history, and asceticism. He is best known for Moral Theology (1748) and Glories of Mary (1750). Feast Day: Aug. 1.

Alpus (Grk. Alpos): In classical mythology, he was a Sicilian Giant, a son of Gaia, who was slain by the god Dionysus. According to Nonus (Dionysiaca 45.174), during the war between the gods and giants, Dionysus speared Alpus with thyrsos. The gravely wound giant fell into the sea, forcing up “Typhaon’s Rock” (i.e. the island of Sicily) to the surface. Alpus’s name means alps or mountains.

Altamonte (or Altamonti), Martino: (b. 1657 or 1682, Naples; d. 1745). Painter. Considered to be one of the best painters of his day, most of his works deal with historical or architectural subjects.

Altamura (BA): a town in the province of Bari, located 42 miles from Taranto, at the foot of the Apennines. Area: 427.75 km². Population: 67,903 (2007e); 67,312 (2006e); 64,167 (2001); 57,874 (1991); 51,346 (1981). Alt. 468 m. CAP: 70022. Tel. Pref.: 080. Geographical Coordinates: Lat 40°49’48″72 N/Long 16°33’16″20 E. Inhabitants Designation: Altamurani.

Location & Setting: Part of Regione Agraria n. 4 – Murge di Altamura. Part of Parco Nazionale dell’Alta Murgia.

Its principal monument is a Norman style cathedral dating from 1220. It produces a notable wine.

Altamura, Saverio: (b. 1826, Foggia; d. 1897, Naples). Painter. As a student at the Academy of Naples, he became friends with D. Morelli. In 1850, having joined a conspiracy against the Bourbons, he was forced to flee to Florence. A sentence of death was decreed upon him should he ever return to the Two Sicilies. This decree lapsed in 1860 when the Bourbon dynasty fell. Returning to Naples in 1860, where he developed a reputation as a painter in the Romantic style inspired by Morelli. Altamura normally chose historical and religious subjects for his paintings.

Altamura-Gravina-Acquaviva delle Fonte, Diocese of: A see suffragan to Bari-Bitonto. It is part of the Ecclesiastical Region of Puglia. Area: 1,309 km². The former diocese was Altamura was established in 1248, while that of Acquaviva delle Fonti dates from AD 465. The two were united in 1848. A third see, that of Gravina (of 9th century foundation), was added in 1986.

Altanum: A town in ancient Bruttium, situated on the Locrensis sinus, on the Via Traiana between Locri and Scylla.

Altavilla: A variant of the name Hauteville.

Altavilla, Pasquale: (b. 1806, Naples; d. 1872, Naples). Actor and playwright. For many years he was noted for his comic roles at the theater of S. Carlino. In 1864, he began to play at other Neapolitan theaters including the Sebeto, the Parthenope, the Fenice, and the Nuovo. He also penned about 60 comic plays based on everyday life.

Altavilla Irpina >(AV): A commune in the province of Avellino.

Area: 14.10 km². Alt. 334 m. CAP: 83011. Tel. Pref.: 0825. Geographical Coordinates: Lat 41°0’28″80 N/Long 14°46’55″92 E. Population: 4,220 (2007e); 4,233 (2006e); 4,143(2001); (1991). % Change in Population from 1991 to 2001: . Population Density (2001): / km². Inhabitants Designation: Altavillesi.

Location & Setting: Part of Comunità Montana Zona del Partenio. Part of Regione Agraria n. 8 – Colline di Avellino.

Altavilla Milicia >(PA):

Area: 23.79 km². Alt. 73 m. CAP: 90010. Tel. Pref.: 091. Geographical Coordinates: Lat 38°2’20″04 N/Long 13°32’57″12 E. Population Information: (2001); (1991). % Change in Population from 1991 to 2001: . Population Density (2001): / km². Inhabitants Designation: Altavillesi.

Location & Setting: Part of Regione Agraria n. 11 – Colline litoranee – Colline litoranee di Termini Imerese.

Altavilla Silentina >(SA):

Area: 52.23 km². Alt. 319 m. CAP: 84045. Tel. Pref.: 0828. Geographical Coordinates: Lat 40°31’56″28 N/Long 15°7’54″48 E. Population Information: (2001); (1991). % Change in Population from 1991 to 2001: . Population Density (2001): / km². Inhabitants Designation: Altavillesi.

Location & Setting: Part of Comunità Montana Zona del Calore Salernitano. Part of Regione Agraria n. 7 – Medio Sele.

Althann, Marianna Pignatelli, Contessa di: (b. 1689. Naples; d. 1755, Vienna). Favorite of Emperor Charles VI, she was the wife of Barcellona Giovanni Venceslao, count of Althann (d. 1722). In 1730, she moved to Vienna in order to be closer to the Emperor.

Altieri, Ciro degli: (b. Naples; fl. middle of the 18th Century). Ecclesiastic. Bishop of Acerra in 1761.

Altilia (>anc. Saepinum) >(CB) (1): A frazione in the commune of Sepino (CB), located 25 km S of Campobasso. Ancient Saepinum was a town of the ancient Samnites which later came under the control of the Romans. The ruins of the ancient ruins, located about 3 km N of the center, are considered among the best-preseved in Italy.

Altilia >(CS) (2): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 782 (2006e).

Area: 10.70 km². Alt. 594 m. CAP: 87040. Tel. Pref.: 0984. Geographical Coordinates: Lat 39°7’53″40 N/Long 16°15’12″60 E. Population Information: (2001); (1991). % Change in Population from 1991 to 2001: . Population Density (2001): / km². Inhabitants Designation: Altiliesi.

Location & Setting: Part of Regione Agraria n. 5 – Versante Sud/Ovest della catena costiera.

Altilio (Lat. Altilius), Gabriello (Gabriele): (b. 1440, Caggiano [SA]; d. 1501, Policastro [SA]). Poet, humanist, diplomat and ecclesiastic.  Ranking among the leading humanists of his time, Altilio was a prominent member of the Neapolitan Academy. Entering into the service of the Aragonese dynasty of Naples, he continued to play an important role in the governments of Alfonso II and Ferrante II even after becoming bishop of Policastro in 1493. After the fall of Naples to the French in 1495, Altilio chose to retire from politics and devote himself exclusively to his religious duties.

                As part of the Neapolitan Academy, Altilio became close friends with such figures as Pontano and Sannazzaro. He authored several Latin poems of high quality, one of the best being an Epithalamium, styled after Catullus, on the 1489 marriage of Galeazzo Sforza, Duke of Milan, to Isabella of Aragon. It was published posthumously and later translated into Italian. Altilio also wrote a number of works on theology.

Altino (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti, located 44 km from Chieti, situated on a height overlooking the rivers Aventino and Sangro. Area: 15.23 km². Alt. 345 m. Population: 2,683 (2006e); 2,532 (2001). CAP: 66040. Tel. Pref.: 0872. Geographical Coordinates: Lat 42°6’1″08 N/Long 14°19’57″00 E. Inhabitants Designation: Altinesi.

Location & Setting: A center situated on a height between the Rio Secco and the river Sangro.

Economy: Agriculture. Sheep-herding.

Altobello, Francesco Antonio: (b. Bitonto, fl. 17th century). Painter. He lived most of his life in Naples. A student of Carlo di Rosa, he was best known for his extensive use of ultramarine in his works.

Altofonte (formerly Parco)(Sic. Parcu) >(PA): An agricultural center and commune in the province of Palermo. Area: 35.27 km². Alt. 350 m. CAP: 90030. Tel. Pref.: 091. Geographical Coordinates: Lat 38°2’35″16 N/Long 13°17’49″56 E. Population Information: (2001); 8,276 (1991). % Change in Population from 1991 to 2001: . Population Density (2001): / km². Inhabitants Designation: Altafontini.

Location & Setting: It is located 12 km SW of Palermo, it is situated on the S slopes of the Conca d’Oro. Part of Regione Agraria n. 6 – Colline interne – Colline dell’Eleuterio.

History: The town’s former name, Parco, derived from its location at the S end of a park developed for King Roger II. The old royal hunting lodge was the core around which the town grew up. In 1307 the lodge was converted into a Capuchin monastery. In 1931 the town’s name was changed to Altofonte. Major earthquakes were felt here in 1940 and 1968.

Points of Interest: The principal monument is the Chiesa Madre. The present structure dates mostly from a 1618 rebuilding by the Abbot, Cardinal Scipio Borghese. Of the original Norman lodge there survives a royal chapel (originally an oratory) with a cupola roof raised on a small tower at the E end and a gallery at the W end. This chapel has a single nave and apse. Looking N from this chapel it is possible to view the whole of the former royal park.

                On a hill above the Chiesa Madre is an obelisk monument dedicated to Garibaldi.

Altomare (or Altomari, Aldimari), Biagio: (b.1639; d. 1713). Neapolitan jurist.  A member of the Aldimari family, he is best known as the author of Pragmaticae edicta, decreta, regiaeque sanctiones Regni Neapolitani (1682).

Altomare (or Altomari), Donato Antonio (Lat. Donatus ab Altomari): (d. c1566). Physician and medical writer. After a successful medical career, he was forced to live for a time in exile. Through the offices of Pope Paul IV (r1555-1559), he was allowed to return to Naples. He is best known as the author of Ars Medica (1553).

Altomari, Biagio: See Biagio Altomare.

Altomonte (anc. Balbia) >(CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 4,592 (2006e). Area: 65.29 km². Alt. 455 m. CAP: 87042. Tel. Pref.: 0981. Geographical Coordinates: Lat N/Long E. Population Information: (2001); 4,569(1991). % Change in Population from 1991 to 2001: . Population Density (2001): / km². Inhabitants Designation: Altomontesi.

Location & Setting: It is located 70 km N of Cosenza, situated in hills between the rivers Fiumicello and Grondo. Part of>Regione Agraria n. 12 – Medio Crati Occidentale.

>Economy>: The communal territory is divided between cultivated fields, woods, and pastures. The principal agricultural products are olive oil and wine.

>History>: Of ancient origins, the center was called Balbia in Roman times and produced a notable wine known as Balbino. The name Altomonte first appears in historical documents in 1343. During the 14th century the town enjoyed the status of a center of art and culture. Major earhtquakes were felt here in 1887, 1905, and 1947.

>Points of Interest>: The church of S. Maria della Consilazione (constructed between 1336 and 1380) is one of the finest examples of French Gothic architecture in southern Italy. Believed to be the work of Sienese architests employed by Filippo Sangineto, Count of Altomonte. It includes a beautiful Gothic façade dating from 1380, with a large rose window, and an impressive campanile. The church’s interior includes the Sangineto Masoleum (c1350), a beautifully preserved tomb of Filippo Sangineto, designed in the style of the school of Tino di Camaino. There are also several notable 14th and 15th century sculptures.

>                The Civic Museum is housed in a former Dominican monastery adjoining the church of S. Maria della Consilazione. The collection includes artifacts excavated from the site of ancient Balbia dating from the 5th and 6th centuries AD. Also stored here are a pair of alabaster panels dating from 1380; a 15th century marble statue of the Madonna and Child; a 15th century painting, also depicting the Madonna and Child, a work in the style of the Neapolitan-Catalan school; remains of a triptych inspired by the style of Bernardo Daddi; and the remains of some frescoes. There is an excellent painting of St. Ladislaus attributed to the Sienese master Simone Martini (1283-1344), and thought to have originally been part of a triptych commissioned by Count Filippo Sangeneto in 1326.

>                The church of San Giacomo dates to the 12th century.

>                The Torre dei Pallotta dates from the 14th century.

>                The Castello dei Sanseverino dates from the 15th to 17th centuries.

>                The Municipio is located in the former 17th century Convento dei Minimi.

Altomonte, Martino>: (b. 1657, Naples; d. 1745). Painter. Establishing himself in Vienna, he enjoyed a long, prosperous career as a portrait painter. His best known works include portraits of the Austrian Emperors.

Altopiano Centrale>: The central plateau of the island of Sicily. It encompasses the provinces of Caltanissetta and Enna.

Altosa, Torrente>: A torrential stream (length: 8 km) in the province of Chieti, Abruzzo. Having its source in the Lago Nero, on the N slopes of the Monti dei Frentani, it flows into the river Sinello, at a point above the town of Guilmi (CH).

Aluntium (Haluntium): An ancient town on the north coast of Sicily, near Calacta. Situated on a steep hill, at the mouth of the river Chydas, it was noted for its wine.

Alvarez, Diego: (b. Castile, c1550; d. c1633). Ecclesiastic and theologian. In 1606 he became Archbishop of Trani, in Apulia. His principal work is De Auxiliis Divinae Gratiae (On the Aids of Divine Grace).

Alvaro, Corrado: (b. 1895, Reggio di Calabria; d. 1956, Rome). Writer. Having begun his journalistic career writing for the Resto del Calino and the Corriere della Sera, he also contributed work ro such important Italian publications as Mondo and Fiera Letteraria. He served as special envoy for La Stampa and served as director for Il Polol di Roma (Rome) and Il Risorgimento (Naples). After publishing Poesie Grigioverdi in 1917, he turned to writing novels a series of novels. These were based on the Calabrian culture of his youth, set among the rural communities of the Aspromonte. Among his other works were essays and diaries including Itinerario italiano, L’Italia rinunzia, and Quasi una vita.

Alvaro, Giovanni: (b. Naples; fl. 1st half of the 18th century). Painter.

Alvignano >(CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Area: 37.65 km². Alt. 132 m. CAP: 81012. Tel. Pref.: 0823. Geographical Coordinates: Lat 41°14’44″52 N/Long 14°20’11″40E. Population: 4,914 (2006e); 5,063 (1991). % Change in Population from 1991 to 2001: . Population Density (2001): / km². Inhabitants Designation: Alvignanesi.

Location & Setting: It is located 27 km N of Caserta, to the right of the river Volturno. Part of Comunità Montana Zona Monte Maggiore. Part of Regione Agraria n. 4 – Medio Volturno.

History: Major earthquakes were felt here in 1688, 1930, 1980, and 1984.

Alvino, Enrico: (b. 1810 at Naples; d. 1876). Architect.

Alycus, River: (mod. Vrillo). A river of ancient Sicily, emptying into the sea between Gela and Camarina.

Amadei, Cataldo: (b. 1629, Sciacca [AG]; d. 1695). Musician and composer. His opera, “La sirena consolata” was performed in Naples in 1692.

Amalasonte: See Amalasontha.

Amalasontha (Amalasonte, Amalasuintha: Lat. Amalasuentha): (d. AD 535). Queen of the Ostrogoths. The younger daughter of King Theodoric I “the Great”, she was well-known for her justice and wisdom as a ruler. In AD 526, she became the regent for her minor son, Athalaric. Possessing both physical beauty and intelligence, she is considered among the exceptional female rulers of history. Thanks in great part to the influence of her prime minister, the famous philosopher Cassiodorus, her outlook and lifestyle were distinctly Roman, a fact that cause much resentment towards her from the Gothic nobles of Italy. The leader of this dissenting party was her cousin, Theodahad, who soon became such a threat, that Amalasontha considered fleeing to Constantinople. She was prevented from this action, however, by realizing that she had more to fear from the machinations of the Roman Empress Theodora than she did from Theodahad. She succeeded in coming to an agreement with her cousin, and peace was restored in Italy. A serious new threat arose when, in 534, Athalaric died, never having reached adult age. Amalasontha now found herself holding full power as Queen but without a solid justification for the title. Faced with a revolt from the Gothic nobility, who refused to accept the sole rule of a woman, Amalasontha agreed to marry Theodahad and share the throne with him. This decision, however, only served to give Theodahad the power that he had always wanted and he had no wish to share it with his cousin. Amalasontha was deposed and sent as a prisoner to a small island in Lake Bolzano. Soon afterwards, she was assassinated.

                Amalasontha’s murder had far-reaching effects that Theodahad could never have realized. The new king was confronted by Peter, the envoy of the Roman Emperor Justinian, who condemned the murder. Theodahad tried to claim that he had no connection to the assassination, but his word was not believed by Justinian. The Emperor now saw a way to use the death of Amalasontha as a way to further his own ambitions for reconquering Italy. Declaring himself to be Amalasontha’s avenger, Justinian sent two of his armies into Italy. Marching from Illyricum, one force, under the command of Mundus, attacked the Ostrogoth kingdom from the north. The other army, under the command of the great general Belisarius, advanced from North Africa, through Sicily, and onto the southern Italian mainland. The resulting war would be long and costly for both sides. The Ostrogothic kingdom was eventually destroyed and the Ostrogoths themselves disappeared as a people from history. The Romans, or as they were to eventually be known, Byzantines, held Italy in the end but were left too weak to be able to stand against a new set of invaders. The Germanic Lombards were able to seize control northern Italy while the southern part of the peninsula and Sicily remained in Byzantine hands. It was this division, perhaps more than any other factor, which created the North-South cultural divide that still remains in modern Italy.

Amalasuentha: See Amalasontha.

Amalasuintha: See Amalasontha.

Amalfi [SA]: A port city and commune in the province of Salerno (Area: 6.11 km². Population: 5,428 [2001]), situated on the north coast of the Gulf of Salerno, about 22 miles SE of Naples, in a ravine at the base of Monte Cerrato. Alt. 6 m. CAP: 84011. Tel. Pref.: 089. Geographical Coordinates: Lat 40°38’8″88N/Long 14°36’18″00E. It’s isolation from the Campanian hinterland protected it from much of the chaos following the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the subsequent Romano-Gothic War. Strongly dependent on the sea it developed into a powerful medieval city-state rivaling Pisa and Venice in its commercial connections. The Tabula Amalphitana, the code of maritime law developed at Amalfi, became the standard for most European states for centuries. At its height in the 12th Century, Amalfi had a population of about 50,000. Its most significant monument is its 11th Century cathedral.

Inhabitants Designation: Amalfitani.

Location & Setting: Part of Comunità Montana Zona Penisola Amalfitana. Part of Regione Agraria n. 13 – Colline litoranee di Salerno.

Amalfi – Cava de’ Tirreni, Archdiocese of:

Suffragans:

Metropolitan: Salerno – Campagna – Acerno.

Conference Region: Campania

Area:  150 km²/ mi²

Total Population: 96,878

Catholic Population:

Total Priests: 82 (Diocesan: 55; Religious: 27)

Permanent Deacons: 17

Male Religious:

Female Religious:

Parishes: 76.

History:

Amantea (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 13,576 (2006e).

Amari, Emerico: (b. May 9, 1810; d. Sept. 20, 1870). Publicist and political economist. In 1841, he became professor of criminal law at the University of Palermo. Suspected of anti-government sentiments, he was imprisoned as a conspirator for a lengthy term. He also played a significant leadership role in Sicily’s 1848 Revolution. He was the author of Critica di una scienza delle legislazioni comparate (1857). He was the father of the historian Michele Amari (1806-1889).

Amari, Michele: (b. July 7, 1806, Palermo; d. July 15, 1889, Florence). Historian, orientalist, statesman. He was the son of the Sicilian revolutionary leader Emerico Amari. He published Fondazione della Monarchia dei Normanni in Sicilia (1834), Un Periodo delle Istorie Siciliane del Secolo XIII (1841), and La Guerra del Vespro Siciliano (1842) These works, dealing largely the 13th Century Sicilian Vespers revolt, was considered inflammatory by the Bourbon government. The books were banned and Amari, accused of being a member of the Carbonari, was forced to flee to France to avoid arrest. There he remained until the outbreak of the 1848 revolution in Sicily allowed him to return home for a short time. Under the new revolutionary Sicilian government, Amari served as finance minister. The collapse of the revolutionary government and restoration of Bourbon power forced Amari to return to Paris. There he concentrated on literary pursuits until 1859 when he became a follower of Garibaldi. Following Garibaldi’s conquest of the island, Amari again returned home.

In 1861, Amari joined the new Italian government as a Senator and President of the Lieutenancy of Sicily. From 1862 to 1864, he served as Minister of Public Instruction. After leaving government service, he became a professor of Arabic at Pisa and, later, Florence, finally retiring in 1878. Besides the works already mentioned, he also wrote La Sicile et les Bourbond (1849), Storia dei Musulmanni di Sicilia (1853-73), I diplomi arabi del archivio florentino (1863-72), Biblioteca Arabo-Sicula (Rome, 1880), and Altre Narrazioni del Vespro Siciliano (1886).

Amaro, Monte: The highest summit (2,795 m) in the Maiella massif, and the 2nd highest in the Apennine chain. Located in the Abruzzo region, it is about 14.5 km ENE of Sulmona, and marks the point where the provinces of L’Aquila, Chieti, and Pescara meet.

Amaroni (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 1.978 (2006e).

Amasius, St.: (d. AD 356). Ecclesiastic. Of Greek birth, he was forced to flee to Italy during a religious persecution by the Arians. He settled at Teano (CE), in Campania, where, in 346, he became bishop. Feast day: Jan. 23.

Amati, Vincenzo: See Vincenzo Amato.

Amato: A surname and place name deriving from the Latin amatus (=beloved).

Amato (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 894 (2006e).

Amato, River: A river (length: 56 km) in Calabria. Rising on the Colle Santa Maria (1,006 m), it flows through the Piana di S. Eufemia, emptying into the Golfo di S. Eufemia. During its course, it receives the waters of the rivers Cottola, Pesive, Cancello and Sant’Ippolito.

Amato, Domenico: (b. 1839, Castelvetrano [TP]; d. 1897). Physician.

Amato, Giacomo: (b. 1643, Palermo; d. 1732). Architect and sculptor. A member of the Padri Ministri degli Infermi, he began his career in Rome, where he supervised the construction of the Convent of the Maddalena. Upon returninf to his native Palermo, he produced several notable works, including the church of the Pietà (1678-1723), the church of S. Mattia Apostolo (1686), the baroque church of S. Teresa (1638-1706), and the church of Santa Rosalia (1700-1709).

Amato, Giovanni Antonio d’ “il Vecchio” (1): (b. 1475, Naples; d. 1555, Naples). Historical painter and theologian. He is often designated “Il Vecchio” (the Elder) to distinguish him from his nephew and namesake, Giovanni Antonio d’ Amato “Il Giovane” (the Younger), who was also a painter.

                He received some early training in Naples from the master painter Silvestro Bruno (or Buono). He also studied under Pietro Perugino, whose simple style he imitated. Amato, who worked in both oil and fresco, chose religious themes for his paintings. He decorated several of Naples’s churches during his career, and became a notable master in his own right, with several pupils. Among his works are a Dispute on the Sacrament and a Madonna and Child. He created a Holy Family for the Caraffa family chapel in the church of S. Domenico Maggiore.

Amato, Giovanni Antonio d’ “il Giovane” (2): (b. 1535, Naples; d. 1597 or 1598). Painter. He is known as “il Giovane” (=the Younger) to differentiate him from his uncle and fellow painter, Giovanni Antonio d’ Amato “Il Vecchio” (the Elder). Adding to some of the confusion, Amato “il Giovane” received his artistic training from his uncle and, thus, had similarities in his style. He distinguished himself largely through his use of color, which earned him praise as being comparable to Titian. Amato the Younger is best known for an altarpiece depicting the infant Christ for the church of the Banco de’Poveri in Naples.

Amato, Michele d’: (b. 1682, Naples; d. 1729). Theologian.

Amato, Paolo: (b. 1633 or 1634, Ciminna [PA]; d. 1714). Architect. Receiving his training at Palermo, he became a member of the Padri Ministri degli Infermi (commonly known as the Crociferi). He authored a treatise, La nuova practica di prospettiva, published posthumously in 1736, which dealt with perspective. Having been granted citizenship by Palerme in 1687, he became Architect of the Senate, a position he held for the remainder of his life. Amato’s works can be seen throughout Palermo. They include the tomb of Don Giuseppe Lorenzo (1672) in the city’s cathedral, the façade of the new church of the monastery of S. Giuliano (1679), the Theater of Music, near the Porta Felice (1681), the chapel of the Madonna di Libera Infermi (1682) in the cathedral, the church of the Hospital of the Sacerdoti al Papireto (1698), and the Fountain of Garraffo (1698).

Amato, Pasquale: (b. March 21, 1878, Naples; d. Aug. 12, 1942, New York City). Baritone. Having been educated as a civil engineer, he turned to music, studying at the Naples Conservatory from 1897 to 1900. In 1900, he debuted at the Téatro Bellini (Naples) in the role of Germont in Traviata. He toured Italy, Germany, England, Egypt, and South America. Returning to Italy, he was, for a time, the leading baritone at La Scala (Milan). He finally came to the United States where he became a member of the Metropolitan Opera Company in New York City (1909-1914). After his retirement from the Met, he taught singing in New York City and produced some small operatic productions, sometimes performing in them as well. He also directed some productions at Louisiana State University.

Amato (Amati; Lat. Amatus), Vincenzo: (b. Jan. 6, 1629, Ciminna (PA); d. July 29, 1670, Palermo). Sicilian musician, operatic composer, doctor of theology, and priest. His principal operas were Isaura (1664) and L’Aquila (1666).

Amatrice, Cola dell’: (b. Naples; fl. 1st half of the 16th century). Architect and painter. Establishing himself in the northern Italian city of Ascoli Piceno, his principal work was a Last Supper.

Amatus of Montecassino (Amatus Casinensis): (b. c1010, Salerno; d. c1083?). Chronicler, Ecclesiastic Benedictine monk. He was the author of several Latin poems. His 8-book L’Ystoire de li Normant (History of the Normans) (pub. c1080), was an important source for the history of the Normans in Mediterranean and elsewhere, covering the years from 1016 to 1078. While normally considered reliable, he approached the events he described from the strong pro-Norman point of view of the Montecassino Abbey to which he belonged. He also tended to believe in miracles and prophecy. Amatus is perhaps best-known as the primary source for the belief that Harold, the Saxon king of England, was killed by an arrow in the eye at the battle of Hastings in 1066. He also covered the Lombard revolt of Meles against the Byzantines in Apulia, the Byzantine invasion of Sicily under George Maniaces, and the struggles for the control of the southern Italian mainland.

                Amatus served for a time as a bishop although it is disputed in the sources as to whether his see was at Paestum-Capaccio or Nusco.

Ambassadors to the Two Sicilies:

United States (as Chargé d’Affairs)

Name

State of

Residency

Title

Appointment

Presentation

of Credentials

Termination of Mission

Note

John Nelson

Maryland

Chargé d’Affaires

Oct. 24, 1831

Jan. 25, 1832

Left post on or soon after Oct 15, 1832

Commissioned during a recess of the Senate; recommissioned after confirmation on Jan 3, 1832

Enos Thompson Throop

New York

Chargé d’Affaires

Feb. 6, 1838

Sept. 28, 1838

Presented recall, Dec 29, 1841

William Boulware

Virginia

Chargé d’Affaires

Sept. 13, 1841

Dec. 29, 1841

Presented recall, Jun 24, 1845

William Hawkins Polk

Tennessee

Chargé d’Affaires

Mar. 13, 1845

July 24, 1845

Left post about May 11, 1847

John Rowan

Kentucky

Chargé d’Affaires

Jan. 3, 1848

June 27, 1848

Left post about Nov 9, 1849

Thomas W. Chinn

Louisiana

Chargé d’Affaires

June 5, 1849

Did not proceed to post. Commissioned during a recess of the Senate.

James M. Power

Pennsylvania

Chargé d’Affaires

Nov 1, 1849

Did not proceed to post. Commissioned during a recess of the Senate.

Edward Joy Morris

Pennsylvania

Chargé d’Affaires

Jan. 10, 1850

Apr. 4, 1850

Transmitted recall by note, Aug 25, 1853

Robert Dale Owen

Indiana

Chargé d’Affaires

May 24, 1853

Oct. 22, 1853

Promoted to Minister Resident

Commissioned during a recess of the Senate; recommissioned after confirmation on Feb 8, 1854.

Robert Dale Owen

Indiana

Minister Resident

June 29, 1854

Sept 20, 1854

Presented recall Sep 20, 1858

Nominated Feb 25, 1856 to be Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary; nomination withdrawn before the Senate acted upon it.

Joseph Ripley Chandler

Pennsylvania

Minister Resident

June 15, 1858

Sept 20, 1858

Closed the Legation at Naples in anticipation of the entry of King Victor Emmanuel into city, Nov 2-6, 1860

ambo (Ital. ambone): a simple pulpit found in many medieval Italian churches, often consisting of a raised stand or platform. The name derives from the Greek ambōn (= “raised edge”).

Ambrosini, Gaspare: (b. Oct. 24, 1886, Favara or Girgenti [AG]; d. 1986, Rome). Jurist, educator, politician. After a career as a magistrate, he became a professor of constitutional law at the University of Palermo. In 1937, he taught colonial law at the University of Rome. After World War II, in 1948, he was elected as a deputy in the first legislature of the Italian Republic, and became the head of the commission on foreign affairs. In November 1955, he became a constitutional justice. Ambrosini is named as one of the important shapers of the Constitution of the Italian Republic. He was the author of over 50 treatises and books on law, government and African studies. He was nearly 100 years of age when he died.

Ambrosio, Alfredo D’: (b. June 13, 1871, Naples; d. Dec. 29, 1914, Nice). Composer. He wrote orchestral, chamber and vocal music. His principal opera was Pia de Tolomei.

Amedeo, Luigi: (b. 1873; d. 1933). Duke of Abruzzi (Duca degli Abruzzi). Explorer and nobleman. A cousin of King Victor Emmanuel III, he led the first ascent of Mt. Elias in Alaska in 1897. In 1899-1900, he achieved fame in an expedition into the Arctic. In 1906, he explored the African Ruwenzori mountain range. In 1909, he achieved a new world altitude record (24,600 feet) during his attempt to climb K2 in the Himalayas. The SE ridge of that peak is named in his honor. After 1919 he concentrated his efforts on the exploration and colonization of East Africa.

Ameglio, Giovanni: (b. 1854, Palermo; d. 1921). Military leader. He served as a general during the 1911 Italian-Turkish War.

Amenano, River: A small stream in the province of Catania, in E Sicily. Rising at the S foot of Mt. Etna, it flows through the city of Catania in covered canals.

Amendola, Giuseppe: (b. 1750, Palermo; d. 1808, Palermo). Composer. He wrote both instrumental and vocal music. He composed Il Begliar-Bey di Caramania (La schiava fedele), libretto of Girolamo Tonioli, (1776).

Amendolara (CS): A commune in the province of Cosenza. Population: 3,057 (2006e).

Amenta, Niccolo: (b. 1659, Naples; d. 1719). Poet, lawyer, philologist. A master of the Tuscan dialect, he wrote popular comedies including Constanza, Il Forca, La Carlotta, and La Fante. He also authored Della Lingua nobile d’Italia, an excellent study on the Italian language.

American Civil War, Southern Italians in:

Union Army

Fardella, Enrico: (b. Trapani, March 11, 1821; d. July 5, 1892). He joined the Union Army, enlisting with the rank of Colonel on March 7, 1862. He was commissioned in Company S 101st New York Infantry Regiment on March 7, 1862. On June 26, 1863 he was promoted to full Colonel in Company S, 85th New York Infantry Regiment. On March 13, 1865 he was promoted to Brevet Brigadier General, and was discharged from the army on May 15, 1865.

Confederate Army

D’Angelo, Antonio: (b. Sicily, in c1823). Occupation: Tailor. Highest rank: Private, Co. H 10th Louisiana Infantry. He enlisted on July 22, 1861at Camp Moore, Louisiana, listing himself as a 38 year old, single resident of New Orleans. Listed on all rolls until February, 1862, he was discharged on account of physical disability.

Ferri, Salvatore (aka Salbator Ferre or Salvatore Ferre): (b. Sicily, c1841). Occupation: clerk. Highest rank: Corporal, Company I 10th Louisiana Infantry. He enlisted on July 22, 1861 at Camp Moore, Louisiana when he was described as 20 years old, with brown eyes and hair, dark complexioned, and 5 feet 8 inches in height. He served throughout the war and was paroled on April 10, 1865.

Americans of Southern Italian Descent, Noted:

Name

Category

Dates

Information

Ancestral

Connection

Landrieu, Mary

Politics

Senator- 108th Congress

D-Louisiana

Sicily

Bono, Sonny

Politics/

Entertainment

Congressperson-

R-California

Sicily (Montelepre [PA])

Brady, Robert A.

Politics

Congressperson-

107th Congress

Pennsylvania

Abruzzo

Capuano, Michael

Politics

Congressperson-

108th Congress

D-Maine

Campania

(Avellino)

De Lauro, Rosa

Politics

Congressperson-

108th Congress

D-Connecticut

Campania

(Amalfi)

Lazio

(Gaeta)

Doyle, Michael

Politics

Congressperson-

108th Congress

D-Pennsylvania

Campania (Caserta)

Ferguson, Michael

Politics

Congressperson-

108th Congress

R-New Jersey

Campania (Salerno)

Fossella, Vito

Politics

Congressperson-

108th Congress

New York

Calabria

Grucci, Felix

Politics

Congressperson-

108th Congress

New York

Puglia

Hart, Melissa

Politics

Congressperson-

107th & 108th Congress

R-Pennsylvania

Abruzzo (Barisciano)

Lampson, Nick Valentino

Politics

Congressperson

108th Congress

D-Texas

Sicily

(Salemi)

LoBiondo, Frank A.

Politics

Congressperson

108th Congress

R-New Jersey

Sicily (Belmonte Mezzagno)

Mansullo, Donald

Politics

Congressperson

108th Congress

R-Illinois

Calabria,

Sicily

Mica, John

Politics

Congressperson

108th Congress

R-Florida

Campania

(Roscigno)

Oberstar, James

Politics

Congressperson

108th Congress

D-Minnesota

Calabria

Campania

(Naples)

Pallone, Frank E.

Politics

Congressperson

108th Congress

D-New Jersey

Calabria

Campania

(Naples)

Pascrell, Jr., William

Politics

Congressperson

108th Congress

D-New Jersey

Campania

(Caserta)

Ameselum: (mod. Regalbuto). An ancient town of the Sikels.

Amestratus: (poss. Mytistratus; mod. Mistretta). A town in ancient N Sicily. It appears nowhere in ancient history except for a passage in Cicero’s Verres. It was said to have had some beautiful fountains. A few notable coins bearing its name have survived. Most sources identify it with modern Mistretta (ME).

Ami…: (fl. last half of the 4th century BC). A Greek celator who designed coins at Metapontum.

Amici, Bl. Bernardino: (b. 1420, Fossa [AQ]; d. 1520). Preacher and scholar. After studying at L’Aquila, he went to Perugia where he earned a law degree. In 1445, he renounced secular life and became a Franciscan. He became a notable preacher and negotiator. In the latter capacity he successfully settled an ethnic dispute in the Balkans which led to the unification of Dalmatia and Bosnia into a single province (1464). Of humble demeanor, he refused an offer to become bishop of L’Aquila. For the remainder of his long life, he lived a quiet, simple life at the monastery of S. Giuliano near L’Aquila. Among his writings were a biography of St. Bernardino of Siena and the Chronicle of the Friars Minor of the Observance. In 1828, his cult was approved by Pope Leo XII. His feast day is Nov. 27.

Amicis, Anna Lucia de: (b. c1740, Naples; d. after 1789). Singer. Originally a performer in opera bouffe (opera buffa) in London, she eventually achieved great success in true opera, especially in the performance of the operas of Joann Christian Bach. In Milan, she sang in Mozart’s Lucio Silla, where she gave great encouragement to the then 17-year old composer. In 1771, she married Signor Buonsollazzi, Secretary to the King of Sardinia. She continued her career for several years afterward, performing mostly in London in several Italian cities. She retired in c1789.

Amico, Antonio: (b. Sicily; d. 1641).  Priest and historian. He served as historiographer to King Philip IV of Spain, and was the author of several works on the history and antiquities of Sicily, the Sicilian Church, Sicilian rulers, and naval affairs.

Amico, Bartolommeo: (b. 1562, Lucania; d. 1649). Jesuit scholar. He served as professor of philosophy at the University of Naples. Among his works is a 7-volume “Commentary on Aristotle” (1623-48).

Amico, Bernardino: (b. Gallipoli, Apulia; fl. late 16th /early 17th Century). Monk and scholar. He lived in Jerusalem from 1596 to c1600. Later settling in Rome, he wrote Trattato delle Piante ed immagini dei sacri Edifici, a description of sacred buildings in the Holy Land. The designs in this work were engraved by Callot.

Amico, Francesco: (b. 1578, Cosenza; d. 1651). Jesuit theologian.

Amico, Giovanni Biagio: (1684, Trapani; d. 1754). Architect and priest. Having become a priest in 1705, he became a noted architect and created a number of works in and around his native Trapani. His reputation broadened until, in 1725, he was named Royal Architect and was transferred to Palermo. There, he was charged with the task of repairing many of the fine buildings damaged by recent earthquakes. In 1726 he began work on the façade of the church of Sant’Anna, one of Sicily’s earliest examples which incorporated convex walls. Returning to Trapani in c1740, he thereafter used that city as his base, as he continued projects in western Sicily. Amico was the author of L’Architecco practico (Palermo, 1726 and 1750). His architectural works are numerous. They include:

the façade of the church of the Purgatorio (Trapani, 1712-14)

the church of the Catena (Salemi, 1712-14)

the church of Santa Caterina (Calatafimi, 1721)

the church of Santa Oliva (Alcamo, 1723)

the Immacolata column (Palermo, c1726)

on the façade of the church of Sant’Anna (Palermo, 1726-36)

the church of S. Lorenzo (Trapani, 1740)

the church of S. Pietro (Alcamo, 1742)

the loggia of the Seminary (Mazara, 1744)

the church of the Crocifisso (Calatafimi, 1745)

the façade of the church of the Carmine (Licata, 1748).

Amico, Lorenzo: (b. Milazzo, 1633). Monk and scholar. He wrote works on a number of subjects including philology.

Amico, Vito Maria: (b. Catania, 1693; d. 1762). Historian, antiquary and philosopher. Having served as professor of philosophy at the University of Catania, he authored Sicilia Sacra (1733) and Catana Illustrata (1741). He was a member of the Benedictine order.

Amicus, St.: (b. Camerino, cAD 925; d. Fontevellana, c1045). Monk. After serving as a priest in his native town, in the Marche, he took up the life of a hermit. He returned to civilization for a time and entered the Benedictine order. Once more determined to be a hermit, he moved into the mountains of the Abruzzi, where he eventually attracted a large number of follows. He finally settled at the monastery of S. Stephano at Fonteavellana, remaining there until his death at the reputed age of 120.

Amigoni, Jacopo: (b. 1682, Naples. d. 1752, Madrid). Painter. He was part of the Venetian School. Principal Works: Juno Receiving the Head of Argos (oil on canvas): 1730-32.Venus and Adonis (oil on canvas): c1740. Venus and Adonis (oil on canvas): unknown date.

Aminaea: A ancient city on the southern Italian mainland. Its location is now uncertain although evidence indicates that it may have been near the Agro Falerno. It had a reputation for producing high quality wine.

Amiternum (It. Aminterno): An ancient Sabine city located on the river Ateno, on the site of the modern frazione of San Vittorino (AQ), about 9 km NW of L’Aquila. It was occupied by the Romans in 293 BC and developed into t a thriving community for centuries afterward. It was at the height of its prosperity during under the Empire and many of its finest buildings and monuments date to this period. Amiternum was the birthplace of the historian Sallust (c86-35 BC). An ancient diocese was established here which survived until Lombard times.

                Beneath the modern church of S. Michele are the remains of ancient catacombs which include the 3rd-4th century tomb of the martyr S. Vittorino (often incorrectly named as a bishop of Amiternum). Archaeologists have also discovered the ancient remains of a theater, an amphitheater, and another building of uncertain use but which was decorated with frescoes and mosaics.

Ammirato, Scipione (aka Il Vecchio, the Elder): (b. 1531, Lecce; d. 1601, Florence). Publicist and historian. Having studied law in Naples, he became canon of the Cathedral at Florence in 1595, where he won the friendship and patronage of Cosimo I de’ Medici family and his family. Among his many historical works was Istorie Fiorentine, a work commissioned by Cosimo I, which covered Florentine history to the year 1574. Two other important works dealt with the great noble families of Naples and Florence.

Amodei, Cataldo: (b. 1650, Sciacca (AG); d. 1695, Naples). Composer. He produced vocal and instrumental works. His principal work was the opera La sirena consolata (1692).

amonine: An expression used in Sicily to spur on a horse. Literally meaning “Let us go together”, it is the equivalent to “git-up” or “gee-up.”

Amore, Nicola: (b. 1830, Roccamonfina [CE]; d. 1894, Naples). Advocate and politician. In 1860, he became Quaestor of Naples, and served in the Chamber of Deputies from 1865 to 1878. In 1884, he was elected as mayor of Naples and retained that office until 1889.

Amorelli, Giuseppe: (b. 1850, Sambuca di Sicilia [AG]; d. 1930). Poet.

Amorosi (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 2,903 (2007e); 2,905 (2006e).

Ampelius, St.: (d. cAD 302, Messina). Martyr. He was executed with St. Caius during the “Great Persecution” under the Emperor Diocletian. Feast Day: Nov. 20.

Amphinomus: See Anapius and Amphinomus.

Amphitheatre: An oval-shaped, Roman structure used for the performing of gladiatorial combats, etc. The etymology is from amphi- (“both”, or “both sides”) and theatron (= theatre). Originally the name applied only to the seating structure which surrounded the central “arena.” Only in later times did it come to be applied to the entire complex.

The earliest amphitheaters were temporary wooden structures, somewhat similar to modern bleachers. Often reaching huge proportions, they were unstable and prone to collapse. Tacitus mentions a large amphitheater in the town of Fidenae which, during the reign of Tiberius, collapsed, killing or injuring 50,000 spectators. Eventually, permanent amphitheaters built of stone replaced the old wooden ones. The greatest of these structures was the Flavian Amphitheater, better known as the Colosseum, completed in Rome by the Emperor Titus in AD 80.

The best surviving examples of amphitheatres on the southern Italy mainland include those at Pompeii, Capua, and Pozzuoli (anc. Puteoli). That at Capua measured 558 by 460 feet, making it second in size only to the Colosseum itself. On Sicily, there are only a few examples, suggesting that gladiatorial fights never gained popularity on the island in Roman times. Those that still have some remains can be seen at Syracuse (Siracusa), Catania, Agrigento and Enna.

amphora: A large ceramic container used extensively in the Greco-Roman world. Typically, amphorae had narrow necks and 2 handles, and were used for storing and/or transporting liquids (i.e. wine, olive oil, etc). There are, however, examples of amphorae containing dry foodstuffs. Amphorae surfaces were often decorated with painting or etching. There is no evidence for any developed amphora-making center in ancient Sicily. All examples found on the island appear to have been imported from mainland Italy or elsewhere. Although the volume of true amphorae was relatively standard, there were some differences over time. A Greek amphora had a capacity of about 9 gallons, while a Roman one carried about 6 gallons.

Ampollino, Lago: An artificial lake in Calabria formed by the damming of the river Ampollino. Located at an altitude of 1279 m, it is about 10 km long and about 1,500 meters wide.

Ampollino, River: A river (length: 29 km) in the Calabrian provinces of Cosenza and Catanzaro. Rising on Monte Cardoneto (1,684 m), its course is blocked at one point to form the artificial Lago Ampollino. Its flow eventually continues and is finally captured by the river Neto.

Ampsactus: An ancient city in Campania located on the site of modern Rocca San Felice [AV].

Ampsactus (or Ampsanctus), Lacus: Ancient Samnite name for the Lago Amsancti, in the province of Avellino.

ampulla: a bottle used by the by Romans to preserve liquids. Usually made of glass or ceramic, it generally had two handles and a globular body which narrowed towards the mouth. Ampullae have been found at several archaelogical sites on both the Italian mainland and Sicily.

Amsancti, Lago (anc. Lacus Ampsa(n)ctus): A small lake in Campania (province of Avellino) located in a valley to the E of Naples. It has been famous since ancient times for the sulfurous fumes in a nearby cave.

amulet: A charm, usually worn around the neck, used to bring luck or ward off evil. It is known that the wearing of amulets was common in ancient Egypt and Babylon, and was practiced in prehistory. The ancient Greeks wore a protective charm called a phylacterion, and may have brought the practice to southern Italy and Sicily. The Etruscans, however, commonly wore wax good luck charms, shaped in the form of phalli. This particular charm was adopted by the Romans and spread through Italy and the rest of the Roman world.

The early Christians were also known to have worn amulets although several of their leaders frowned on the practice as being associated with magic and paganism. Once Christian had taken control of the Roman Empire in the 4th Century, the lucrative making and selling of amulets by the members of the clergy was forbidden on pain of being stripped of their holy orders. Despite this and other restrictions, amulets remained so popular that a papal decree was issued in AD 721 forbidding them altogether. It had little effect, however, and the practice continued.

Among the peasantry, amulets were shaped like pigs, mice, bulls, or crosses made from oak twigs. In 17th century Sicily, tiny silver relic lockets were worn as amulets. These often included an official seal of a high church official who authorized it. Wearing amulets remains very popular among modern Italians and Sicilians. These “good-luck charms” are fashioned in a number of varieties, including little bunches of iron charms, a key, a phallus, a siren, and a hand with a finger outstretched.

Anacapri (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.

Anacletus (Cletus), St.: Pope (r.AD 76/79-88). A martyr of Greek descent. He succeeded St Linus and was succeeded by St. Clement I.

Anagitia Diiva: See Angitia.

Anagtia: See Angitia.

Anan[…]: An important celator who produced coins in the ancient Sicilian city of Messana.

Anania, Giovanni Lorenzo: (b. Taverna, Calabria; fl. 16th century). Scholar. He wrote a number of works including a treatise on the nature of demons (1581).

Anapius and Amphinomus: Two legendary brothers of ancient Sicily from Catana. They are remembered for their rescue of their parents from an eruption of Mt. Etna. Carrying their father and mother on ther shoulders, they attempted to flee from a stream of lava, but were overtaken. Miraculously the lava flowed to either side of them, sparing them from harm. In Greek Sicily, they were accorded divine honors.

Anapo >(anc. Anapus, Apapos), River: A river (length: 59 km) in E Sicily famous for its papyrus. Rising on the S slope of Monte Lauro, in the W part of the Monti Iblei range, it flows in a generally E direction past Palazzolo Acréede and Floridia, and empties into the Porto Grande to the S of Siracusa. Although the volume of the river isn’t great, it continues to maintain a steady flow year-round. Near its mouth, the Anapo receives the waters of the river Ciane. In 1950-51, a hydro-electric plant was built at a point where the river flows past Palazzolo Acréede.

Anapus (Grk. Anapos): a river-god of ancient Sicily. He was probably the son of Oceanus and Tethys, and may have been the father of the Ortygiai nymphs and Cyane.

Anastasius I, St.: Pope. (rNov. 27, 399-Dec 19, 401). During his reign, he conciled the churches of Rome and Antioch. He opposed the views of Origen.

Anastasius II: Pope. (rAD Nov 24, 496-Nov 19, 498). He was placed by Dante among the Heretics in the 6th Circle of Hell due to a mix-up with contemporary namesake, the Roman Emperor Anastasius I (rAD 491-518). He unsuccessfully attempted to reconcile the churches of Rome and Constantinople.

Anastasius III “Bibliothecarius”: Antipope (r855). He was set on the papal throne by the emperors Lothaire and Louis in opposition to Benedict III.

Anastasius III: Pope. (rApr 911-June 913).

Anastasius IV: Pope. (rJuly 8, 1153-Dec 3, 1154).

Anaxilas: See Anaxilaus (1).

Anaxilaus (or Anaxilas): (d. 476 BC). Tyrant of Rhegium (Rhegion) (r494-476 BC). Soon after taking power in Rhegium, he was determined to dominate the Strait of Messina by seizing the city of Zancle (mod. Messina) on the opposite Sicilian shore. To this end, he negotiated with a group of refugees from Samos, promising them Zancle in exchange for their oath of loyalty. The plan fell through, however, when the Samians betrayed Anaxilaus and gave their support to Hippocrates, ruler of Zancle. Although thwarted in this first attempt, Anaxilaus finally succeeded in seizing Zancle in c490. He expelled all of the former inhabitants (including the Samians) from the city and repopulated it with new colonists drawn principally from Messenia in the Peloponnesus. It was this group who changed the city’s name to Messana, in remembrance of their former homeland. Anaxilaus soon came into conflict with Gelon I, the tyrant of Syracuse, and made an alliance against him with the Carthaginians. When the latter were defeated at Himera in 480 BC, Anaxilaus was forced to conclude a treaty with Syracuse which reduced him to becoming a dependant of Gelon. Turning his attention to expanding his power on the Italian mainland, Anaxilaus attempted to seize control of Locri in 477 BC. This also proved a failure when he was blocked by Hieron I of Syracuse, Gelon’s successor. Anaxilaus died the following year.

Ancarano (TE): A commune in the province of Teramo.

Ancaru: Ancient Etruscan goddess of death.

ancestor worship or veneration: a very ancient religious custom found throughout the world. It is centered on the basic belief that the soul of a person survives the death of body and has the ability to still interact with the world of the living. It played an important role in the religious lives of the ancient Greeks and Romans and survived until modern times.

Anceta: A Paelignian form of Angitia (see which).

Anchises: A son of Capys and Themis, he was the father of the mythical Trojan hero Aeneas by the goddess Aphrodite. Already an old man at the time of Troy’s fall, he was rescued from the conflagration by his son, who carried him to safety upon his shoulders. Anchises accompanied the refugee Trojans during the first part of their journey west but, upon reaching Egesta in western Sicily, finally died. Elaborate funeral games were held in his honor and a fine shrine was dedicated to him at Egesta (Drepanum). Later, when Aeneas visits the underworld with the Sibyl of Cumae, he meets with the shade of Anchises and is told about the future importance of Rome.

Ancinale, River: A river (length: 44 km) in Calabria. Rising on M. Pecoraro (1423 m), it flows into the Golfo di Squiliace near Soverato Marina.

Ancora, Gaetano d’: (b. 1757, Naples; d. 1816). Writer and antiquary. He served as professor of Greek at the University of Naples. His works include “Memoir on the Observance of Silence by the Ancients” (1782) and “Researches on some Metallic Fossils of Calabria” (1791).

Ancus Martius: (d. 616 BC). Fourth king of Rome, he was the grandson of Numa Pompilius. During his 24 year reign, he revised the laws and religious practices of the Romans. He was a formidable military leader who was victorious in battle against the Latins. To expand the Roman economy, he founded the port of Ostia.

Andali (formerly Villa Aragona) (CZ): A commune in the province of Catanzaro. Population: 888 (2006e).

Andelais: See Audelais.

Ando, Flavio: (b. 1851, Palermo; d. 1915). Actor.

Andrano (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 5,118 (2006e).

Andrea, Alessandro: (b. 1519, Barletta). Historian.

Andrea, Francesco: (b. 1625, near Amalfi; d. 1698). Jurist. He established himself at Naples.

Andrea, Girolamo: (b. Apr. 12, 1812, Naples; d. May 15, 1868, Rome). Ecclesiastic. After having served as bishop of Sabina, he was created a cardinal in 1852. A supporter of the Italian unification and Church reform, he was disciplined in 1867 for supposed disloyalty to the Papal See. After doing penance, he was reinstated but died shortly after.

Andrea (or Andreas), Onufrio: (b. Naples; d. c1650). Poet. Among his many works is the heroic poem Italia Liberata (1646). 

Andrea da Salerno (Andrea Sabatini): (b. 1484, in Salerno; d. 1530). Painter.

Andrea Dell’Aquila: (b. L’Aquila; fl. mid-15th century). Painter and sculptor. In 1456, he was one of the sculptors who worked with Isaia da Pisa on the triumphal Arch of Alfonso I at Naples.

Andreas, Onufrio: See Andrea, Onufrio.

Andreozzi, Gaetano: (b. May 22, 1755, 1763 or 1775, in Aversa; d. Dec. 21 or 23, 1826, Paris). Dramatic composer. A student of Niccolo Jommelli, he enjoyed early success in Italy. In 1784, he toured Russia. Returning to Naples, he became a director at Naples in 1790. In the following year he moved to Spain where he filled a similar role at Madrid. After returning home, he began a new phase of travels. In 1825, he settled at Paris, remaining there for the last few months of his life. During his career, Andreozzi composed 45 operas, 3 oratorios, and a set of string quartets.

Andretta (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 2,147 (2007e); 2,188 (2006e).

Andrew, St (1): (fl. 1st Century AD). Roman Catholic saint. Patron saint of Amalfi. According to tradition, he was crucified and buried at Patras in Greece. After the seizure of power by the Christians in the 4th Century AD, Andrew’s remains were transferred to Constantinople. There they remained until 1210 when they were stolen and brought to Amalfi to be reinterred is a church dedicated to Andrew. In 1879, the archbishop of Amalfi agreed to send some of the remains (a piece of the saint’s shoulder bland) to Scotland where Andrew was also the patron saint. In 1969, Pope Paul VI had more of the relics sent there.

Andrew, St (2): (b. Syracuse; d. c AD900). Martyr. With SS Anthony, John, and Peter, he was captured by the Saracens and deported from Sicily to North Africa. Soon after his arrival there he was executed. Feast Day: Sept. 23.

Andrew of Montereale, Bl.: (b. 1397, Mascioni [AQ]; d. 1480). Monk. At the age of 14, he joined the Order of Augustinian Hermits. Having been ordained, he traveled throughout Italy and France as a preacher. He later served as Provencial for his order in Umbria. His cult was confirmed by Pope Clement XIII in 1764. Feast Day: Apr. 12.

Andrew II of Naples: Duke of Naples (AD 834-840). (See Full Page)

Andria (BA): A commune in the province of Bari, located about 34 miles W of Bari and 8 miles from the Adriatic coast. Area: 407.86 km². Population: 98,069 (2007e); 97,835 (2006e); 95,653 (2001); 90,063 (1991); 84,661 (1981). It is a center for almonds, olive oil, and majolica ware. The famous Castel del Monte, built by Frederick II, is located nearby.

Andria, Nicola (or Niccolo): (b. 1748, Otranto; d. 1814). Scientific writer. He served at the University of Naples, successively holding the chairs of Natural History (1775), Physiology (1801), and Theory of Medicine (1808). Among his many works are “Elements of Chemical Philosophy” (1786), “Institutions of the Practice of Medicine” (1790), and “General Observations on the Theory of Life” (1804).

Andromachus: A tyrant of Tauromenium (mod.Taormina) in the mid-4th century BC. He was the father of the historian Timaeus.

Andronicus, Marcus Livius: (b. Tarentum; fl. 3rd Century BC). Latin Dramatist and poet. The author of many popular poems, he also produced a Latin translation of the Odyssey.

anemone: A flower widespread throughout Sicily. It is found in both the common rose-colored English variety, as well as a large purple variety.

Anfossi, Pasquale: (b. Apr. 25, 1727(1729, or 1736), Naples; d. Feb. 1797 (or 1795), Rome). Dramatic composer. A student of Nicola Piccinni, he traveled throughout his career, residing at various times in Paris, London, and Rome. Best known for his operatic works, including Antigone, L’Avaro and L’Incognita perseguitata (1773), he also composed oratorios, masses, and motets. His 1783 presentation of Curioso indiscreto at Vienna included three arias composed by Mozart. The two composers collaborated again in 1788, when Mozart composed an aria for Anfossi’s Le Gelosie fortunate. In 1792, Andossi began to specialize in religious music and became maestro di capella of S. Giovanni Laterano.

Angeleri, Pietro: See St. Celestine V.

Angeli, Francesco degli: (b. 1567, Sorrento; d. Dec. 21, 1623, Colela, Ethiopia). Jesuit missionary. Entering the Jesuit Order in 1583, he became a missionary and served for 2 years in India. In 1604, he was transferred to Ethiopia where he remained for the rest of his life. His efforts in Africa were principally with the pagan Agazi people, and included the translation of religious works into their language.

Angelis, Jerome de, Bl.: (b. 1567, Castrogiovanni [EN]; d. Dec. 4, 1623, Tokyo, Japan). Jesuit missionary and martyr. Having received an education in law, he entered the Jesuit Order at Messina in 1585. Receiving ordination at Lisbon, he was sent to Japan in 1601 or 1602, and became the first Christian missionary to reach the Japanese provinces of Yezo, Jasu, and Cai. He successfully worked at conversions for 22 years until the Japanese government acted against him. He was arrested and, with other missionaries, was burned at the stake in Tokyo. These martyrs were beatified by Pope Pius IX in 1867. Angelis’s feast day is Dec. 4.

Angelis, Secondo de: (fl. mid-18th Century). An engraver at Naples. He produced several works on Herculaneum between 1757 and 1762.

Angell, Samuel: (b. 1800; d. 1866). An English architect who, in 1823, was one of the discoverers of the famous metropes at Selinunte (Selinus). He was also one of the scholars who discovered that ancient Greek architecture had been brightly painted. With his colleague William Harris, he excavated Temple C at Selinus without having first received permission. As they were examining the steps of the temple’s façade’ they uncovered the remains of its Doric frieze. When their work was interrupted by the authorities they shifted their work to a new location on the site where they discovered the metopes from temple F. Their intention to take their find back to England was discovered, they were forced to give up their prize. The metropes were confiscated and preserved in a museum at Palermo.

Angelo (or Angelus), St.: (d. 1220). Martyr. Few details of his life can be considered reliable. According to his legend, Angelo was the son of a converted Jew from Jerusalem. At age 18, he and his twin brother joined the Carmelite Order. After spending 5 years as a hermit, he received a message from God to go to Sicily. There he worked successfully at converting Jews to Catholicism at Palermo and Licata. It was in the latter town that he met the sister of Count Berenger and convinced her to reform her life. This infuriated Berenger who had been carrying on an incestuous relationship with his sister. Angelo was killed by either being stabbed or hung and shot with arrows. The center of his cult is at Licata. Feast Day: May 5.

Angelo of Acri, Bl.: (b. 1669, Acri; d. Oct. 30, 1739, Acri). Ecclesiastic. After two unsuccessful attempts to join the Capuchin Order, he was finally admitted in 1690. He was initially frustrated in his attempts to become a preacher but eventually achieved wide success in that role. In 1711, he preached during Lent at Naples and thereafter concentrated his efforts there and in Calabria. Many stories about Angelo claim that he possessed supernatural powers including healing, prophesizing, visions, and bilocation (being two places at the same time). He was beatified by Pope Leo XII in 1825. Feast Day: Oct. 30.

Angelo of Furchio, Bl.: (b. 1246, Furcio (or Furci) [CH]; d. 1327, Naples). Theologian. After his parents had a religious vision, Angelo entered the Augustinian Order at a very young age, but was required to return home at the age of 18. Soon returning to the Order, he studied in Paris for two years. Angelo eventually became a noted professor of theology at the Augustine College at Naples. Leo XIII confirmed his cult in 1888. Feast Day: Feb. 6.

Angelo of Gualdo, Bl.: (b. c1265, in Gualdo [SA]; d. Jan. 25, 1325). Religious hermit. Feast Day: Feb. 6. As a youth, he went on a number of pilgrimages, and eventually became a Camaldolese lay brother. Angelo lived as a hermit from 1285 until his death. His cult was confirmed by Leo XII in 1825.

Angelo, Gioacchino: (b. 1899, Palermo. d. 1971, Ostia Lido, Rome). Composer and conductor. He studied violin with Prof. Franco Tufari and composition with Maestro Felice Longo and Maestro Francesco Cilea at the Conservatory “V. Bellini” in Palermo. At the age of 20, Pietro Mascagni had him as his collaborator at “Massimo” in the same city. In Rome, Umberto Giordano asked him to orchestrate music for the film “Fedora” and music for the film Una notte dopo l’Opera (A night after the Opera). Maestro Angelo was a conductor and a composer. He conducted many symphonic concerts, also in R.A.I. and has composed much music, part of it recorded on “Cetra” and “Voce del Padrone.” He wrote nine lyrical operas including L’Ajo nell’imbarazzo” that was transmitted in R.A.I., under the direction of the same Autor and, “La Coppa di Cipro” that has been produced on stage on the Italian stage many times.

Angelos: an ancient Greek word meaning “messenger” or “envoy.” It was used as a title for the goddess Artemis at Syracuse.

Angelotti, Francesco: (b. c1800, at Gaeta; d. 1839, Procida [NA]). Army officer. In 1834, while serving as a lieutenant in the 11th regiment of Guards in the royal army of the kingdom of the Two Sicilies, he joined in a conspiracy to attempt to assassinate King Ferdinand II. When that attempt failed, he was arrested and sentenced to death. This sentence was commuted to life imprisonment and he was sent to the political prison on the island of Procida. In 1839, he was killed during an escape attempt.

Angelus Sinesius, Bl.: (b. c1385, Catania). Ecclesiastic. A Benedictine, he became abbot of the monastery of San Martino at Palermo. He helped to restore monastic discipline in Sicily. Feast Day: Nov. 27.

Angeriano, Girolamo: (fl. 1st part of the 16th Century). Neapolitan poet. His Erotopaegnion, a collection of love poems, was first printed in Naples in 1520. A reprint was done in Paris in 1542.

Angevins: A French dynasty which ruled the Kingdom of Naples from 1266 to 1435.

Angevin Dynasty of Naples

Name

Reign

Charles I of Anjou

1266-1285

Charles II “the Lame”

1285-1309

Robert “the Wise”

1309-1343

Joanna I

1343-1382

Charles III

1382-1386

King of Hungary

(as Charles II)

1385-1386

Ladislaus

1386-1414

Joanna II

1414-1435

After the death of Joanna II, the Angevin claim to the throne of Naples

passed to Rene I “the Good” of Anjou, Duke of Lorraine. His claim was disputed by

Alfonso VI of Aragon, who finally conquered the Regno, becoming Alfonso I, founder

of the new Aragonese dynasty.

Angiolille (or Angiolillo)> (called Roccadirame): (b. Naples; fl. c1450-1500). Painter. A student of Antonio Solario (Il Zingaro), he produced several works for the churches of Naples. Among his best pieces was a painting in the church of S. Lorenzo, depicting the Virgin and Infant Jesus, with St. Francis, St. Anthony of Padua, and St. Louis.

Angitia (also called Anceta, Anagtia [Oscan], Anagtia Diiva, Angitiae): (See Full Page)             

Angitiae, River: A river (length: 20 km) of Calabria. It rises on M. Pizzinni (918 m) and flows into the Gulf of Sant’Eufemia, near Francavilla Angitola. During its course it captures the waters of the torrent Falla, the fosso Scuotrapiti and the fiumara Reschia.

Anglona: An ancient Lucanian city of uncertain location, although its site was probably in the vicinity of modern Tursi [MT]. Some scholars believe that it was the same city as the Greek Pandosia (not the same as the Pandosia in Bruttium). It this identification is correct, then the city survived throughout the Roman era, only to be finally sacked by the Visigoths in AD 410. Even after this disaster, a community continued to exist on the site. Under the Byzantines, this town was centered about the Basilian monastery of Sant’Archistratico. In AD 968, it became the site of a diocese. The center suffered from the turmoil that gripped southern Italy during medieval times and was finally abandoned during the first half of the 13th century. The seat of the diocese was transferred to nearby Tursi in 1545. The principal point of interest surviving on the site of Anglona/Pandosia is the ruined 13th century Cathedral of S. Maria del Anglona, which still retains traces of frescoes.

Angri (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno. Population: 29,761 (2001).

Anguissola (or Anguisolla), Capt.: Minister of the Navy at Naples in 1860 under Garibaldi.

Anguissolla (or Anguissola), Sofonisba: (b. c1528 or 1532, Cremona; d. 1625, Palermo). Painter. Having received training under Bernardo Campi and Soiro (Bernardo Gatti), she traveled to Spain in 1560 where she was received at the court of King Philip II. While there she produced portraits of members of the royal family. Marrying a Spanish nobleman, Don Francisco Moncada, son of the prince of Paterno, viceroy of Sicily. in 1571, she accompanied him to Sicily in 1578. Her husband died the next year in Palermo and Sofonisba decided to return home to Cremona. While sailing north drom Palermo, she became acquainted with the ship’s captain, Orazio Lomellino, who she married in 1580. The couple settled at Genoa where Sofonisba opened her own studio. There she became the premier portrait painter of the city. She eventually returned to spend her last years at Palermo. As a very aged and nearly blind woman, she was visited by Anton Van Dyke who drew the last known portrait of her.

Ani: Etruscan sky god. He had several similarities to the Roman Janus.

Anianus of Celeda: (fl. early 5th Century AD). Ecclesiastic. A native of Campania, he was a Christian deacon and a friend of Pelagus, whose doctrines he defended at  the Council of Diopolis in AD 415. He translated the Greek homilies of John Chrysostom into Latin.

Anicetus, St.: Pope (rAD 155 – 166). A native of Emesa, Syria, he succeeded St. Pius I and was succeeded by St. Soter.

Aniemolo, Vincenzo: See Vincenzo Ainemolo.

Anisio, Giovanni (Lat. Janus Anysius): (b. c1472, Naples; d. c1540). Latin Poet. Among the works he published were Jani Anysii Poemata et Satyrae, ad Pompeium Columnam cardinalem (Naples, 1531) and Protogenos Trajaedia (Naples, 1536).

Anjou: an historical county in northern France. The French dynasty of rulers of Sicily/Naples (1266-1442) known as the Angevins were so-called because its founder, Charles I (of Anjou) (1227-1285) already held the title of Count of Anjou when he conquered the Regno in 1266.

Annese, Gennaro: (d. 1648). Rebel leader. A leader in the 1647 Naples revolt against the Spanish colonial government.  He assumed overall control of the rebels after the assassination of Masaniello. He attempted to create a republican form of government under the patronage of France. Upon the arrival of a Spanish fleet, Annese was forced to surrender in April 1648. He was immediately arrested and executed soon afterward.

Anoia (RC): A commune in the province of Reggio Calabria.

Ansaloni, Bl. Giordano: (b. San Angelo, Sicily; d. 1634, Japan). Missionary and martyr. Entering the Dominican order, he served for several years in Mexico, where he wrote several biographies of prominent Dominicans. In 1625 he was sent to the Philippines and, in 1632, he was secretly sent to Japan, then in the midst of a persecution of Christians. He acculturized himself, dressing in the manner of a Japanese priest and using Japanese to communicate. In 1634, after two years, he was betrayed to the authorities who arrested him. After enduring torture for seven days, he was forced to witness the execution of 70 Christians. He was then martyred by suffocation.

Anselice di Palazzisi, Vallone: A waterway (length: 10 km) in Campania located in the province of Avellino. Rising in two sources, one on M. Mancini (708 m) and the other near Ariano Irpino, it flows into the river Ufita.

Anselmi, Giuseppe: (b. Nov. 16, 1876, Catania; d. May 29, 1929, Rapallo, Liguria). Tenor and composer. Originally a violinist, he turned to singing at the age of 18. In 1896, he made his debut at Turiddu. He sang at Covent Gardens in London in 1901, 1904, and 1909. Anselmi was noted by critics as one of the best masters of Italian bel canto. He also composed some musical works, icluding songs, piano pieces, and an orchestral Poema Sinfonica.

Anserano da Trani: (b. Trani, (BA); fl. 13th century). Architect and sculptor. Centering his activities in his native Apulia, he created several notable architectural works in that region. These include the now-lost castle of Emperor Frederick II at Orta, the Tomba Falcone in the church of S. Margherita at Bisceglie, and the ogival portal of the church of the Madonna del Rosario at terlizzi. Another of his now-lost works was the tabernacle in the Duomo at Bari. Anserano was noted for his unique decorations and his technical abilities.

Antennamare, Monte: A mountain (alt. 1,124 m) in the Peloritani range, located to the SW of Messina.

Anterstatai: An ancient Samnite deity worshipped as a protectress of boundaries. She can be compared with the Latin goddess Stata, whom the Romans venerated as a protectress of streets and public places.

Anterus, St.: Pope (rAD 235-Jan. 3, 236). He was a native of Greece.

Anthandros: (fl. 2nd half of the 4th century BC). A nobleman of ancient Syracuse. He was the brother of the tyrant Agathocles, and produced a biography of him. Under his brother, he served as a general (strategos) against the Bruttians. In 310 BC, when Agathocles departed on his unsuccessful campaign to North Africa, Anthandros remained behind in Syracuse to act as his agent.

Anthemius: (b. cAD 420, Constantinople; d. July 11 AD 472, Rome). Roman emperor in the West (r467-472). Considered by many to have been the last able Western Roman Emperor, he came from a distinguished background. He was born into distinguished patrician family. He was a descendent (probably the paternal grandson) of Procopius, who had seized the imperial throne at Constantinople in AD 365-66, and was thus related to the Emperor Julian (AD 360-363), last of the Dynasty of Constantine. His father, Procopius served as Master of soldiers in the East (AD 422-424), while his maternal grandfather and namesake, Anthemius, was Praetorian Prefect of the East (AD 405-414) and consul (AD 405). His wife was Aelia Marcia Euphemia, daughter of the Emperor Marcian (rAD 450-457).

Anthes, St.: (d. AD 303, Salerno). Martyr. With SS. Caius and Fortunatus, he was executed during the persecution of Diocletian. Feast day: Aug. 28.

Anthimus (Anthemus) of Naples: Duke of Naples (AD 801- c818). Soon after coming to power, he received an order from the Byzantine Patrician of Sicily to send ships to help combat the Saracens. Although nominally the subordinate of the Patrician, Anthimus refused to honor the order and declared his neutrality. Later, in 812, the Byzantines attempted to begin a new offensive against the Saracens, calling on coastal Italian city-states for help. While Amalfi and Gaeta agreed to send aid, Andrew once more refused, essentially declaring Naples an independent state. It was not until c818 that the Byzantines were able to oust Anthimus from power and reestablish their authority in Naples.

Antillo (ME): A commune (area: 43.4 km² alt. 480 m) in the province of Messina. Population: 1,056 (2006e); 1,279 (1991). It is located 54 km SW of Messina, situated on a spur of the Ionic slope of the Montagna Grande of the Monti Peloritani, near the sources of the Agro. The economy is based principally on agriculture and stock-raising.

                Throughout its history, Antillo has been closely associated with Savoca (ME). Major earthquakes were felt here in 1905, 1908, 1975, 1978, 1980, and 1990.

Antinori, Antonio Ludovico: (b. 1704, L’Aquila; d. 1788, L’Aquila). Antiquary and ecclesiastic. Of noble birth, he served as bishop in the sees of Lanciano, Acerenza, and Matera. He was an avid collector of documents related to the history of Abruzzo and wrote a 4 volume “Historical Memoirs of the Provinces of the Abruzzi”  (1781-84). Much of his library is now preserved in the Biblioteca Tommasiana in L’Aquila.

Antiochus of Syracuse: (b. Syracuse; fl. c440-420 BC). Siciliot-Greek historian. The son of Xenophanes, he wrote excellent histories of Greek Sicily and Italy which, unfortunately, have not survived. His History of Syracuse, written in Ionic Greek, covered the period from the early mythic times of King Cocalus to the congress of Gela in 424 BC. It was an important source of information for Thucydides. His other important work, the Colonizing of Italy, was also used as a source by Strabo and Dionysius of Halicarnassus. Overall, Antiochus had a reputation for reliability in his writings.

Antiphates: A mythical king of the Laestrygonians who attacked Ulysses. The Roman poet Ovid (Meta. xiv, 223-319; xv, 622-745) places the scene of the action in Campania.

Antiphemus: (b. Rhodes; fl. 7th century BC). Colonist. In 688 BC, he commanded the contingent of Rhodian colonists who participated in the founding of Gela in Sicily.

Antiphon (Antiphontus): (fl. early 4th century BC). Greek tragic poet. A member of the court of Dionysius I of Syracuse, he assisted that tyrant in writing dramatic plays. He eventually lost Dionysius’s favor and was executed. Only a few titles and some fragments survive of his works.

Antiphus: A Greek warrior from Ithaca during the Trojan War. He escaped injury during that conflict, protected by an oracle which stated that he was fated to die in Sicily. After the war he was part of Odysseus’s crew who land in the land of the Cyclopses. There he was killed and eaten by the monstrous Polyphemus. Traditionally, Polyphemus and his fellow Cyclopses lived in a region of eastern Sicily near Mt. Etna, thus fulfilling the oracle.

antipope: a pontiff elected in opposition to one who was canonically chosen. Confusion is often created in papal lists because of the names and numbers given to antipopes. Sometimes gaps in the numbering sequence appear to compensate for the names and numbers attached to such antipopes as Felix II (r356-357), Boniface VII (r974, 984-985), John XVI (r997-998), Benedict X (r1058-1059) and Alexander V (r1409-1410).  Some pontiffs, such as Leo VIII (r963-5), Benedict V (r964), and Sylvester III (r. 1045), have somewhat ambiguous status, being listed as a legitimate pope in some sources, and an antipope in others. There is even an example of one name and number, John XXIII being used for both an antipope (Baldassare Cosa, r1410-1415) and a canonically recognized pope (Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, r1958-1963).

Antirrhinum (Snapdragon): A flower found commonly throughout Sicily, where it is known as the Bocca di leone. It is found in two varieties, one flesh-colored and another bright orange and lemon colored.

antis, in: An architectural term to describe a porch terminating in columns. It was a common feature on Greek temples in ancient Sicily.

Antonelli: A family with Sicilian and southern Italian origins who produced several military engineers responsible for many significant Spanish fortifications in the Old and New Worlds. Among these works were the fortifications at St. Augustine (Florida), Argentina, and Cuba (Morro Castle).

Antonelli, Battista: (b. c1550, Gaeta; d. 1616, Madrid). Military engineer. After constructing several military coastal fortification works for the Spanish in the Mediterranean, he went to Cuba in 1584. There he planned and supervised the construction of Morro Castle and the Punta Fortress at Havana (1589). While these projects were still under construction, Antonelli went to Vera Cruz, Mexico, where he created the plans for the fortress of San Juande Ulua. Returning to Cuba, he remained there for several years before returning to Spain. He is sometimes confused with his brother Giovanni Battista Antonelli (1).

Antonelli, Francesco: (d. 1663). Military engineer. Son of Giovanni Battista Antonelli (1) and nephew of Battista Antonelli, he served as a military engineer for Popes Urban VIII and Innocent X, and for the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III.

Antonelli, Giovanni: (b. 1838, L’Aquila; d. 1914, Toledo). Anatomist. A teacher of anatomy in Naples in 1871, he wrote important studies on the branchial plexus, on brain convulsions, and on the cardiac muscles.

Antonelli, Giovanni Battista (1): (b. Naples; d. 1588, Toledo, Spain). Military engineer. Often confused with his brother, Battista Antonello, he was the father of Francesco Antonelli. He entered the service of King Philip II of Spain after 1559. He was noted for his talents with hydraulics. In 1587, he joined his brother in the New World and devoted much time to the possibility of digging a canal across Panama.

Antonelli, Giovanni Battista (2) (sometimes called il Giovan): (b. 1585; d.1649, Cartagena, Spain). Military engineer. The son of Battista Antonelli and the nephew of Giovanni Battista Antonelli, he also journeyed to the New World where he created several military fortifications of the Spanish in the West Indies.

Antonelli, Luigi: (b. 1882, Atri (TE); d. 1942, Pescara). Comedy writer. One of his best-known works was L’uomo che incontro se stesso (1918).

Antonello da Caserta: (fl. 14th and 15th centuries). Musician. He was a representative of the Ars nova (New Art  movement). He produced several songs written in French.

Antonello da Messina: (b. c1430, Messina. d. Feb. 1479, Messina). Painter. Considered the greatest southern Italian Renaissance painter. He was the earliest artist in Italy to use oil paints. His early works show a definite southern Italian basis but with influences of Flemish, Catalan, and Provençal styles. While some sources (e.g. Vasari) suggest that he studied under Jan van Eyck in Flanders, others believe that he was educated by Colantonio in Naples. Antonello’s later works show definite influences from Francesco Laurana, Giovanni Bellini, and perhaps Piero della Francesca, indicating that he may have traveled throughout much of the Italian mainland. Documentary evidence, however, is limited to his activities in Sicily, Calabria and an extended visit to Venice (1474 -1476). At Venice he created the altarpiece for the church of San Cassiano, as well as several portraits. This short Venetian period had a profound effect on Antonello’s subsequent style. He was one of the earliest, if not the first, artist in Italy to use the Flemish oil painting techniques. Principal Works: Madonna and Child (oil and tempera on panel): c1475. Portrait of a Man (Il Condottiere) (Oil on wood,): 1475. Crucifixion (on wood): 1475. Crucifixion (Oil on panel): 1475. The Dead Christ Supported by an Angel (oil on panel): 1475-1478. Portrait of a Young Man (oil and tempera on panel): c1475/1480. San Cassiano Altarpiece (Oil on panel): 1475-76. Christ at the Column (Oil on wood): c1475-79.

Antonello da Saliba: (b. c1466; d. c1535). Painter. Nephew Antonello da Messina, he received his training in the Venetian studio of his cousin Jacobello d’Antonello. Even though his early works show definite influences present as well. Interestingly, as he aged, these Venetian qualities disappear and his works take on a truly Sicilian aspect. He was the brother of Pietro da Sabila.

Antoni, Antonio d’: (b. June 25, 1801, Palermo; d. Aug. 18, 1859, Trieste). Composer. He wrote instrumental and vocal music. His principal works were the operas Un duello ((1817); Amina ossia L’orfanella di Ginevra (1825); Amazilda e Zamoro (1826); and La festa dell’Archibugio (1829).

Antonimina (RC): A commune (area: 22.46 km²; alt. 327 m) in the province of Reggio Calabria. Population: 1,532 (1991). It is located 110 km NE of Reggio di calabria, situated in the valley of the river Portigliola. The commune has several mineral springs.

                Major earthquakes struck here in 1783, 1894, 1905, 1907, 1908, 1975, 1978, and 1980.

Antonini, Annibale (Abbé Antonini): (b. 1702, Centola (SA); d. 1755, Naples). Ecclesiastic and scholar. Having settled in Paris, where he was known as Abbé Antonini, he spent the next 25 years in France before returning to his homeland. Between 1729 and 1746, he edited several Italian editions of Italian classics. During his career he wrote an Italian grammar and an Italian-French dictionary.

Antonini, Giuseppe: (b. 1683, Centola (SA); d. 1765, Giugliano). Scholar and magistrate. A nobleman, he held the title of Barone di S. Biase. As a scholar he wrote a study of Lucania (publ. 1745).

Antoninus of Sorrento, St.: (b. probably Picenum; d. AD 830). Ecclesiastic. Entering the Benedictine order as a youth, he traveled to Castellamare, where he joined that city’s bishop, St. Catellus, as a hermit on nearbt Monte Angelo. Having received a vision of St. Michael the Archangel, they constructed an oratory dedicated to that figure. After Catellus’s arrest and imprisonment at Rome, Antoninus remained at the oratory, which eventually became a place of pilgrimage. He later became the abbot of the monastery of S. Agrippinus at Sorrento, and served as the prelate for that town when their bishop was in prison. According to his legend, long after his death, Antoninus saved Sorrento from a Saracen attack. Feast Day: Feb. 14.

Antonius Creticus, Marcus: (b. c 70 BC). Roman magistrate and general. The son of Marcus Antonius the Orator, he served as Praetor in 75 BC. He received command of the Roman fleet in 74 BC, with instructions to track down the pirates then preying on shipping in the Mediterranean. Instead of fulfilling his commission, however, he spent most of his term plundering the cities and towns of Sicily for his own profit. When he was finally forced to move against the pirates, he attempted to attack their bases in Crete. The campaign proved to be a complete failure and he was given the epithet Creticus (Conqueror of Crete) as a derisive joke.

Antus, St.: (dates uncertain). Martyr. With fellow martyrs Fortunatus (1) and Gaius, he is one of the patron saints of Salerno.

Anversa degli Abruzzi (AQ): A commune (area: 31.78 km²; alt 560 m) in the province of L’Aquila. (See Full Page)

Anxa (LE): a former name for Gallipoli (LE).

Anxanum (CH): Ancient name for Lanciano (CH).

Anxia (mod. Anzi) (PZ): An ancient city in Lucania.

Anzalone, Cherubin: (b. Naples; fl. mid/late 19th Century). Jesuit Missionary. He was sent to the United States where he eventually became the head of the Jesuit Conejos Mission in Colorado.

Anzano degli Irpini (AV): a former name for Anzano di Puglia (AV).

Anzano di Puglia (formerly Anzano degli Irpini) (FG): A commune (area: 11.12 km²; alt. 760 m) in the province of Foggia. (See Full Page)

               

Anzi (anc. Anxia, Anxa, Ancie)(PZ): A commune (area: 76.74 km²; alt. 1,006 m) in the province of Potenza. Located 28 km SE of Potenza, it is situated on a slope to the left of the river Anzi. The communal territory contains large areas of forest and pastures. Population: 2,158 (1991). The economy is based largely on livestock and agriculture (grapes, cereals), although tourism has become increasingly important.

History: Pre-Roman Anxia was a noted center for the manufacturing of Lucanian red-figure ceramics. Although the population eventually became a mixture of Oscans and Greeks, the town retained its native Italic culture, with little Greek influence. The town enjoyed a high level of prosperity under the Romans, thanks in large part to its location on an important road.

                In medieval times, it was developed as a stronghold by the Lombards and the Normans. There is some evidence that natives of the town participated in the First Crusade. It eventually became a fief for a series of noble families. In 1574, it was purchased by Ottavio Carafa, who derives from it the title of Marchese di Anzi. The town remained a property of his descendents until feudalism was ended in 1806.

In 1799, it was a strong supporter of the short-lived Parthenopean Republic. Later, in 1807-08, a French garrison was placed there as protection from local brigands. Anzi was a center for the anti-Bourbon Carbonari movement.

Major earthquakes were felt here in 1857 and 1860.

Points of Interest: There are a number of remains dating back to the Roman epoch.

The church of S. Giuliano, constructed between 1828 and 1855, sits on the site of an earlier church destroyed in 1510. The interior is decorated with artwork from the 18th century. In the presbytery is an 18th century painting depicting the Death of the Virgin by Leonardo Olivieri. The reliquary bust of S. Giuliani dates from the late 17th century.

                The 15th century church of S. Lucia has an altarpiece by Pietrafesa depicting the Madonna and Child between Saints John and Charles, and the Holy Trinity amid angels and Saints Peter and Paul. There is also a 1653 wall hanging showing the Dead Christ. On the left altar is a 16th century sculpture of the Madonna with Child. Nearby is another painting by Pietrafesa of the Trinity and the Incarnation of the Virgin.

                The chapel of S. Maria includes a fine portal from 1526. The interior is decorated with a series of frescoes by Giovanni Todisco (1555) depicting scenes from the life of Jesus and of the Virgin and Prophets. A 1558 painting of the Resurrection by a student of Todisco decorates the right nave that houses the tombs of the Greco family. The church also contains a 15th century wooden crucifix, housed in a niche decorated with contemporary frescoes og the Sorrowing Mary, St. Mary Magdalene, and St. John the Evangelist. The main altar is decorated with a polytyptic of the enthroned Madonna of the Rosary, thought to to be the work of Michele Monchelli.

                The 13th century church of S. Domenico includes a semicircular apse and an interesting Gothic window.

                There are remains of a much-ruined medieval castle.

                The Palazzo Fittipaldi, constructed in the early 19th century, has a neo-classical interior.

Culture: The feast day of the town’s patron, S. Donato, is celebrated between August 5 and 8. The celebration includes processions and the lighting of bonfires. Musical performances take place in the evenings.

                The festival of S. Antonio takes place on June 12 and 13, and includes bonfires and a horserace.

                The festival of S. Rocco is celbrated on August 16.

Anzi, Fiumara d’: A river (length: 22 km) in the province of Potenza, Basilicata. It is formed from two sources: 1. the Torrente Marsiano which rises on the Tampa d’Albano (1,628 m), length: 8 km. and 2. Torrente Fiumicello, which rises on Monte Arioso (1,713 m), length: 7 km. These two streams unite near the station of Abiola Calvano.

                The Anzi flows into the river la Terra, near Masseria Pavese, to form the Torrente Camastra (length: 7 km). During its course, the Anzi receives the waters of the Fiumarella.

Apellun: an ancient Oscan deity, identified with the Greco-Roman god Apollo. Archaeological evidence shows that the Oscan population of Pompeii worshipped him. He also had followers among the Campanian mercenaries (Mamertini) who settled Messans in Sicily.

Apennines (anc. Mons Apenninus; It. Apennino): The principal mountain range of Italy, running for a length of about 700 miles down the spine of the Italian peninsula, and continuing across the strait of Messina into Sicily. It is separated at their NW end from the Maritime Alps by the Pass of Altore. In its northern section, the mountains are relatively low, reaching elevations of c900-c1200 meters. The central Apennines have significantly higher elevations, reaching there highest point in the Gran Sasso d’Italia (M. Corno/Corno Grande: 2,914 m), in Abruzzo). Further south in Basilicata, elevations fall again, but the mountains dominate SW Italy.

                The character of the Apennines also changes significantly from north to south. In the northern and central sections of the range, limestone dominates. In the Sila mountains, which comprises the southern tip of the Apennines, the rocks are mainly granite. Many of southern Italy’s most notable mountains, like Albano, Vesuvius, and Vulture, are volcanic in nature and, thus, independent of the Apennines.

Aph: Etruscan goddess of fertility.

Aphrodite: The Greek goddess of love and beauty, she was often identified with the Roman Venus, and the Phoenician-Carthaginian Ashtaroth. According to mythology, she was created in the froth of the surf on the shore of Cyprus, and her name may derive from the Greek word for “froth.” She was a popular deity in ancient Sicily in all three of these manifestations. Her principal shrine on the island was on Mount Eryx in W Sicily. This shrine was one of the most important in the ancient world and was too sacred for even the ruthless Roman governor Verres to dare to plunder. An offshoot of the cult of this shrine was located at Rome itself, at the temple of Venus Erycina.

Apice: (BN): A commune (area: 48.83 km²; alt. 255 m – at the communal seat of Apice Vecchio) in the province of Benevento. Located 18 km E of Benevento, it is situated on a hill along the right bank of the river Calore. Population: 5,707 (2007e); 5,700 (2006e); 5,687 (2001); 5,683 (1991); 6,626 (1961).

History: The commune was struck by the great earthquake of 1980.

Aplu: Etruscan god of thunder and lightning. He had several characteristics borrowed from the Greek god Apollo.

apoikia (pl. apoikiai): a term used for an ancient Greek colony or settlement. Many modern southern Italian cities and towns had their origins as ancient Greek apoikiai.

Apol…: a celator who produced coins at ancient Metapontum in pre-Roman times. His coins bear a signature of AIIOΛ.

Apollo: The Greek god of healing, oracles & prophecies, hunting, music and poetry. He was the son of Zeus and Leto (or Latona) and the twin brother of Artemis. He was one of the earliest Greek deities to be worshipped in Greek Sicily. The earliest center of his worship was at Naxos, the first Greek colony to be established on Sicily. Here, as Apollo Archagetas, his worship expanded to Catana and Leontini. Apollo was also favorite deity at Megara Hyblaea and Selinus, where he was worshipped as a patron of the fountains and wells. Further cult centers were established at Gela, Akragas, and Syracuse.

                Worship of Apollo reached Rome in the latter part of the 5th century BC. The first temple in Rome to be dedicated to that god dates to 433 BC. Apollo was a particular favorite of Augustus, the first Roman Emperor, who erected the temple of Apollo Palatinus, on the Palatine hill. During Roman times, Apollo was worshipped under a variety of other epithets including: Apollo Articenens (Apollo who carries the bow), Apollo Averruncus (Apollo who turns away evil), Apollo Coelispex, (Apollo who watches the heavens), Apollo Culicarius (Apollo who drives away midges).

Syracuse: The 6th century BC temple of Apollo built on the island of Ortygia at Syracuse, was the earliest known peripteral Doric temple ever built. By Cicero’s time, in the mid-1st century BC, it appears that the structure had been rededicated to Artemis. Under the Byzantines, the structure was converted into a church and, under the Saracens became a mosque. Upon the Norman conquest of Sicily, it was reconverted into a church.

Cumae: According to tradition, Daedalus constructed a temple dedicated to Apollo at Cumae.

Apollo Archagetas (>or Archegatos): The earliest Greek deity to be worshipped in Sicily. A temple was dedicated to him at Naxos, the first Greek colony to be founded in Sicily. It was a common practice for sailors preparing to depart for Greece to make a sacrifice here in hope of a safe passage. Although the site of the original temple has been lost, its cella was transferred by the Naxians to Tauromenium when they migrated there. It eventually became part of the church of S. Pancrazio of Taormina.

Apollo Belvedere: A famous ancient Greek statue of Apollo now located in the Vatican. It is mentioned here because of the belief of some scholars that it originally stood at the base of the Nymphaeum at Syracuse.

Apollocrates: (fl. 2nd half of the 4th century BC). Eldest son of the tyrant Dionysius II of Syracuse. In 356 BC, he held the citadel of Ortygia for his father, but was eventually forced to surrender to Dion. Exiled from Syracuse, he returned to that city with Dionysius in 346 BC.

Apollodorus of Gela: (b. Gela, Sicily; fl. c320 BC). Greek comic poet. A contemporary of Menander, he contributed to the New Comedy. None of his works have survived.

Apollonia (mod. Pollina or S. Fratello) (ME): Originally a Sikel town located on the N coast of Sicily, its site has not been excavated. It was situated between the ancient towns of Haltontion and Kalakta, and had little role in history. In the middle of the 4th century BC, Leptines, tyrant of Engyon, controlled it. In 342 BC, it was freed by Timoleon after he had defeated and exiled Leptines (Diod. 16: 72). Agathocles sacked the town in 307 BC. Cicero (Verr. 3.43.103) described it as a civitas decumana. He also states that the town provided a ship to Pompey in his campaign against the pirates.

                Ancient Apollonia was located on a rocky plateau on the summit of M. Vecchio, part of the central Nebrodi mountains. It oversees a large stretch of the coast from Kephaloidion to Agathyrnon. Its ruins are visible on the mountain peak.

                The fortification walls survive along the S and W sides and show construction with isodomc masonry of local marble. On the E side of the plateau are the remains of at least two buildings of the same construction, located to the W and NE of the 12th century Norman church of the Three Saints. On the summit of the mountain is a possible cistern cut into the rock. Nearby is an altar and a portion of a stairway which rises from the E.

Apollonius: (b. Athens; fl. 1st century BC). A Greek sculptor who worked for a time in Magna Graecia. Among his works was the bronze Hermes discovered at the Villa of the Papyri in Herculaneum. The statue is now displayed in the National Museum at Naples.

Apollosa (BN): A commune (area: 21 km²; alt. 430 m) in the province of Benevento. Located 14 km SW of Benevento, it is situated to the left of the torrent Corvo, a tributary of the river Calore. Population: 2,739 (2007e); 2,733 (2006e); 2,797 (2001); 2,563 (1991).

Appello, Torrente (PE): A torrential stream (length: 12 km) in Abruzzo. It rises in the Boshi Sant’Onofrio on the Coste Pentelle. It flows into the Sangro in the Piani di Piazzano near Piccianello (PE).

Appian Way (Lat. Via Appia): The most famous of the Roman roads, is was built in 312 B.C. under the direction of Appius Claudius Caecus. It connected Rome with Capua and was later extended to Beneventum (now Benevento), Tarentum (Taranto), and, finally, Brundisium (Brindisi) (244 BC). It was the chief highway to Greece and the East. Its total length was more than 350 mi (563 km). The substantial construction of cemented stone blocks has preserved it to the present. Branch roads led to Neapolis (Naples), Barium (Bari), and other ports. On the first stretch of road out of Rome are interesting tombs and the Church of St. Sebastian with its catacombs. In 1784, Pope Pius VI built the new Appian Way from Rome to Albano, with a route paralleling with the ancient road. The width of the road averages about 20 feet.

Appignanesi, Ennio: (b. June 8, 1925, Belforte del Chienti, in Marche). Ecclesiastic. Ordained a priest in 1950, he was appointed bishop of Castellaneta (TA) in 1983. In 1988 he became archbishop of Matera-Irsina. In 1993, he was transferred to the archdiocese of Potenza-Muro Lucano-Marsico Nuovo, remaining there until his retirement in 2001.

Appius Claudius Caecus:  a powerful political figure in the Roman Republic, Appius Claudius left behind two major monuments to his political career: the Aqua Appia (Rome’s first major aqueduct) and the Via Appia (the most significant road through south Italy and the most famous of all Roman roads). Appius served as censor in 312 BCE, twice consul in 307 and 297, and praetor in 295. He worked to include poorer people in the different tribes of Rome to increase their influence in the tribal assembly, although this work was repealed in 304 BCE. Despite his attempts to expand plebian political power, Appius remained a traditionalist in religion, strongly opposing the entry of plebeians to two major priesthoods.

Aprèa, Giuseppe: (b. 1876 or 1879, Naples; d. 1946). Painter. Trained by F. Palizzi and D. Morelli, he was one of the artists who decorated the Petruzzelli Theater in Bari. During his career he painted several portraits and religious works. Examples of the latter can be found in several churches in Naples, Ravello, Avellino, and other cities. He taught at the Academy of Naples from 1908 to 1927.

Apricena (FG): A commune (area: 171.45 km²; alt. 73 m) in the province of Foggia. Located 42 km N of Foggia, it is situated in the northern part of the Tavoliere, near the base of the Gargano promontory. Population: 13,627 (2006e); 13,664 (1991); 8,226 (1911). The communal territory contains pastureland, cultivated fields and vineyards. Among the principal products are macaroni, cheese, and fireworks.

History: The center developed around a fortified hunting lodge built for Frederick II. It served as his royal residence from 1221 to 1226. In 1230, the community was granted special privileges, but upon the seizure of the kingdom by the Angevins, the center was reduced to the status of a feudal fief. It passed through the hands of several noble families including the Gonzaga. An earthquake in 1627 destroyed much of the old town, and the remaining part of the center was incorporated into the community of Palazzo in 1658.

                Major earthquakes were felt here in 1627, 1805, 1851, 1910, 1948, 1980, and 1984.

Aprigliano> (anc. Aprilianum)(CS): A commune (area: 121.27 km²; alt. 718 m) in the province of Cosenza. Located 16 km SE of Cosenza, it is situated to the right of the river Craticello, a tributary of the Crati. Population: 2,830 (2006e). The commune is mostly agricultural, large areas of which are devoted to fruit orchards and vineyards.

History: During medieval times a center called Aprilianum existed here.

                The town’s most famous native was the poet Domenico Piro.

Points of Interest: Near the center is the hermitage of S. Martino. Inspired by 11th century French monastic architecture, it has a single nave, a wide transept, and three semicircular apses. Tradition states that Abbot Gioacchino da Fiore (Joachim of Fiore) died here in 1202.

Culture: The festival of Santa Maria Assunta is celebrated on August 15 in the frazione of Vico.

The festival of San Rocco is celebrated on August 16 in the frazione of Grupa.

                The festrival of the Madonna di Porto Salvo occurs on the second Sunday of September in the frazione of San Stefano.

                The festival of the Madonna di Loreto is celebrated on the third Sunday of September in the frazione of Guarno.

                The festival of San Leonardo is celebrated on November 6, in the frazione of Corte.

Aprile, Giuseppe: (b. Oct. 28,1732, at Martina Franca [TA]; d. Jan. 11, 1813, Martina Franca). Castrato soprano and composer. Having received training in Naples from Gregorio Sciroli, he debuted as an operatic singer in Rome in 1752. From 1752 to 1756, he was a member of the Royal chapel in Naples. After this he toured throughout Italy and much of the rest of Europe. From 1763 to 1769 he was employed at the court in Wurtemberg. In 1770 he returned to Italy and performed that year in Naples, Bologna, and Milan. After a successful career of performing throughout Italy he settled at Naples where he became a teacher. As a composer he wrote several pieces of vocal chamber music.

Aprodita: A Messapic deity equivalent to the Greek goddess Aphrodite.

Aprustum (Abrystum) (poss. mod. Marcellina di Verbicaro [CS]). An ancient settlement in Lucania, it was located to the NW of Greek Thurii. Believed to have originally belonged to the pre-Sabellic Oenotri, it became a Bruttian settlement.. The name may derive from the Indo-European root *abhro- (=strong, mighty) which indicates that it might have been a well-fortified settlement. Another theory is that the name is related to Latin aper (aper) (=wild boar).

Aprutium: A name used during the 8th century for modern Abruzzo.

Apscipo, River: A torrential stream in the province of Reggio di Calabria. It rises on the slopes of M. Montalto (M. Cocuzzo) in the Aspromonte. It flows SE and E for 42 km emptying into the Ionian Sea to the N of Capo Bruzzano. In its lower course it is called the La Verde.

apse (It. abside): The usually rounded (although sometimes polygonal or square) eastern end characteristic of medieval Sicilian churches; the recess as the end of the chancel. It usually contains an altar. Originally, the apse formed a section of a pagan temple where the statue of a deity would stand. They were also used in ancient baths and basilicas.

This structure is also called an apsis, a Late Latin term deriving from the Greek hapsis, which, in turn, comes from the verb haptein (= “to fasten”).

Apuli: An ancient people of SE Italy, they were the descendants of the Osci. They joined the Dauni in the settlement of ancient Apulia.

Apulia, Ancient: A region in southern Italy which, in its broadest sense, was roughly equivalent to the modern region of Puglia. It extended along the eastern coast of the “heel” of the Italian peninsula, to the SE of the territory of the Frentani. Roman Apulia, which encompassed an area of about 6,800 square miles, occupied the entire SE of the peninsula to the east of Lucania and Samnium. It was heavily cultivated with vineyards, and received mention by such writers as Strabo, Tibullus, Horace, and Pliny the Elder.

Apulia (mod. Puglia): A region (area: 7,380 mi²; Population: 1,949,423 [1901]) which encompasses the “heel” of the Italian boot. The name is commonly used for the Italian region of Puglia. It stretches along the Adriatic from the river Fortore (W of the Gargano Peninsula) to the extreme SE tip of the peninsula (Capo Santa Maria di Leuca). Most of the N portion of the region is a flat plain, excepting the Gargano massif which rises to an elevation of 5,120 feet. Southern Apulia, between the Gulf of Taranto and the Adriatic, is largely a low, arid, limestone plateau.

                The economy of the region varies from north to south. The north has traditionally been dedicated to winter grazing of merino sheep, while marble quarrying was also centered in the Gargano. Southern Apulia had a far richer soil and was better for agricultural pursuits. Among the products are wheat, barley, maize, beans, lentils, peas, olive oil, wine, fruit (figs, oranges, lemons, olives), flax, and tobacco. Other industries include pasta-making, salt mining and silk production.

                The principal cities of the region are Barletta, Bari, Monopoli, Brindisi, Andria, Bitonto, Putignano, Lecce, Taranto, and Gallipoli.

                Also see PUGLIA.

Apulia & Calabria, Rulers of (AD 11th-12th centuries):

Counts (1043-1059), Dukes (1059-1127)

  • William I “Iron-Arm” 1043-1049
  • Drogo 1049-1051
  • Humphrey 1051-1057
  • Robert Guiscard 1057-1085
  • Roger Borsa 1085-1111
  • William II 1111-1127

Apulia et Calabria> (Regio II): one of the eight provinces of Italy created by the Roman Emperor Augustus in the late 1st Century AD. It encompassed the area of what is now the region of Puglia. The province was governed by a praesides or corrector.

Apulian-Messapian (It. Apulo-messapica): an Iron Age culture centered in the southernmost tip of the “heel” of Italy. Reaching its height during the 8th century BC, it was noted for its varieties of painted geometric ceramics. It consisted of several groups: pre-Greek Taras, Daunians, Peucetians, and the Messapians.

apuliense: A silver coin, equivalent to a soldo of the Norman Kingdom of Sicily during the reign of William II (1166-89).

Apulo, Gian Pietra: (fl. 15th century). Jurist. In 1497, he published one of the first collections of laws in the Kingdom of Italy.

Aqua Tofana (Aqua della Tofana, Acqua Toffana, Aqua Tufania and “Manna di San Nicola”): A poisonous liquid invented in the mid-17th century. Its name derives from that of its creator, a woman from Palermo known as Tofana. Moving from her native city to Naples, she became one of the notorious members of a society called the Secret Poisoners. This poison was so toxic that a dose of only 4 to 6 drops would be enough to kill and adult and was virtually undetectable in such a small dose. After Tofara’s arrest it was found that her poison based on arsenic.

                The poison became famous when an unproven rumor circulated that Mozart had died of the elixir.

Aquae Angae: Ancient baths in Bruttii, located to the NW of Lametus.

Aquae Cumanae: Ancient baths located in the Campania city of Cumae.

Aquae Labanae: Ancient baths located in Sabinium, near Nomentum.

Aquae Labodes: Ancient baths located in western Sicily. It also was known as Thermae Selenuritiae.

Aquae Teanae: Ancient baths located near Teanum (mod. Teano (CE)) in Campania. It corresponds to modern Acqua delle Caldarella

Aquara (SA): A commune (area: 32.5 km²; alt. 500m) in the province of Salerno. Located 72 km SE of Salerno, it is situated in the Cilento, near the S slope of Monte Alburno, on a height to the left of the Calore. Population: 1,705 (2007e); 1,958 (1991).

History: A major earthquake was felt here in 1910.

Points of Interest: The town has an interesting historical center.

                The Benedictine convent (c1400) was the home of the Neoplatonist Father Ivone.

                The principal churches are dedicated to S. Nicola di Bari, S. Rocco, Madonna del Piano, and Del Carmine.

Culture: The principal events are the feasts of S. Lucido (July 28), S. Rocco (Aug. 18-19), and the Madonna del Piano (Sept. 12).

Aquario (Lat. Aquarius), Mattia (dei Gibboni): (b. Aquara (SA); d. 1591, Naples). Dominican theologian. A leading supporter of Thomism, he taught at Turin, Naples, and Rome before settling permanently at Naples.

Aquaviva (or Acquaviva), Claudio (Claudius): (b. 1543, Naples; d. 1615). Jesuit. The son of the Duke of Atri, he joined the Jesuit Order, rising through its ranks to become their 5th General (1581-1615). He is best known as the author of Ratio Studiorum (Plan or Method of Studies) (pub. 1586).

aqueduct: The most famous aqueducts of the ancient world were those constructed by the Romans. Using their incredible skills as engineers they were able to effectively move great quantities of fresh water over distances of nearly 58 miles. Valleys and ravines were spanned with multi-tiered arched bridges and hills and ridges were pierced with tunnels. Some of these aqueducts were so well constructed that sections are still used today. This skill allowed for Roman cities to grow to sizes never before attained. Rome itself, at its height, had about 420 km (c260 miles) of aqueducts which supplied the population with about 1,000,000 cubic meters (300 million gallons) of water per day.    Ancient Sicily had many aqueducts but few of the Roman style. Remains of fine Greek aqueducts can still be seen in the ancient remains at Siracusa, Termini, and Agrigento.

Aquila, L’: See L’Aquila.

Aquila, Pietro: (b. Palermo; d. 1692, Alcamo (TP)). Engraver and painter. Having spent his young adulthood as a priest, he left the clergy and turned his attention to art. His paintings can be seen at Palermo in the churches of the Pieta, Vergini, and S. Cita. Traveling to Rome, he earned a reputation as an excellent engraver. His works are displayed in many locations in Rome including the Farnese Gallery. These engravings are based on the works of Annibale Carracci, Ciro Ferri, Pietro da Cortona, and Raphael. Aquila was the brother of Francesco Faraone.

Aquila, Dell’: An important family from Benevento. Of Norman origins, they had attained a high status by c1090, deriving great wealth from several fiefs awarded to them by the Swabian rulers of the Regno. Among their titles was that of Count of Fondi. One member of the family, Loffredo Caetani, married into the Angevin royal family in 1327.

Aquila (sometimes Aquilano), Serafino dell’: (b. 1466, L’Aquila; d. 1500, Rome). Poet. The writer of several sonnets, epistles, and capitoli, he was patronized by King Ferdinand II of Naples and Cesare Borgia. His work was much admired during his lifetime.

Aquila (sometimes Dell’Acquila), Silvestro dell’: (b. 1450, L’Aquila. d. 1504). Sculptor. Principal Works: S. Sebastiano (Church of S. Maria del Soccorso, L’Aquila) [wood]: 2nd half of the 15th century. Marble Monument of Maria Pereira and Beatrice Camponeschi (Church of S. Bernardino, L’Aquila): 1490-1500.

Aquilano, l’ (AQ): A ridge of the middle valley of the river Aterno, running between the mountains of Amiternino, the Gran Sasso, the high plain of Barisciano, and the mountain chain of Ocre. The l’Aquilano consists of two principal bands averaging about 700 meters in elevation. Running between these bands is the gently-sloped valley of the river Aterno, with alttudes averaging from 580 to 670 meters. The ridge is almost entirely in the communal territory of L’Aquila, from which it derives its name.

Aquilano (sometimes dell’Aquila), Pompeo: (b. Abruzzo; fl. c1580). Fresco painter.

Aquillius, Manius: (fl. late 2nd / early 1st centuries BC). Roman magistrate and general. He served as Consul in 101 BC. In suppressing the rebel slaves in Sicily during the Second Servile War, he fought in the thick of battle and was wounded several times. In 98 BC, he was put on trial for corruption but was acquitted thanks to the defense he received from Marcus Antonius. In 88 BC, he was sent as proconsular legate to Asia, where he was captured by Mithdradates, who executed him by having molten gold poured down his throat.

Aquilo: A town in ancient Daunia-Apulia, situated on the Via Egnatina, between Equus Tuticus and Aecae.

Aquilone (Aquilo): A term for the North Wind. It was also used to generally refer to the North.

Aquilonia, Ancient (1): A town of the ancient Hirpini, corresponding to modern Lacedonia (AV). It was located on the Via Appia, between Sub Romula and Pons Aufidi.

Aquilonia, Ancient (2): A town of the ancient Pentri, in Samnium. Located near the border with Latium, to the NW of Bovianum, it corresponds to modern Agnone (IS) in Molise.

Aquilonia (AV): A commune (area: 55.62 km²; alt. 750 m) in the province of Avellino. Located 92 km ENE of Avellino, it is situated to the left of the river Vulture, near the borders with the regions of Puglia (province of Foggia) and Basilicata (province of Potenza). Population: 1,963 (2007e); 1,978 (2006e); 2,117 (2001); 2,469 (1991).

>History>: The original center was located at the now deserted site of Aquilonia Vecchio, located about 2 km NE of the modern center. The earlier town had been called Carbonara prior to 1862.

>                Aquilonia Vecchia suffered major damage from earthquakes in 1910, 1915, and 1930. The modern center was heaviely damaged by the great earthquake of 1980.

Aquinas, St. Thomas: See THOMAS OF AQUINAS, ST.

Aquino (FR) (anc. Aquinum): A town and commune now part the province of Frosinone, in southern Lazio. Prior to the 1920s it was politically part of the region of Campania and within the borders of the former kingdom of the Two Sicilies. Ancient Aquinum was a large prosperous Roman colony situated on the Via Latina. Among the famous natives it produced were the Roman satirist, Juvenal, and Pescennius Niger, one of the rivals who battled over the Roman throne after the death of Pertinax.

                During the years following the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Aquinum suffered greatly from the barbarian invasions. Later, it was caught in the middle of wars between the Papal Guelfs and the Imperial Ghibellines. By the time order was restored, the once prosperous city was reduced to a mere village with a population of only a few hundred. Despite this calamity, the place still retained its status as a bishop’s see and was the seat of a county. The family which held the title of Count of Aquino produced St. Thomas Aquino, one of the great Doctors of the Catholic Church.

Aquino, Carlo d’: (b. 1654, Naples; d. 1737, Rome). Jesuit writer. He became professor of rhetoric at the Jesuit College of Rome, where he became celebrated as the author of several Latin and Italian works. Among these were the Latin poems Carmina (1701-03) and Lexicon Militare (1724). His best-known work was a Latin verse translation of Dante’s “Divine Comedy.”

Aquino, Iacopo d’: (b. Sicily; fl. 2nd half of the 13th century). Poet and soldier. A member of the Sicilian School of poetry, he is known to have fought under Manfred at the battle of Benevento (Feb. 26, 1266). Only one of his poems survives.

Aquino, Ladislao d’: (b. c1546, Naples; d. 1631, Rome). Ecclesiastic and magistrate. A kinsman of the Counts of Aquino, he chose a religious career. In 1588 he became bishop of Venafro. From 1606 to 1613, he served as apostolic nuncio in Switerland, and, in 1616, was created a cardinal. After the death of Pope Paul V, he was considered as a possible successor but died before the conclave was concluded.

Aquino, Tommaso d’: (fl. 1st half of the 13th century). Nobleman. As Count of Acerra, he was a vassal of Emperor Frederick II. Marrying Frederick’s daughter Constance, he was also awarded with the counties of Celano and Noiano. In 1228, he accompanied Frederick in his crusade to recover Jerusalem.

Arabia, Francesco Saverio: (b. 1821, Dipignano (CS); d. 1899, Naples). Magistrate and scholar. As a youth, he participated actively in the Risorgimento movement. He later became a professor of penal law and, in 1861, became a magistrate. In 1892, he was elected to the Senate.

Aradeo (LE): A commune (area: 8.51 km²; alt. 75 m) in the province of Lecce. Located 31 km SSW of Lecce, it is situated in the Salentine Murge, to the Canale Raschione. Population: 9,779 (2006e); 9,688 (1991). The commune is agricultural, producing wine and olive oil.

History: The great earthquake of 1980 was felt here.

Aragno (AQ): A former autonomous commune it is now a frazione of the commune of L’Aquila. It is located 25 km from L’Aquila.

History: In 1532, Aragno was given as a fief to Captain Cesare Ercolani. In 1703, it suffered extensive damage from an earthquake.

Points of Interest: The principal religious monuments are the church of Santa Maria Maddalena (rebuilt in the 18th century), the church of Santa Barbara, and the chapel of Madonnella.

Aragon: A former kingdom and province comprising much of the E portion of Spain. Prior to its unification with Castile into the Kingdom of Spain, in the latter part of the 15th century, Aragon was one of the most powerful kingdoms of Europe, having an empire in the western and central Mediterranean which included the Balearic Islands, Sardinia, and, at various times, one or both of the kingdoms of Naples and Sicily. It lost much of its power as France expanded its influence into the Mediterranean.

                Aragon proper was bounded on the E by Catalonia, on the S and W by Castile, and on the NW by Navarre.

Aragona >(AG): A commune (area: 74.43 km². Alt. 482 m) in the province of Agrigento. Located 17 km NNE of Agrigento, it is situated in a hilly area on the eastern slope of Monte S. Marco, between the rivers Platani and Salso. Population: 9,730 (2007e); 9,840 (2006e); 10,065 (2001); 10,416 (1991); 12,689 (1961). The economy is based on the cultivation of almonds, olives, wheat, grapes, vegetables and pistachio. Sulfur mining is also important. Parts of the commune are also devoted to livestock breeding (cattle, sheep).

History: Built in 1605/6 by Count Baldassare Naselli of Comiso, who named it for his mother Beatrice d’Aragona Branciforti, its best-known monument is the great palace built there by its feudal princes. In 1615, Luigi Naselli received the title of Prince of Aragona by the Spanish king Philip IV.

                Major earthquakes were felt here in 1905 and 1968.

Points of Interest: The earliest of the town’s buildings date from the 17th century.

                The church of Mercede dates from 1623.

                The church of the Carmine is an 18th century structure.

                The 17th century Chiesa Madre houses an interesting 18th century crèche (presepio) scene with life-size statues.

                The Baroque 18th century church of the Purgatorio is best known for the magnificent staircase leading to its entrance.

Near the town are the Vulcanelli di Macalube (from the Arabic maqlub = upsetting), a group of small (averaging 0.5 to 1 meter in height), conical, mud-volcanoes. These continuously bubbling white-mud spouts release hot mud and discharges of methane gas and carbonic anhydride. Highly flammable, the gas often ignites spectacularly. The nearby Majaruca Spring is notable for the curative properties of its waters.

Culture: The festival of the patron saint, San Calogero, is celebrated on the 2nd Sunday in August.

Aragona, Ferdinando D’: (fl c1600). Navigator. An Italian pirate who operated in the Mediterranean preying on Venetian ships.

Araia (Ajaia), Francesco: (b. June 25, 1709, Naples; d. 1770, Bologna). Composer and musician. Beginning his career in 1730 in Florence, he soon moved Russia, establishing himself at St. Petersburg. In 1735, he became maestro di cappella and director of a new company of Italian opera. He wrote several operas, the best-known being Cephalus and Procris (1755). In 1759 he returned to Italy and remained at Bologna for the remainder of his life.

Arangio-Ruiz, Gaetano: (b. 1857, Augusta (SR); d. 1936, Turin). Jurist. He held professorships of constitutional law at the Universities of Macerata, Modena, and Turin, and was the author of several works on law. His sons were the jurist Vincenzo Arangio-Ruiz and the philosopher Vladimiro Arangio-Ruiz.

Arangio-Ruiz, Vincenzo: (b. 1884, Naples). Jurist. He was the son of Gaetano Arangio-Ruiz and brother of Vladimiro Arangio-Ruiz. During his career he held professorships of Roman law at the Universities of Camerino, Perugia, Cagliari, Messina, Modena, Naples, and Rome. In 1932, he was a visiting scholar at the University of Egypt at Cairo. He was a member of the Committee for National Liberation in Naples in 1943, and served as Minister of Pardons and Justice and of Public Instruction in 1944-45. In 1952, he was President of the Accademia dei Lincei. He was the author of several works on Roman Law.

Arangio-Ruiz, Vladimiro: (b. 1888, Naples; d. 1952, Florence). Philosopher. He was the son of Gaetano Arangio-Ruiz and brother of Vincenzo Arangio-Ruiz. He began his academic career as a professor at the Scuola Normale Superiore at Pisa, later teaching at the University of Florence. He wrote several works advocating the philosophy of Absolute Moralism.

Arbëresh: An ethnic term for the Albanian/Greek mercenaries and refugees who settled in southern Italy and Sicily during the 15th and 16th centuries, and for their descendants. The origins of the Arbëresh immigration can be found in the wars between the Angevins and Aragonese for control of the Kingdom of Naples. In 1448, the Aragonese king of Naples, Alfonso I, found himself facing a widespread revolt of pro-Angevin barons. Unable to stem the revolt on his own he turned for help to his ally, George Castriota (Alb. Gjergj Kastrioti i Krujës) (aka Skanderbeg), military commander of the Albanian Alliance. Castriota dispatched a large mercenary force (with their families) to Italy under the command of General Demetrios Reres. The arrival of the Albanians enabled Alfonso to crush the revolt and he rewarded Reres with the governorship of Calabria. The Albanians were given title to 12 Calabrian towns in which to settle: Amato, Andali, Arietta, Caraffa d’Catanzaro, Carfizzi, Gizzeria, Marcedusa, Pallagorio, S. Nicola dell’Alto, Vena, Zagarise, and Zangarona (all in the provinces of Catanzaro and Crotone).

                Another group of Albanians arrived in the Regno in 1450. Led by Demetrios Reres’ sons, Giorgio and Basilio, these mercenaries and their families were dispatched to the island of Sicily to impose King Alfonso’s authority there. They were settled in three military camps in what is now the province of Palermo, which grew into the towns of Contessa Entellina, Mezzojuso, and Palazzo Adriano.

                In 1458, Alfonso’s son and successor, Ferdinand (Ferrante) I faced his own baronial revolt, this one supported by an invading French army. Like his father, he turned to Castriota for help in this crisis. It was not until 1461 that a new mercenary army could be dispatched.This time Skanderbeg personally led a force of 5,000 Albanian soldiers across the Adriatic to Brindisi. From there he quickly marched to Barletta where Ferdinand was under siege. After successfully rescuing the king, Castriota was given supreme command over the royal army. On August 18, 1462, Castriota won a major victory and crushed the baronial revolt. For his services he was rewarded with title to large tracts of land in Apulia near S. Giovanni Rotondo (FG). Several centers came under his control including Troia (FG).

                In 1467, Castriota was called back to Albania to face the threat of an attack by the Ottoman Turks. The soldiers and families who had come with him, however, remained in Italy in the support of the Aragonese rulers. Ferdinand allowed them to settle in Apulia on lands to the east of Taranto. Arbëresh immigrants settled in ten towns, all in the province of Taranto: Carosino, Faggino, Fragagnano, Monteiasi, Monteneosola, Roccaforzata, S. Crispini, S. Giorgio Ionico and S. Marzano.

                Castriota died in Albania from malaria in 1468. Without its leader, the Albanian Alliance collapsed under Turkish pressure. A new wave of Albanians now arrived in Italy, this time not mercenaries but refugees. Among their numbers were Castiota’s wife and daughter, who found sanctuary at the royal court in Naples. This daughter later married into the Neapolitan nobility, becoming Princess Bisagnato. Skanderbeg’s son, John Castriota, who had married into the Palaeologi, the now-deposed Byzantine imperial family, also settled in the Regno. He was given a dukedom which he used as a base to organize underground resistence against the Turks in Albania.

                As the Turks occupied Albania, they seized several port cities previously under Venetian control. This brought still more Albanian refugees to southern Italy who settled in Apulia, Molise, Calabria, and Sicily.

                The last wave of Arbëresh immigration occurred between c1500 and 1534. Unlike the previous waves, however, these refugees came from southern and western Greece rather than Albania. They were mostly Greek soldiers and their familes who were forced to flee from the Turkish advance into their lands. The majority were members of the Stradiotti, a force of colonial light cavalry stationed in the Venetian strongholds of the Morea. As these strongholds were overcome, these troops and their dependents back further. Finally, at the beginning of the 16th century, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V recruited new Greek and Albanian mercenaries from the area. When the Stradiotti eagerly joined the Imperial service, Charles sent 200 shiploads of them to southern Italy to reinforce the defenses there against a potential Turkish attack. The common soldiers of this force were mostly Albanians while the officers and other commanders were Greeks. Others whole accompanied this force were members of Greek Byzantine noble families and even those belonging Imperial houses. Many of these noble refugees married into the southern Italian nobility. Another faction of this group of immigrants were Greek merchants, who brought their families and possessions with them. As a general rule, the Greek elements of this immigration resettled in southern Italy’s larger cities and towns. The Albanians, on the other hand, preferred to make their new homes in the small centers that had been previously given to earlier Albanian immigrants.

                The Arbëresh continued to be utilized for military purposes, continuing to provide recruits to the Neapolitan army until the end of the Regno in 1860. The modern Arbëresh number between 200,000 and 800,000, depending on the source. The majority of them live in the same villages originally settled by their ancestors. They speak an archaic dialect of Albanian known as Tosca, which includes many borrowed Italian and Greek words. The dialect is divided into four sub-dialects: Sicili

Albanian-Arbëresh Communities in Southern Italy

ABRUZZO:

Pescara Province: Villa Badessa (Badhesa) (fraz. of Rosciano).

BASILICATA:

Potenza Province: Barile (Barilli/Barili); Ginestra (Xhinestra/Zhura); Maschito (Mashqiti/Mashkjiti);

Ripacandida; San Costantino Albanese (Shën Kostandini); San Paolo Albanese (Shën Pali).

CALABRIA:

Catanzaro Province: Amato; Andali (Andalli/Dandalli); Arietta; Caraffa di Catanzaro (Garafa/Garrafa);

Gizzeria; Marceduca (Marçidhuza); Vena di Maida (Vina)(fraz. of Maida); Zagarise; Zangarona (Xingarona)(fraz. of Lamezia Terme).

Cosenza Province: Acquaformosa (Firmoza); Cantinella (Kantinela); Cariati (Kariati); Castroregio (Kastërnexhi);

Cavalerizzo (Kajverici/Kejverici) (fraz. of Cerzeto); Cervicati (Çervikati); Cerzeto (Qana); Civita (Çifti); Eianina (Ejanina) (fraz. of Frascineto); Falconara Albanese (Fullkunara); Farneta (Farneta)(fraz. of Castroregio); Firmo (Ferma); Frascineto (Frasnita); Lungro (Ungra/Ungir); Macchia Albanese (Maqi) (fraz. of San Demetrio Corone); Marri (fraz. of Allimarri); Montegrassano (Mungrasana); Plataci (Pllatëni/Pllatani); Rota Greca; San Basile (Shën Vasili); San Benedetto Ullano (Shën Benedhiti); San Cosmo Albanese (Strigari); San Demetrio Corone (Shën Mitri); San Giacomo di Cerzeto (Sënd Japku/Shën Japku) (fraz. of Cerzeto); San Giorgio Albanese (Mbuzati); San Lorenzo del Vallo; San Marco Argentino; San Martino di Finita (Shën Mërtiri/Shën Murtiri); Santa Caterina Albanese (Picilia); Santa Sofia d’Epiro (Shën Sofia); Spezzano Albanese (Spixana); Vaccarizzo Albanese (Vakarici).

Crotone Province: Carfizzi (Karfici); Pallagorio (Puheriu/Puhëriu); San Nicola dell’Alto (Shën Kolli).

CAMPANIA:

Avellino Province: Greci (Katundi).

Benevento Province: Ginestra di Schiavoni.

MOLISE:

Campobasso Province: Campomarino (Këmarini/Kemarini); Montecilfone (Munxhufuni/Munçifuni); Portocannone (Porkanuni/Portkanùn); Ururi (Rùri).

PUGLIA:

Foggia Province: Casalvecchio di Puglia (Kazallveqi); Chieuti (Qefti/Kjéuti).

Taranto Province: San Marzano di San Giuseppe (San Marcani/Shen Marzani).

SICILY:

Agrigento Province: Sant’Angelo Muxaro.

Catania Province: Biancavilla; Bronte; San Michele di Ganzaria

Palermo Province: Contessa Entellina (Kundisa); Mezzojuso (Munxhifsi); Palazzo Adriano (Pallaci); Piana degli Albanesi (Hora e Arbëreshëvet/Hora Sheshi Oána); Santa Cristina Gela (Sëndastina/Shendestina).

Arbërisht: The language spoken by the Arbëresh community in southern Italy.

Arbutus: A tree commonly found in Sicily.

Arcamone, Anello (or Aniello): (fl. late 15th century). Politician. He served as ambassador to the Papal Court for the Aragonese kings of Naples. A close associate of Antonello Petrucci, he participated in the Conspiracy of the Barons against King Ferdinand (Ferrante) I. When the conspiracy was crushed (1486), Arcamone was imprisoned until 1495.

Arcate (or Dirillo), Torrente: A waterway (length: 45 km) of Sicily in the provinces of Catania, Caltanisetta, and Ragusa. It is formed at Case Vascello, near Vizzini (CT), by the union of the Rio Arnerillo and the Rio di Vizzini, and flows into the Medetteranean Sea to the SE of Gela.

Archagathes (1): (fl. late 4th century BC). Syracusan noble. Son of Agathocles, the tyrant of Syracuse, he accompanied his father in the invasion of Carthaginian North Africa in 310 BC. He was the father of Archagathes (2).

Archagathes (2): (d. 289 BC). Syracusan noble. Son of Archagathes (1), he was killed in an unsuccessful attempt to overthrow his uncle, Agathocles the Younger in 289 BC.

Archangelus (or De Archangelo), Ottavio: (b. Catania; fl. 1st half of the 16th century). Poet

Archangelus of Calatafimi, Bl.: (b. Calatafimi (TP); d. 1460). Monk. After living for a time as a hermit, he joined the order of the Observant Franciscans, and spent most of the remainder of his life working to expand his order in Sicily. His cult was confirmed by Pope Gregory XVI in 1836. Feast Day: July 30.

Archbishop: Normally, a bishop holding authority over an archdiocese. In some rare cases, bishops are awarded the title of “archbishop” as a personal honorific. The title derives from the Greek words arch- (= high) and episcopos (= overseer).

Archbishop, Major: An archbishop of a major archdiocese.

Archdiocese: A religious jurisdiction over a specific geographical area. Archdioceses are of higher rank than regular dioceses and most, though not every, are Metropolitans.

Archduke: (It. Arciduca). A title of sovereignty first used in 1359, exclusively reserved for legitimate members of the Austrian Habsburgs and Lorraine-Habsburgs. They ranked above regular Dukes and Grand Dukes.

Archegates>: A title meaning “Founder”, “Guide”, or “Leader”, given to the ancient Greek god Apollo in his sanctuaries and cult centers in eastern Sicily. Thucydides (6.3.1) records that an altar devoted to Apollo Archegates was erected at Naxos at the point where the first Greek colonists came ashore on Sicily (c734 BC) by their leader Theocles. It was a common custom for ancient travelers to offer sacrifices of thanks at this shrine for a safe and successful arrival in Sicily. Apollo Archegates’ role as protector, was note limited to just sea voyages. He appears to have been considered the patron god of Naxos itself.

Archegatis>: A title occasionally given to goddesses in Greek mythology. It was the female equivalent of Archegates, having the same meaning of “Founder”, “Guide”, or “Leader.”

Archeparchy>: The equivalent of an archdiocese in an Eastern Christian Rite. See Eparchy.

Archestratus>: (fl. c350 BC). Poet. He was a native of Greek Sicily, possibly born in Gela. He was best known for his now-lost work entitled Hedupatheia (or Gastronomy) (=Good Cheer), a humorous poem about food and its preparation. Ennius used this work as a source for his Hedyphagetica. Aristotle found Archestratus’s descriptions of animals so accurate that he used his work as an important source for his own History of Animals.

Archi> (CH): A commune (area: 28.18 km²; alt. 462 m) in the province of Chieti.  Located 52 km SSE of Chieti, it is situated on a hill belonging to the watershed between the river Sangro and the torrent Pianello. It is part of the Communitá Montana Valsango. Population: 2,321 (2006e); 2,336 (2001). Population Designation: Archesi. CAP: 66040. Tel. Prefix: 0872. The economy is based principally on agriculture.

History: Major earthquakes were felt here in 1706, 1933, 1979, and 1984.

Archias (1): (b. Corinth; fl. 2nd part of the 8th century BC). Founder, in c733 BC, of the city of Syracuse (Siracusa), on the E coast of Sicily. According to some sources he appears to have belonged to the Bacchiadae, the ruling family of ancient Corinth. In some versions of his story, he was guilty of murder and agreed to lead the new colonists to Sicily as a form of voluntary exile.

Archias (2): (b. Thurii; fl. late 4th century BC). Government official. Originally an actor, he was a victor at the Lernaean Games in 329 BC. He later studied rhetoric under Anaximenes and Lacritus, and was a teacher of Polus of Aegina. Entering the service of Antipater, he served that ruler as an agent for hunting down exiled Athenian politicians. For this he was given the nickname of “exile hunter.” He arrested Hypereides, Aristonicus, and Himetaeus, and forced Demothenes to commit suicide. He later fell into disgrace and died of starvation.

Archias (3): (b. Corinth; fl. c240/200 BC) Greek architect and shipwright. Working from plans created by Archimedes, Archias built the incredible ship, the Syracusia, for Geron II or Hieron II of Syracuse.

Archidamus III: (d. 338 BC). King of Sparta. A member of the Eurypontid royal line, he reigned from 360/359 to 338 BC. In 343 BC, he answered a request for help from Taras (Tarentum) which was seriously threatened by the Italic peoples. Ambitious to carve an empire for himself in southern Italy, Archidamus led a mercenary army against the Lucanians for several years with inconclusive results. He was finally killed in battle against them in 338 BC.

Archimedean Screw (or Archimedean Well): An innovative device believed to have been invented by the famous 3rd century BC scientist, engineer, mathematician Archimedes of Syracuse. The device can still be found in use today to lift water for filling garden cisterns and irrigation in southern Italy and Sicily.

Archimedes: (b. c287 BC in Syracuse; d. 212 BC in Syracuse). Genius and scientist. Considered to be the greatest mathematician in the ancient world, he excelled in the fields of physics, engineering, astronomy, and philosophy. His contributions to science, especially mechanics, were so considerable that they still exert considerable influence today. He went beyond the typical bounds of ancient Greek science, which emphasized pure theory over practical applications, and created an incredible array inventions and adaptations. Some of these, such as an early type of odometer and the “Archimedean Screw” had immediate practical uses and can be reliably credited to him. Others, such as his so-called “death-ray”, a supposed mirror weapon that used solar energy to set enemy ships on fire, are either later fabrications or misinterpretations. A loyal citizen of Syracuse and relative of Hieron II, he was also highly admired by the Romans, for who he carried out projects.

                Many of Archimedes’ inventions were created for the defense of Syracuse against the besieging Romans during the Second Punic War. Among these was a crane capable of grappling onto a war ship and lift it out of the water. It could then be dropped from a height and destroyed. Despite his help, Syracuse finally fell in 212 BC and, as the Romans entered the city, Archimedes was killed despite the orders of the Roman commander, Marcellus, that he should not be harmed.

                Aristotle wrote several scientific/mathematical works, including:

  • On the Equilibrium of Planes, or Centers of Gravity of Planes: The Quadrature of the Parabola.
  • The Equilibrium of Planes.
  • On the Sphere and Cylinder.
  • On Spirals.
  • On Conaids and Spheroids.
  • The Measurement of a Circle.

Although best known for his accomplishments in mathematics and military invention, Archimedes was also an accomplished astronomer. He created a sophisticated planetarium which, after the fall of Syracuse, was brought Rome. It was seen by Cicero (Rep. I.21.22) in the first half of the 1st century BC, and perhaps also by Ovid (Fasti 6.277) a generation later.

Had Archimedes survived the fall of Syracuse, he would undoubtedly have been brought to Rome and treated respectfully. As it was, he received an honorable funeral from Marcellus and his remains were interred in a fine sepulcher in Syracuse. His family was guaranteed its safety and well-being. In 75 BC, while in Sicily, Cicero visited Syracuse and was able to find Archimedes tomb in a much neglected state covered in brambles. He identified the tomb by a still-visible symbol inscribed on it depicting a cylinder circumscribing a sphere with a ratio of 3/2, an emblem which Archimedes had desired to be placed there. Cicero restored the tomb but it was eventually again lost to history. In 1965, archaeologists excavating the ruins of ancient Syracuse discovered what many believe to be Archimedes tomb. This identification, however, remains a topic of controversy.

architrave> (or epistyle): In classical architecture, the lowest of the three parts of an entablature, which signifies the horizontal mass laid across the tops of the columns. Over the architrave is the frieze, and over that, the cornice. The three elements together constitute the entablature. This last term derives from the Latin trabea (= a beam).

archon: in ancient Greece, a high official or ruler. In ancient Athens, authority was divided among 9 archons, each specifically charged were certain duties. By Byzantine times, archon had become a broad general term for a member of the ruling class, including the leading citizens of a community.

Archonides I: An ancient Sikel king whose capital was at Herbita. He was an ally of Ducetius, and of the Athenians. When he died during the Athenian War many of his fellow Sikels became supporters of Syracuse.

Archonides II: An ancient Sikel king who ruled from Herbita. He was the founder of Halaesa. Archylus of Thurii: A mercenary leader under Dionysius I during his wars with the Carthaginians. Thanks to him, the Greeks were able to successfully attack and capture the Carthaginian stronghold of Motya.

Archytas of Tarentum: (b. c420 BC, Taras/Tarentum; d. c350 BC). Pythagorean philosopher, statesman, general, and mathematician. As leader of Taras, he was able to use his influence to save the life of his friend Plato who was threatened with possible execution by Dionysius II of Syracuse. He served as commander of the army of Taras for a period of 7 years, despite a law which forbade any person from holding that post for more than a year. During his time in command he earned a reputation for honesty and virtue. He unsuccessfully attempted to persuade the other Greek cities in Magna Graecia to form a defensive league.

As a philosopher and scientist Archytas earned great renown. A pupil of Philolaus, he was a confirmed Pythagorean, believing that mathematics provided the key to all of the mysteries of the universe. According to his theory, mathematics was divided into four branches: geometry, arithmetic, astronomy and music. He is credited with being the first scholar to apply geometry to mechanics, and credited machines based on mathematical principals. He evolved theorems relating to the cube, and developed the idea of harmonic progression (1, ½, 1/3, ¼…) in mechanics, as opposed to arithmetical progression (1, 2, 3, 4…). Archytas also studied sound, discovering that pitch depended on the speed of vibration of air, a vital discovery in the development of the concept of wave motion. His studies also included acoustics and music, working out the ratios which underlie the relations of successive notes in the enharmonic, chromatic, and diatonic scales. Archytas is often claimed to be the inventor of the pulley, and Aulus Gellius credits him with inventing a flying machine.

Archytas is known to have written several works, but only fragments of one treatise, On Wisdom, has survived to modern times. According to Horace, Archytas perished when his ship went down in the Adriatic Sea off the coast of Apulia.

Arcidiaconata, River: A river (length: 20 km) in Potenza Province, Basilicata. As the Torrente Varco di Chiancola it rises between the Serra Corrado (851 m). After passing Ripacandida (PZ) and Melfi (PZ), it empties its waters into the river Renaina.

Arcoleo, Giorgio: (b, 1848, Caltagirone (CT); d. 1914, Naples). Jurist and statesman. A teacher of constitutional law at the universities of Parma and Naples, he became a supporter of F. De Sanctis. After being appointed to the Italian Chamber of Deputies, he served several times as Undersecretary of State. In 1902, be entered the Senate.

arcosolio: An arched recess with a tomb under it in a cave sepulcher. They are very common at sites like Syracuse and Agrigentum.

Arcuccio, Angellillo: (fl. 2nd half of the 15th century). Painter. From 1464 to 1492, he produced works in and around Naples. Among his best works are a pair of altarpieces in the cathedral of Aversa, one depicting the Madonna and Child, and the other showing the Martyrdom of S. Sebastiano (dated to 1468). These paintings show strong links to the Venetian School of painting.

Arcudi, Alessandro Tommaso: (b. 1655, Galatina (LE); d. 1718). Satirical Writer. His best-known work was The Anatomy of Hypocrites (1699).

Arditi, Marchese Michele: (b. Sept. 29, 1745, Presicca, Campania; d. Apr. 23, 1838). Archaeologist and composer. Having studied music under Niccolo Jommelli, he composed the opera Olimpiade, sacred and secular cantatas, motets, symphonies, overtures, orchestral arias, and piano sonatas.

Ardizzon (or Ardizzoni): (d. 1699, Naples). Writer.

Ardizzone, Gerolamo: (b. 1824, Palermo; d. 1893, Palermo). Scholar and poet. His romantic style verses include L’arpe, Il trovatore, and La viola. As a scholar he translated the Greek works of Sappho and Anacreon into both Italian and Sicilian, and founded, in 1860, the Giornale di Sicilia. In this journal he published studies of poets like Byron, Moore, Camöes, and Chateaubriand.

Ardoin (Arduin): (fl. 11th century). Lombard man-at-arms. After serving as armiger (squire) for the church of S. Ambrogio in Milan, he joined a mercenary band traveling to southern Italy. Thanks to his knowledge of Greek, he was able to become an officer in the Byzantine army of George Maniaces. Having won a beautiful horse as a prize for defeating a Saracen warrior in single combat, he refused to hand it over when Maniaces demanded the animal for himself. Maniaces then had the horse seized and ordered that Ardoin be whipped through the camp. Outraged over this treatment, Ardoin deserted. The incident also disgusted a body of Norman mercenaries who also left the army and returned to the mainland. These Normans subsequently formed the core from which came the leaders who seized southern Italy for themselves. Thus, the incident of Ardoin’s horse marked the beginning of the series of events leading to the foundation of the Kingdom of Sicily. Ardoin later seized control of the city of Melfi.

Ardore (formerly Adore, Odore)(RC): A commune (area: 32.69 km²; alt. 250 m) in the province of Reggio Calabria. Located 94 km ENE of Reggio di Calabria, it is situated on a small spur near the Ionian coast of Calabria, to the right of the river Condoianni. Population: 5,037 (1991); 7,866 (1951). The economy is agricultural, with the principal product being olive oil.

History: The town’s name derives from the Italian word odore (= ordor, scent), and was so-named because of the many flowers growing in the area.

                Major earthquakes were felt here in 1783, 1894, 1905, 1907, 1908, and 1978.

Points of Interest: There are remains of a feudal castle.

Arechis (Arigis, Aretchis; Ital: Arechi) I of Benevento: (b. in Friuli; d. AD 641). Duke of Benevento (AD 591-641). A relative of the dukes of Friuli, it is thought that he might have been the nephew of his predecessor Zotto. Although appointed by the Lombard King Agilulf, Arechis was effectively an independent ruler.

                Arechis expanded his power, capturing Capua and Venafro, as well as parts of Basilicata and Calabria. Although he was unable to capture Naples, Salerno fell to his attack.

                After a remarkably long reign (50 years), he died and was succeeded by his son Aiulf.

Arechis (Aretchis, Arichis, Aregis; Ital: Arechi) II of Benevento: (d. AD 792). Duke of Benevento (r758-774); Prince of Benevento (r774-792). Son and successor of Liutrand, he unsuccessfully attempted to claim the Lombard crown in 774, but was able secure the title of the independent Prince of Benevento. He ruled without a suzerain until 787 when he submitted to Charlemagne. He was succeeded in 792 by his son Grimoald.

Arena (VV): A commune (area: 32.35 km²; alt: 496 m) in the province of Vibo Valentia. Located 28 km SE of Vibo Valentia, it is situated on the Tyrrhenian slopes of the Serre, in hilly terrain to the right of the torrent Potriano. Population: 2,069 (1991). The commune is mostly agricultural, producing wine and olive oil.

History: The Normans established the center as the seat of an important county, and was one of the centers that revolted against the Aragonese during the unsuccessful Revolt of the Barons. Throughout most of its history it was held as a fief by various noble families, including the Concluberts, the Acquaviva, and the Caracciolo di Gioiosa.

Arena, River: A river (length: 43 km) in SW Sicily. Rising near Salemi (TP), it flows to the SW, emptying into the Mediterranean just S of Mazara del Vallo (TP).

Arena, Rivo dell’: A channel (length: 8 km) in Campania. Rising near Castellabate (Madonna della Scala), it empties into the Tyrrhenian Sea near Torre Arena (SA).

Arena, Celestino: (b. 1890, Pizzoni (VV)). Economist. In 1934, he obtained the post of professor of financial science at the universities of Pisa, Naples, and Rome. His principal works include: Corso di economia del lavoro (3 vols, 1933-35), La teoria della finanza pubblica (1945), and Manuale di scienza delle finanza (1952).

Arena, Filippo: (b. 1708, Piazza Armerina (EN); d. 1789, Rome). Botanist and mathematician. A Jesuit, he taught mathematics at the schools belonging to his order. His principal work, La natura e coltura dei fiori (1767-68), included accurate descriptions of biological phenomena, especially in the fields of pollination and hybridization of plants.

Arena, Giuseppe: (b. 1713, in Malta; d. Nov. 6, 1784, Naples). Composer of instrumental, chamber and vocal music. His operas include Achille in Sciro (1738); La clemenza di Tito (1738); Il vello d’oro (1740); Artaserse (1741); Tigrane (1741); Farnace (1742); and Il vecchio deluso (1746).

Aresas: (b. Lucania; fl. 5th century BC). Pythagorean philosopher. He is variously described as a Lucanian and a native of Croton. Succeeding Tydas as the head of the Pythagorean School, he was the sixth in line after Pythagoras himself. Some sources identify him as the author of a work entitled “About Human Nature”, of which a fragment is preserved by Stobaeus.

Arete: (d. 354/353 BC). Noblewoman. Daughter of Dionysius I “the Elder”, tyrant of Syracuse, and Aristomache. As was often the case with daughters of powerful rulers, she was exploited as a political tool. Her first two marriages were to uncles, first Tearidus and then Dion. It appears that she was genuinely devoted to Dion but could not accompany him when he fled into exile in 366 BC. Arete was then forced into a marriage by her half-brother Dionysius II to his friend Timocrates. When Dion returned to seize Syracuse, Dionysius kept Arete as a hostage while he was besieged in his citadel. It was only after Dionysius escaped that Dion captured the citadel and was reunited with Arete. Their reunion was short-lived, however, by Dion’s assassination. Arete found her own life in danger from her husband’s enemies. Accompanied by her mother, Aristomache, she fled from Syracuse by ship hoping to reach sanctuary in the Peloponnesus. Unfortunately, the ship was intercepted by Hicetas, tyrant of Leontini, who had the two women thrown into the sea to drown.

Arethusa (Grk Arethousa): a Nereid nymph in ancient Sicily who watched over a spring of the same name, on the island of Ortygia (Syracuse). She was said to be the daughter of the river-god Nereus and an attendant of Artemis. Her beauty attracted the attention of the river-god Alpheus whom she fled from by plunging into the sea and swimming from Greece to Ortygia. There she prayed to Artemis to protect her and was turned into spring. Alpheus, however, was not thwarted. From his river bed, he plunged his waters so deeply underground that he was able to tunnel beneath the Ionian Sea and emerge on Ortygia where he mixed with Arethusa spring. It was reputed that the “proof” for this story was that any object thrown into the Alpheus river in Greece would eventually surface in Arethusa’s fountain.

                Scholars today believe that Arethusa’s myth was originally attached to several fountains in mainland Greece. When the Greeks began to colonize Sicily, they brought the myth with them, attaching them to a fountain in their new home.

Arethusa, Fountain of: A celebrated fountain in ancient Syracuse, connected with the myth of the nymph Arethusa and the river god Alphaeus. Unlike many ancient fountains, that of Arethusa still flows strongly today. The name means “the Waterer.”

Arezzo, Claudio Mario (Lat. Claudius Marius Aretius): (b. 1500, Siracusa; d. 1575). Humanist scholar. He served as imperial historian to Emperor Charles V, whom he accompanied on campaigns in Italy and Germany. Among his works is the Chorographia sive de Situ Siciliae Libellus (1537), a description of Sicily.

Arezzo, Bl. Paolo Burali d’: (b. 1511, Ita, near Gaeta; d. 1578, Naples). Ecclesiastic. After practicing law in Naples for a decade, he became a Royal Counselor in 1549. He remained in that post until 1558, when he resigned to enter the Theatine order. Thanks to his legal talents and background, he rose through the ranks of the order to become the head of the Theatine houses at Naples and Rome. After serving as bishop of Piacenza, he was appointed a Cardinal by Pope Pius V. In 1576, he became archbishop of Naples, serving in that position until his death two years later. During his career, he was an opponent of the Inquisition in Italy. In 1772, he was beatified by Pope Clement XIV. Feast Day: June 17.

Argatóne, Monte: A mountain peak (2,151 m) of the Abruzzian Apennines. Located in the Montagna Grande, it lies between the valleys of the rivers Sangro and Sagittario, at the edge of the Parco Nazionale d’Abruzzo.

Argentino, River: A river of Calabria. Its course, which is a Riserva naturale protetta (natural protected reserve), passes through the Parco del Pollino.

Argento, Gaetano: (b. 1662, Cosenza; d. 1730, Naples). Jurist. He was the author of several works on law. In 1708, he was appointed to the judicial office of Regent of the Collaterale, the highest court in the Kingdom of Naples. In 1714, Emperor Charles V appointed him president of the royal council (Sacro reale Consiglio), along with the title of duke.

argismo: A Sicilian version of the tarantella healing ritual. The term derives from the Italian argia (= spider).

Argoli, Andrea: (b. c1570, Kingdom of Naples; d. c1650). Mathematician. He was professor of mathematics at the University of Padua. Among his many works was an Ephemerides, a catalog of astronomical positions extending to the year 1700. He was father of the poet Giovanni Argoli.

Argoli, Giovanni: (b. c1610; d. c1660). Poet. At age 16 he wrote Endymion (1626). Among his other works include treatises on classical antiquities, the most important being a series of notes on Onuphrius Panvinius’ De Ludis Circensibus (“On the Games of the Circus”) and De Triumphis (“On Triumphs”) (1642).

Argusto (CZ): A commune (area: 7.12 km²; alt. 530 m) in the province of Catanzaro. Located 49 km SSW of Catanzaro, it is situated to the left of the river Ancinale. Population: 558 (2006e); 555 (2001); 613 (1991). The commune includes several vineyards.

History: Major earthquakes were felt here in 1659, 1783, 1905, 1908, and 1947.

Argyrippa: Ancient name for Arpi (FG).

Argyros (Ital: Argiro): (b. cAD 1000; d. aft. 1058, poss. at Bari). Lombard nobleman. The son of Melus of Bari, he was sent to Constantinople during his father’s first revolt against the Byzantines in Apulia. In 1029, he returned to Italy where he soon began to lead revolts of his own. In 1042, he was joined by several Norman mercenaries. In August of that year, he he reconciled with the Byzantines, entering into an alliance with them to fight their common enemy, the rebel general George Maniakes. In 1045 he was called to Constantinople where he helped to defeat Leo Tornikios. While there he became the enemy of the Patriarch Michael I Keroularios. In 1051, Argyros, returned to Bari as the first Lombard Governor (magister, vestes, and doux of Italy, Calabria, Sicily and Paphlagonia). Now championing the Byzantines, he attempted to halt the advances of the Normans in southern Italy by forming an alliance with Pope Leo IX. This alliance, however, collapsed when, in 1053, the Normans defeated the papal and Byzantine armies in separate battles. Leo was taken prisoner by the Normans and during his period of captivity dispatched Cardinal Humbert as an envoy to Patriarch Michael I Keroularios in Constantinople. In 1054, while Humbert was enroute on his journey, he stopped at Bari. Later, when the Cardinal reached his goal, it was found that he carried letters that were highly offensive to Keroularios. The latter believed that these letters were actually the work of Argyros rather than the pope. He ordered the arrest Agryros’s son and son-in-law who were both in Constantinople. Argyros made some further attempts to create a new alliance with the papacy, but was unsuccessful. He was finally relieved of his offices in mid-1058.

Ari (CH): A commune (Area: 11.26 km²; Alt. 289 m) in the province of Chieti.  Located 20 km SE of Chieti, it is situated on a spur to the right of the river Dentolo. Population: 1,319 (2006e); 1,319 (2001); 1,413 (1991). CAP: 66010. Tel. Prefix: 0817. Part of the Comunitá Montana Valsango. The economy is strictly agricultural.

History: Major earthquakes struck here in 1933 and 1984.

Culture: The feast of the Ascension is celebrated with a procession which is a survival of an ancient pre-Christian purification rite.

Ariano di Puglia: Former name of Ariano di Puglia)(AV).

Ariano Irpino (formerly Ariano di Puglia)(AV): A commune (Area: 185.52 km²; alt. 778 m) in the province of Avellino, in Campania. Located about 50 km NE of Avellino and 24 miles E of Benevento, it is situated on a rocky height in the Apennines, near the headwaters of the torrent Ufita. Population: 23,218 (2007e); 23,297 (2006e); 23,505 (2001); 23,040 (1991); 17,708 (1911).

History: Archaeological evidence shows that the area around Ariano has been inhabited since Neolithic times. Because of its location, commanding the easiest pass through the Apennines connecting Apulia with Campania, it has been a place of both economic and strategic importance. The earliest known settlement, which surviving from Neolithic times until c900 BC, was located on the collina della Starza. The ancient Samnites settled in the area, founding the town of Aequum Tuticum about 8 km from where the present center now sits. Eventually Romanized, Aequum flourished thanks to its location along the Appian Way. Unfortunately, the same factors that brought such prosperity to place during the centuries of Roman peace, threatened it with repeated attacks once the Western Empire collapsed.

                In the 7th Century, the town came under the control of the bishops of Benevento. It was the seat of a Lombard count in the 10th Century. A bishop’s see was established there in AD 969. In 1024, it was taken by the Byzantines who held it until its capture by the Normans in 1140. The Normans brought a new period of security and prosperity to the town. Arpino became the principal center for a large area between the Sannio and the Irpinia. Roger II renovated the castle and made it the site of his first Parliament. During the succeeding Swabian dynasty, Ariano fell into a serious decline and the Angevin king, Charles I of Anjou, founded a new town nearby to replace it.

                Charles I gave the new town to Henry di Vandemont during the latter part of the 13th Century. It passed to Ermengaud di Sabran whose descendants continued to hold it until 1413. In

Economy: The commune is a center for mining and quarrying: sulfur, marble and gypsum. Manufactured products include cement, pottery, textiles and macaroni. Among the agricultural products are cereals, wines, liqueur (especially rosoglio), olive oil, legumes, and hemp.

Ariano Irpino – Lacedonia, Diocese of:

Suffragans:

Metropolitan: Benevento.

Conference Region: Campania.

Area: 781 km²/ mi²

Total Population: 73,390.

Catholic Population:

Total Priests: 75(Diocesan: 57; Religious: 18)

Permanent Deacons: 0

Male Religious:

Female Religious:

Parishes: 43

History:

Arielli (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Area: 11.51 km². Alt. 285 m. Population: 1,190 (2006e); 1,250 (2001). CAP: 66030. Tel. Prefix: 0871.

Arienzo (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Population: 5,276 (2006e).

Arienzo, Nicola D’: (b. Dec. 24, 1842, Naples; d. Apr. 25, 1915, Naples). Operatic Composer.

Arigisus: (date uncertain). Ecclesiastic. He was the first known bishop of Caiazzo. Since his name is Germanic he can date no earlier than the beginning of the 7th century when the Lombards occupied that region of Campania.

Aristaeus (Aristaios) (1): An ancient Sicilian nature god who presided over flocks, bees, vineyards, olive groves. He was the son of the god Bacchus and he was often worshipped at his father’s temples. His connection with olives (or more correctly with olive oil) led to him becoming a favorite for ancient athletes and sports fans. Aristaeus was considered so important to the people of ancient Syracuse that the theft of his cult statue by the unscrupulous Roman governor Verres became one of the principal charges filed against him by Cicero.

Aristaeus (Aristaios) (2): A mythological giant, son of the earth mother goddess Gaia. He survived the war between the gods and giants by being turned into a dung-beetle and hidden on Aetna on the island of Sicily. He is sometimes called Aitnaios kantharos (= dung-beetle of Etna).

Aristides: >See Adrian (2).

Aristippus of Cyrene: (b. 421 BC). The founder of the Cyrenaic school of philosophy. Although a native of Cyrene (mod. Libya), he was long a member of the court of Dionysius I at Syracuse.

Aristodemus: (fl. early 6th Century BC). Tyrant of Cumae. Born into the noble class in the ancient Greek city of Cumae, in 504 BC, he led an Greek army of 2,000 soldiers north to Aricia in Latium to support the Latins against the Etruscans under Arruns, son of King Porsenna of Clusium. After achieving a victory, Aristodemus returned to Cumae where he made himself tyrant of the city. The oligarchic constitution was suspended and new popular reforms were instituted. The former oligarchs were forced to flee, many of them taking refuge at Capua. For the next 20 years, these exiles and their offspring carried on a guerrilla war against Aristodemus. Eventually, Aristodemus was assassinated and the exiled aristocrats were able to return to Cumae where they reestablished their rule.

Aristomache: The wife of Dionysius I. Following the downfall of her son-in-law, Dion, she was murdered while trying to escape from Syracuse by sea.

Aristophenes: a Greek comic playwright of the 4th century BC; his plays include a skewering of Socrates and the sophists in The Clouds, the gender power reversal play Lysistrata and the pro-peace play The Acharnians; Aristophanes was also a character in Plato’s The Symposium, where he suggested that people in love were two halves of the same body that had been split in two.

Aristotle: (b. 384 BC in Stagira, Macedonia; d. 322 BC in Chalcis, Euboea). Philosopher, natural scientist and tutor of Alexander the Great He moved to Athens in 367 BC where he became a student of Plato and developed a curiosity with natural phenomena. After the death of Plato, he returned to his native Macedonia, where he was appointed as tutor to Prince Alexander, the future Alexander the Great. In 335 BC, he returned to Athens where he founded the Lyceum (Peripatetic school). He was author of the Poetics, The Metaphysics, Nicomachean Ethics, and several other works. In 323, his connections to Macedonia made him flee to Chalcis, Euboea, where he died at the age of 63. Upon Aristotle’s death in 322 BC, Theophrates became head of the Lyceum.

Aristoxenus: (fl. 350 BC): Philosopher. A pupil of Plato, he wrote principally on music theory. His chief work was Elements of Harmony.

Armento (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza.

Arnesano (LE): A commune in the province of Lecce. Population: 3,709 (2006e).

Arpaia (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 1,943 (2007e); 1,913 (2006e).

Arpaise (BN): A commune in the province of Benevento. Population: 870 (2007e); 887 (2006e).

Arpino (anc. Arpinum)[CE]: a town in Campania, located 88 miles SE of Rome. It is situated on the site of ancient Arpinum. The town is the birthplace of several notable figures including two ancient Rome’s greatest leaders: Gaius Marius (b. 157 BC) and Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (b. 63 BC), and the Renaissance artist Giuseppe Cesari (b. c1568). Arpino is a traditional center for the manufacturing of woolens, leather-goods, and paper. Marble quarrying is also practiced.

arrabbiata: hot peppers used in the cuisine of Calabria, Abruzzo, Molise and Lazio. Its name translates to mean “angry style.”

Arrigo, Girolamo: (b. Apr. 2, 1930, Palermo). Composer. He wrote the operas Orden (1969) and Addio Garibaldi (1972).

Artemis: Greek goddess often identified with the Roman-Italic Diana. An early Sikan deity sometimes identified with Artemis had a megalithic temple located near the modern Sicilian town of Cefalu dating to c800 BC. An early Doric Greek temple located at Syracuse has been attributed to Artemis, or to her brother Apollo. On the Italian mainland other temples to Artemis were built by the Greeks, including one in Campania on the promontory near Agropoli.

artichoke: The artichoke has been associated for centuries with Sicily and there are some sources which that the vegetable first originated on the island. Ancient Greek and Roman art show a purple flower that may be that of the artichoke. Others belief that it was brought to Sicily by the Saracens since its name is known be Arabic in origin. Different sources cite somewhat different base words for the name (kharshuff, alharchaf, ardi shauki, or ardi shauk) all of which mean “ground-thorn.”

                The first globe artichokes were first cultivated in Naples in the mid-15th century. They were brought to France by Catherine de’Medici (1519-1589), the queen-consort of King Henry II. From there they were soon brought to England. They eventually were brought to the Americas by French and Spanish immigrants.

Artipalda (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 11,206 (2007e).

Arsita (TE): A commune in the province of Teramo.

Artume: Etruscan goddess of night and darkness. She also had the attributes of a nature goddess and had similarities to Artemis.

Arzano (NA): A commune in the province of Napoli.

As (pl. asses): a large ancient Roman copper coin weighing about 12 ounces (1 Roman pound).

Ascanius: In mythology, the son of the Trojan hero Aeneas and Creusa. He accompanied his father on the journey to the west after the fall of Troy. He was said to have received his training as a warrior while the refugees lingered in Sicily, and accompanied his father when they continued on to Italy. Also known as Iulus, it was claimed that the Roman Julian gens derived their name from his, claiming him as their ancestor.

Ascea (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Ascelettin (Ascletin, Asclettino) Drengot: (d. AD 1045). Count of Aversa (1045). Son of Asclettin, count of Acerenza, and brother of Rainulf Drengot, he succeeded the latter as Count of Aversa, but died after ruling only a few months. He was succeeded by his cousin Rainulf Trincanocte.

Asclepius (Lat: Aesculapius): Ancient Greek god of medicine and healing. His origins are somewhat disputed and several ancient and modern scholars alike contend that his myth may have been based on more than one person. Cicero, in fact, wrote that the myth of Asclepius was based on three personages. Whatever the case Asclepius became the patron of physicians and his temples and shrines where found throughout the ancient Greek world. In Magna Graecia, cities like Croton, where there was an important school of medicine, paid Asclepius particular honor.

Ascoli Satriano (FG): A commune in the province of Foggia. Population: 6,309 (2006e).

Ascone, Vicente: (b. Aug. 16, 1897, Siderno (RC); d. Mar. 5, 1979, Montevideo). Composer. He wrote the opera Paraná Guazú (1931).

Ashtaroth: Anancient Punic goddess identified with the Greek Aphrodite and the Roman Venus. She was worshipped by the Carthaginians in Sicily.

asinello (=donkey, ass): The humble donkey had played an important role in Sicilian culture and history as both a beast of bunden and of transportation. Besides the common donkey, two other varieties are found on Sicily, the large Pantelleria ass and the small Sardinian ass. The latter, about the size of a large dog, is a favorite for street peddlers. They stand about 36” and under at the wither.

Aspa, Mario: (b. 1799, Messina; d. Dec 14, 1868, Messina). Composer. His works include the operas I due savojardi (1838), Paolo e Virginia (1843), Il Muratore di Napoli (1850), and Piero di Calais (1872).

asparagus: There are three varieties of asparagus found growing on Sicily. Besides the common garden variety, the wild version of the same, the asparago selvaggio, has a bitter taste. The third variety, the sparagi di trono, is actually a version of butcher’s broom, but bears a close physical resemblance to asparagus. This last plant is often used in Sicily for hedges.

asphodel: A wild flower common in Sicily, belonging to the order of Liliaceae. Three varieties are found on the island, the two most common bearing pink blossoms and the third a yellow variety.

Asprenus, St.: The earliest known bishop of Naples. The dates of his tenure are unknown. He was succeeded by St. Epitimitus.

Assanti, Ligorio: (fl. c1341). Navigator. An Italian member of the Knights of Rhodes.

Assia, Frederico Langravio D’: (fl. c1640). Navigator. He served as Captain General of the Galleys of the Knights of Malta.

Assinarus (or Assinaro), River: (mod. Falconara). A river running near Noto. It was the site where Nicias, the Athenian general, was defeated and captured along with the remnants of his army by the Syracusans in 413 BC.

Assoro> (EN): (anc. Assarus, Assorus). A commune in the province of Enna. Population: 5,335 (2006e).

A mountain town in Sicily. Founded by the Sikels, it was able to retain its original culture for much longer than other native towns in the face of hellenization. The population was also able to successfully prevent the Roman governor Verres from plundering the town.

Asta, Andrea dell’:  (b. 1673, Naples; d. 1721). Painter. A student of Francesco Solimena, he visited Rome where he studied the works of Raphael. Among his works are two paintings in the church of S. Agostino (Naples): a Nativity and an Adoration of the Magi.

Astarita (Astaritta), Gennaro:  (b. 1747, Naples; d. 1803). Composer. During his career he composer about 20 operas.

Asteas: (fl. c350-320 BC). Vase-Painter. Considered to be one of the most important Greek vase-painters of Paestum, he is one of only two such south Italian artists to sign his work. The principal artist in a large workshop, he may have been the inventor of free-standing half-palmettes, used to frame an image, a characteristic of Paestan vase-painting. He decorated hydriai and kraters, as well as some smaller vases, in the red-figure technique. Asteas painted mythological, theatrical scenes and Dionysian, as well as groups of two or three draped youths. He followed the common practice of his time of inscribing labels for the figures he depicted.

Asterope: An Oceanid nymph, daughter of Oceanus and Tethys. She was worshipped at Akragas in Sicily where she was held to be the mother, by Zeus, of the city’s mythological founder and namesake. It is thought that she may have originally been considered a Naiad, goddess of the local spring or fountain of the city. Her name means “Starry-Eyed”, deriving from the Greek words aster (star) and ops (eye).

Astorga, Emanuele Baron d’ (Gioacchino Cesare Rincón):  (b. Mar. 20, 1680, Augusta (SR); d. 1757, Madrid). Composer. Among his works were the operas La moglie nemica (1698), Dafni (1709), and Amor tirannico (1710).

ate: An expression (literally meaning “You There”) used by Sicilian drivers to anyone in his way. The expression long predates the automobile.

Ateleta (AQ): A commune in the province of ‘Aquila. Population: 1,227 (2006e).

Atella (Osc. Aderl; mod.Castellone di Sant’Arpino [CE]) (1): An ancient town in northern Campania. It’s name in Oscan was Aderl.

Atella (PZ): A commune in the province of Potenza, located 39 km from Potenza. Area: 88 km². Alt. 500 m. It is situated in the Vitalba Valley, named for a now-lost medieval farmstead. The surrounding area is covered by thick woods, and has many springs. Much of the commune is cultivated with cereal crops.

                The town was founded by John of Anjou between 1320 and 1330 in order to increase the population of the area. It enjoyed increased prosperity during the 14th and 15th centuries. The town still retains sections of the original medieval walls and a gate, the Porta S. Michele. There are the remains of an Angevin tower which was destroyed by an earthquake in 1694.

                The principal religious monuments are the Cathedral of S. Maria ad Nives and the Church of Santa Lucia.

                Evidence of human habitation dating from the Paleolithic era have been discovered in the vicinity.

Atella, Fiumara d’: A river (length: 25 km) in the province of Potenza. It rises on the Monte Caruso (1,239 m) in several branches (Varco di Livio, Valle del Salice, Valle Lamarone).

Atena Lucana (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Aternum: Ancient name for Pescara.

Atessa (CH): A commune in the province of Chieti. Area: 111.46 km². Alt. 433 m. Population: 10,495 (2006e); 10,388 (2001). CAP: 66041. Tel. Prefix: 0872. Population Designation: Atessani. Part of the Comunitá Montana Valsangro and the Association Nazionale Citta del Vino.

Atenulf I of Capua: (d. AD 910). Count of Capua (rAD 887-910) and Prince of Benevento (rAD 899-910).

Athanasius I, St.: (b. cAD831; d. July 15, 872). (Bishop of Naples 850-872). He was the son of Marino I (Duke of Naples) and brother of Gregory III (Duke of Naples 865-870).

Athanasius (Atanasio) II “of Younger”: (d. AD 898). Bishop and Duke of Naples (AD 877-898). Son of Gregory III (Duke of Naples AD 865-870). He deposed and blinded his elder brother Sergius II (r870-877), seizing control of the duchy from him. He was succeeded as Bishop of Naples by his younger brother Stephen (Stefano).

Athena: Greek goddess of Wisdom and warfare. Although best known as the patron goddess of Athens, Athena’s cult also had centers in Sicily and Southern Italy. According to Diodorus Siculus, both Athena and Artemis were raised together on Sicily and loved the island. Later, Zeus gave Athena a portion of Sicily, the area around Himera. That city was the center of her cult on Sicily.

                Athena also had a presence on the Italian mainland. Pausanias (Guide to Greece 2.23.5) records the belief that Aeneas from the sacred image of Athena known as the Palladium from Troy to Italy. Strabo (Geography 6.1.14) records that Athena was worshiped at Rome, Lavinium, and in the Lucanian city of Siris. In this last mention place, the goddess was known as Athena Ilia (Athena of Ilion, i.e. Troy) and was so-called because of a legend that her cult was brought there by the ancient Trojans. In another city of Lucania, Luceria, there had been a great temple of Athena Ilia, built by the Daunii, but destroyed by Strabo’s time. This may be the same temple which Aelian (On Animals 11.5) mentions as having guard dogs which greet Greeks in friendship but bark at all others who approach.

In the same work, Strabo also mentions (7.1.5) a temple to Athena in the territory of the Salentines, whom he says were descendents of ancient Cretans. There was also said to have been a sanctuary of Athena near Surrentum (mod. Sorrento), on the coast of Campania, which was reputedly (Strabo Geography 5.4.8) founded by Odysseus. Odysseus is also said to have dedicated a bowl at an altar of Athena at Kirkaion, a little town in Latium (Strabo 5.3.6).

Although much of Athena’s aspect was absorbed into the Latin goddess Minerva, she still maintained enough of an independent presence under the Romans to chosen by the Emperor Domitian as his patron during the latter part of the 1st century AD (Philostratus, Life of Apollonius of Tyana 7.24 and 7.32).

Athenagoras: The leader of the party in the ancient Syracusan assembly which opposed Hermocrates. He refused to support any notion of building the defenses of Syracuse despite the impending threat of Athenian invasion.

Atlantes (or Telamons): The male equivalent of Caryatides used in supporting the architraves of ancient temples.

Atrabanashi: an Arabic name for the city of Trapani, on the west coast of Sicily.

Atrani (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Atri (TE): A commune in the province of Teramo.

Atripalda (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 11,206 (2007e); 11,234 (2006e).

Atrium (1)>: An architectural term. It was the principal entrance hall or chamber of an ancient Roman house. It normally served as a reception room. The typical atrium was lit by sunlight through a hole in the roof (the compluvium); rainwater that might fall through this hole would be caught in a central pool called an impluvium. In the houses of the wealthy, an atrium might be surrounded by a colonnade.

Atrium (2)>: An open area or court in front of a church.

Atunis: The Etruscan counterpart of the Greek Adonis. He was a companion of the love-goddess Turan (the Etruscan Venus).

Aufugum: (poss. modern Moltalto Uffugo [CS]). An ancient Bruttian settlement. It is believed that its name is Bruttian in nature and derives from the Indo-European root *eudh- (=udder, fecund).

Augusta >(SR): (formerly Agosta). A commune in the province of Siracusa, situated on the eastern coast of Sicily. It has an important harbor which provides about 12 sq. miles of excellent anchorage. Population: 33,820 (2001). Some sources state that the Roman Emperor Augustus founded a city here of the site of earlier Xiphonia. If so, no remains have survived of these earlier ancient centers. There are some prehistoric burials and Christian catacombs discovered at Molinello, a few km away. The existing city was founded by the Emperor Frederick II, who populated it with deported rebels from the city of Centuripe in 1242. He named the place Augusta Veneranda (= “a grand place worthy of veneration”). The city was rebuilt after suffering destruction in 1360 at the hands of an army from neighboring Syracuse and Catania. In 1676, during an attempted Sicilian revolt against Spanish rule, the French admiral Duquesne defeated his Dutch counterpart, De Ruyter, in the nearby waters. The city was destroyed by the great earthquake of 1693 and had to be rebuilt again.

Augustus (C. Octavius; Octavian): (b. 63 BC in Rome; d. AD 14). First Emperor of the Roman Empire. He was the son of the praetor Gaius Octavius and Atia, niece of Gaius Julius Caesar. Elected to the pontifical college in 48 BC, he campaigned with Caesar in Spain and in 45 BC fought the Pompeians at Munda. Upon his adoption by Caesar, he took on his adopted father’s name, becoming C. Julius Caesar Octavianus. In 38 BC, he formed the Second Triumvirate (triumviri rei publicae constituendae) with Marc Antony and Lepidus. In the initial division of the Roman world, Octavian’s portion included control over the island of Sicily. His contest with Sextus Pompey for control of this island proved important in securing his position in the west. His victory not only eliminated Sextus Pompey but also resulted in the ouster of Lepidus from the triumvirate and the ultimate conflict between with Antony for control of Rome. Octavian’s naval victory over Antony and Cleopatra secured his hold on ultimate power. Through shrewdness and intelligence, he ruled the Empire while maintaining at least the trappings of the Republic. Under his rule, the Empire flourished economically and healed its internal wounds. Art, literature and sciences flourished and political corruption was reduced to a considerable degree.

Octavian received the honorific title of Augustus from the Roman Senate in 27 BC, effectively beginning his reign as the first Roman Emperor. He would rule the Roman world until AD 14. Upon the death of Marcus Lepidus, he also assumed the principal Roman religious office of Pontifex Maximus. He had one surviving child, a daughter, Julia, by his second wife (Scribonia), whom he married to his heir-apparent of that time, Marcellus. In AD 14, Augustus was succeeded by his step-son Tiberius, the son of his third wife, Livia.

Southern Italy and Sicily figure into some of the most important events in Augustus’s career. In 36 BC, he landed at Tauromenium (mod. Taormina) during his successful campaign against Sextus Pompey. The campaign was finally ended with Pompey’s decisive defeat at the naval battle of Mylae (Milazzo). In 21 BC, Augustus established a Roman colony at Syracuse. It was at Nola, in Campania, that Augustus finally died of natural causes at the age of 76.

Auletta (SA): A commune in the province of Salerno.

Auletta, Pietro: (b. 1698, S. Angelo; d. Sept. 1771). Composer. He composed over a dozen operas between 1726 and 1759.

Aurelian (Lucius Domitius Aurelianus): (b. Sept. 9, AD 214, near Sirmium, Pannonia; d. AD 275). Roman Emperor (rAD 270-275). An effective general, he was known as the “Restorer of the World” because he was able to reunite those parts of the Empire (Gaul, the East) which had earlier split away, as well as win notable victories over barbarian invaders. He was responsible for building the last ancient fortification wall around the city of Rome. While preparing for a great expedition to the east, Aurelian was assassinated by one of his own men while encamped near Byzantium.

Auria, Vincenzo: (b. 1625, Palermo; d. Dec 6, 1710). Historian. His principal work was Historia delli Vicerè di Sicilia dal 1409 al 1697.

Aurisicchio (Eurisicchio), Antonio: (b. 1710, Napoli; d. Sept. 4, 1781, Rome). Composer. He composed about 7 operas.

Aurispa, Giovanni (John): (b.1369, in Noto; d. 1459, Ferrara). Scholar and historian. Arriving at Constantinople in 1418, he spent many there studying the Greek language and classics. He became a notable collector of Greek manuscripts, acquiring a library of 238 such documents he brought to Venice. Economic necessity forced him to sell most of this collection until Cosimo de’Medici learned of his situation. Cosimo purchased the manuscripts back for him and brought him to Florence. In 1438, Aurispa attended the Council of Basil where he met Pope Eugene IV, who hired him as his secretary. He served Eugene’s successor, Nicholas V, in a similar capacity and was awarded two wealthy abbacies. Aurispa is considered one of the principal promoters of the revival of Greek studies in Renaissance Italy.

Aurunci: An ancient Indo-European Italic people who lived in southern Italy from c1000 BC. They spoke a dialect of Oscan. The Aurunci controlled the territory south of the Volsci, near Rocca Monfina, between the rivers Liri and Volturno. The Romans described them as having no significant cities or towns, preferring to live in hill-top villages built for defense. They had a long history of hostility with the Romans who did not succeed in subjecting them until 313 BC. Many sources confuse them with the Ausoni (Ausones). In fact they are separate tribes, but may have had a common origin.

The Aurunci are remembered in the names of the Aurunci Mountains and the city of Sessa Aurunca.

Ausones (Ausoni): An ancient Italic people of southern Italy often confused with the Aurunci, with whom they may have shared a common ancestry. According to a legend recorded by Diodorus Siculus, they are named for their first king Ausonus, a son of Odysseus (Ulysses) and either the enchantress Circe or the nymph Calypso. Ausonus was the father of Liparus, who gave his name to the Lipari Islands.

The historical Ausones were one of three peoples (the others being the Enotri and the Japigi-Iapygians) who the ancient Greeks had contact with when they began to colonize Magna Graecia. They where an Indo-European people and had probably lived in Italy since at least the 17th century BC. Their territory, known as Ausonia, encompassed southern Latium and much of northern Campania as far as the river Sele. The historian Diodorus Siculus states that they also inhabited the southern tip of the “toe” of Italy, around the city of Rhegium (mod. Reggio di Calabria). It was probably part of this latter group who crossed over into Sicily in c1270 BC. The principal Ausonian towns were Ausona, Minturnae, Vescia and Sinuessa. Archaeology has also revealed a site near modern Calvi Risorta [CE], was an Ausonian city.

>The Ausones still existed as a people when the Romans began to push into southern Italy. The two peoples formed an alliance against the Samnites.

>The name Ausonia was occasionally extended for all of Italy.

Ausonia>: an ancient name in its broadest form for Italy, and in its narrower, and more correct, form for Campania. In recent times, Ausonia has become a symbolic socio-political name for southern Italy.

Auster (Austro)>: a name for the South Wind, and, more generally, for the South.

Auteri Manzocchi, Salvatore>: (b. Dec 26, 1845, Palermo; d. Feb. 21, 1925, Parma). Composer. He wrote at least seven operas.

Autpert Ambrose>: See Autpertus.

Autpertus> (Ambrosius) (Autpert Ambrose): (b. in the early 8th century in Provence; d. AD 778 or 779). Benedictine abbot. Of Frankish descent, he appears to have been a successful member of the royal Frankish court. Some sources claim that he was a favorite of King Pepin, a tutor of Charlemagne, and an arch-chancellor at Charlemagne’s court. Others, however, deny that he held such important posts. It is agreed that he because abbot of the Benedictine monastery of San Vincenzo, beside the river Volturno. This appointment led to such dissent at the monastery that both Pope Stephen III and Charlemagne were forced to intervene. Autpertus, during his religious career, wrote several works (commentaries on the Bible, biographies of saints, etc.) although only a handful has survived to the modern times.

Auxiliary Bishop: An assistant to the principal bishop of a diocese. The powers and responsibilities of auxiliaries vary considerably, depending on the wishes of principal bishop. Auxiliary bishops are normally assigned historical “titular” sees which are no longer in existence.

Avella, Ancient (or Abella, Abellanus, Avellanus, Avella Vecchia): An ancient Campanian city located NE of Nola. It is thought to have been founded as a daughter colony by the Chalcidian Greeks of Cumae. At some later date it was taken over by an Oscan-speaking population. Despite its apparent prosperity, it does not seem to have played any significant historical role. In the 2nd half of the 1st century AD, the Emperor Vespasian settled several of his freedmen and clients at Avella, but there is no evidence that it received the status of a colonia until the reign of Trajan. From writers like Virgil and Silius Italicus, we learn that Avella was famous for its fruit trees and filberts (hazelnuts).The site of ancient Avella lies on a high hill near that of modern Avella (AV). Referred to as Avella Vecchia (old Avella), archaeological remains include ancient walls and several buildings (amphitheatre, temple, etc.). The site is best known for a long Oscan inscription recording a treaty of alliance between Avella and Nola, dating to shortly after the 2nd Punic War. It remains one of the most important surviving sources for the study of Oscan.

Avella (AV): A commune in the province of Avellino. Population: 7,782 (2007e); 7,785 (2006e).

Avellino, Province of: A province in the region of Avellino. Area: 2,792 km². Population: 437,414 (2006e); 429,178 (2001); 438,812 (1991); 421,766 (1901).

History: Formerly part of Principato Ultra.

Population of the Province of Avellino

1901

421,766

1936

1951

1961

1971

1981

1991

438,812

2001

429,178

2005

2006

437,414

2007

437,649

Communes of Avellino Province

Commune

Area

(km²)

Population

(1/1/2007e)

Population

(1/1/2006e)

Population

(2001 census)

Population

(1991 census)

Aiello del Sabato

10.83

3,701

3548

3,219

2,740

Altavilla Irpina

14.10

4,220

4233

4,143

5,163

Andretta

43.61

2,147

2188

2,295

3,021

Aquilonia

55.62

1,963

1978

2,074

2,469

Ariano Irpino

185.52

23,218

23297

23,505

23,040

Atripalda

85.30

11,206

11234

11,146

11,397

Avella

30.38

7,782

7785

7,677

7,134

Avellino

30.41

56,908

56928

52,703

55,662

Bagnoli Irpino

66.90

3,327

3341

3,323

3,220

Baiano

12.25

4,733

4743

4,633

4,811

Bisaccia

101.41

4,114

4148

4,391

4,952

Bonito

18.62

2,544

2540

2,588

2,767

Cairano

13.83

395

392

411

556

Calabritto

51.77

2,640

2690

2,869

3,114

Calitri

100.88

5,362

5476

5,843

6,467

Candida

5.43

1,131

1129

1,072

1,042

Caposele

41.50

3,718

3719

3,797

4,026

Capriglia Irpina

7.38

2,369

2332

2,281

2,159

Carife

16.62

1,617

1630

1,701

1,835

Casalbore

27.98

1,998

2012

2,086

2,254

Cassano Irpino

12.33

989

1002

955

1,004

Castel Baronia

15.34

1,187

1174

1,233

1,258

Castelfranci

11.83

2,184

2215

2,540

3,034

Castelvetere sul Calore

17.06

1,709

1712

1,713

1,838

Cervinara

29.20

10,123

10160

10,150

10,285

Cesinali

3.73

2,496

2510

2,299

2,041

Chianche

6.81

583

596

610

719

Chiusano di San Domenico

24.56

2,459

2466

2,490

2,539

Contrada

10.31

2,988

2986

2,874

2,638

Conza della Campania

52.14

1,445

1435

1,457

1,473

Domicella

6.50

1,753

1756

1,561

1,410

Flumeri

34.24

3,290

3302

3,336

3,335

Fontanarosa

16.75

3,428

3426

3,450

3,769

Forino

20.49

5,298

5300

5,088

4,799

Frigento

37.75

4,110

4100

4,126

4,147

Gesualdo

27.13

3,691

3760

3,829

4,061

Greci

30.58

827

840

946

1,196

Grottaminarda

28.94

8,315

8336

8,274

8,273

Grottolella

7.12

1,950

1935

1,854

1,680

Guardia Lombardi

55.61

1,905

1937

2,029

2,361

Lacedonia

81.57

2,900

2979

3,010

3,163

Lapio

15.03

1,684

1702

1,750

1,869

Lauro

11.10

3,672

3629

3,628

3,895

Lioni

46.17

6,350

6289

6,110

6,400

Luogosano

6.03

1,230

1244

1,299

1,313

Manocalzati

8.62

3,239

3213

3,096

3,050

Marzano di Nola

4.62

1,720

1702

1,607

1,541

Melito Irpino

20.71

1,963

1987

1,996

2,106

Mercogliano

19.76

12,349

12414

11,755

9,675

Mirabella Eclano

33.92

8,204

8237

8,272

8,477

Montaguto

18.21

527

545

577

740

Montecalvo Irpino

53.53

4,081

4135

4,279

4,751

Montefalcione

15.15

3,465

3445

3,397

3,294

Monteforte Irpino

26.70

10,579

10180

8,674

7,461

Montefredane

9.42

2,317

2308

2,305

2,316

Montefusco

8.18

1,443

1453

1,475

1,636

Montella

83.32

7,896

7857

7,770

7,677

Montemarano

33.76

3,194

3026

3,043

3,382

Montemiletto

21.47

5,344

5322

5,312

5,285

Monteverde

39.23

896

903

921

1,023

Montoro Inferiore

19.49

10,154

10087

9,508

8,695

Montoro Superiore

20.44

8,470

8358

8,054

7,526

Morra De Sanctis

30.20

1,339

1351

1,408

1,871

Moschiano

1.359

1,696

1713

1,658

1,579

Mugnano del Cardinale

12.14

5,246

5166

4,910

4,823

Nusco

53.46

4,406

4437

4,420

5,053

Ospedaletto d’Alpinolo

5.62

1,798

1738

1,641

1,602

Pago del Vallo di Lauro

4.76

1,849

1851

1,728

1,712

Parolise

3.24

679

694

653

648

Paternopoli

18.27

2,643

2648

2,716

3,118

Petruro Irpino

3.11

375

376

400

491

Pietradefusi

9.25

2,491

2507

2,551

2,774

Pietrastornina

15.81

1,580

1602

1,650

1,730

Prata di Principato Ultra

10.78

2,873

2852

3,011

3,050

Pratola Serra

8.85

3,489

3421

3,242

3,369

Quadrelle

6.92

1,871

1824

1,573

1,396

Quindici

23.65

2,514

2532

3,005

3,023

Roccabascerana

14.28

2,349

2351

2,333

2,308

Rocca San Felice

12.42

874

871

903

1,220

Rotondi

7.82

3,493

3483

3,346

3,200

Salza Irpina

4.92

821

835

797

852

San Mango sul Calore

14.53

1,233

1220

1,233

1,376

San Martino Valle Caudina

22.79

4,711

4693

4,704

4,678

San Michele di Serino

4.47

2,519

2461

2,399

2,028

San Nicola Baronia

6.87

854

855

859

952

San Potito Ultra

4.54

1,521

1497

1,441

1,307

San Sossio Baronia

19.06

1,846

1884

1,914

2,294

Santa Lucia di Serino

3.87

1,545

1545

1,516

1,490

Sant’Andrea di Conza

8.36

1,815

1845

1,930

2,042

Sant’Angelo all’Esca

6.44

881

886

942

1,058

Sant’Angelo a Scala

10.48

735

731

736

660

Sant’Angelo dei Lombardi

5.39

4,457

4414

4,244

4,795

Santa Paolina

54.76

1,433

1445

1,432

1,410

Santo Stefano del Sole

10.77

2,199

2132

1,927

1,797

Savignano Irpino

38.21

1,242

1271

1,334

1,647

Scampitella

15.24

1,346

1369

1,435

1,846

Senerchia

3.599

893

893

883

1,072

Serino

52.17

7,334

7379

7,041

6,896

Sirignano

6.25

2,820

2719

2,370

1,700

Solofra

21.93

11,967

12061

11,802

10,941

Sorbo Serpico

8.01

577

567

566

599

Sperone

3.53

3,568

3475

3,185

2,760

Sturno

16.67

3,214

3219

3,261

3,413

Summonte

12.44

1,613

1606

1,563

1,524

Taurano

9.88

1,594

1604

1,538

1,593

Taurasi

14.40

2,628

2689

2,750

3,064

Teora

23.08

1,576

1565

1,573

2,242

Torella dei Lombardi

26.29

2,257

2242

2,202

3,029

Torre Le Nocelle

10.10

1,365

1356

1,370

1,310

Torrioni

4.21

584

613

633

704

Trevico

10.49

1,165

1191

1,284

1,636

Tufo

5.97

917

911

951

1,058

Vallata

47.67

2,977

3000

3,109

3,584

Vallesaccarda

14.24

1,416

1454

1,486

1,856

Venticano

14.03

2,585

2602

2,547

2,567

Villamaina

9.08

970

985

1,005

1,051

Villanova del Battista

20.03

1,914

1934

1,998

2,233

Volturara Irpina

32.76

4,170

4199

4,229

4,226

Zungoli

19.13

1,322

1344

1,432

1,591

Total

2,791.64

437,649

437,414

429,178

438,812

Avellino: A city and commune in northern Campania. Provincial capital of the province of Avellino. Area: 30.41 km². Population: 56,908 (2007e); 56,928 (2006e); 52,703 (2001) 55,662 (1991); 56,892 (1981).

Avellino, Diocese of:

Suffragans:

Metropolitan: Benevento

Conference Region: Campania

Area: 394 km²/ mi²

Total Population: 158,424

Catholic Population:

Total Priests: 97(Diocesan: 72; Religious: 25)

Permanent Deacons: 11

Male Religious:

Female Religious:

Parishes: 64.

History:

Aventino, River: A river (length: 45 km) rising on M. Porrara in the province of Chieti.

Avernus lacus (Mod. Lago di Averno): A lake in Campania near Naples. Most sources claim that the name derives from the Greek aornos (= “without birds”), and is connected with an ancient belief that birds flying over the lake will fall dead from sulfurous fumes. There is another theory, however, that suggests that the name is pre-Greek and derives from the Indo-European root *(a)uer-, with a more benign meaning of “water”, “rain”, or “flow.”

                According to mythology Lake Avernus was the site of Odysseus’s descent into the underworld.

Aversa (CE): A commune in the province of Caserta. Area: 8.73 km². Population: 52,857 (2006e); 53,369 (2001); 54,032 (1991); 56,425 (1981).

Aversa, Diocese of:

Suffragans:

Metropolitan: Napoli

Conference Region: Campania

Area: 361 km²/ mi²

Total Population: 550,512.

Catholic Population:

Total Priests: 213(Diocesan: 190; Religious: 23)

Permanent Deacons: 18

Male Religious:

Female Religious:

Parishes: 92

History:

Avetrana (TA): A commune in the province of Taranto.

Avezzano (AQ): A commune in the province of ‘Aquila. Population: 39,705 (2006e).

Avezzano, Diocese of: A bishopric in the ecclesiastical region of Abruzzo-Molise. It is a suffragan of L’Aquila.

Basic Information on the Diocese of Avezzano (2006)

(Source: Catholic-hierarchy.org)

Ecclesiastical Conference

Region

Abruzzo-Molise

Metropolitan

L’Aquila

Suffragans

Area

1,700 km² (656 mi²)

Total Population

115,137

Catholic Population

109,000

Total Priests

109

Diocesan Priests

80

Religious Priests

29

Permanent Deacons

5

Male Religious

30

Female Religious

130

Parishes

95

History: Founded as the diocese of Marsi in the 9th century, its name was changed on September 30, 1986.

Avigliano (PZ): A town in Basilicata. Population: 12,025 (2001).

Avola (SR): A commune in the province of Siracusa.

Avossa (d’Avossa), Giuseppe: (b. 1708, Paola (CS); d. Jan. 9, 1796, Naples). Composer. His works include the operas Don Saverio (1744), Lo scolaro alla moda (1748),

Azetium: A city in ancient Apulia (mod. Rutigliano [BA]).

Azopardi, Francesco: (b. 5 May 1748 at Rabat, Malta. d. 6 Feb 1809). Composer and music teacher. He studied music in Malta and in Naples where he became a celebrity for his piano and organ playing, orchestra conducting as well as for his compositions. Azopardi was a prolific composer and an excellent music teacher. He wrote a scientific treatise on music entitled “Il Musico Pratico” which was translated into French and introduced into the syllabus of the Royal Conservatory of Paris in 1778. Cherubini in his “Course of Counterpoint and Fugue” quotes some interesting examples from this work. Azopardi also wrote “L’Origine delle regole della musica.” He also composed a large number of sacred works including the oratorio “La Passione di Cristo.”

United States (as Chargé d’Affairs)

Name

State of

Residency

Title

Appointment

Presentation

of Credentials

Termination of Mission

Note

John Nelson

Maryland

Chargé d’Affaires

Oct. 24, 1831

Jan. 25, 1832

Left post on or soon after Oct 15, 1832

Commissioned during a recess of the Senate; recommissioned after confirmation on Jan 3, 1832

Enos Thompson Throop

New York

Chargé d’Affaires

Feb. 6, 1838

Sept. 28, 1838

Presented recall, Dec 29, 1841

William Boulware

Virginia

Chargé d’Affaires

Sept. 13, 1841

Dec. 29, 1841

Presented recall, Jun 24, 1845

William Hawkins Polk

Tennessee

Chargé d’Affaires

Mar. 13, 1845

July 24, 1845

Left post about May 11, 1847

John Rowan

Kentucky

Chargé d’Affaires

Jan. 3, 1848

June 27, 1848

Left post about Nov 9, 1849

Thomas W. Chinn

Louisiana

Chargé d’Affaires

June 5, 1849

Did not proceed to post. Commissioned during a recess of the Senate.

James M. Power

Pennsylvania

Chargé d’Affaires

Nov 1, 1849

Did not proceed to post. Commissioned during a recess of the Senate.

Edward Joy Morris

Pennsylvania

Chargé d’Affaires

Jan. 10, 1850

Apr. 4, 1850

Transmitted recall by note, Aug 25, 1853

Robert Dale Owen

Indiana

Chargé d’Affaires

May 24, 1853

Oct. 22, 1853

Promoted to Minister Resident

Commissioned during a recess of the Senate; recommissioned after confirmation on Feb 8, 1854.

Robert Dale Owen

Indiana

Minister Resident

June 29, 1854

Sept 20, 1854

Presented recall Sep 20, 1858

Nominated Feb 25, 1856 to be Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary; nomination withdrawn before the Senate acted upon it.

Joseph Ripley Chandler

Pennsylvania

Minister Resident

June 15, 1858

Sept 20, 1858

Closed the Legation at Naples in anticipation of the entry of King Victor Emmanuel into city, Nov 2-6, 1860

Name

Category

Dates

Information

Ancestral

Connection

Landrieu, Mary

Politics

Senator- 108th Congress

D-Louisiana

Sicily

Bono, Sonny

Politics/

Entertainment

Congressperson-

R-California

Sicily (Montelepre [PA])

Brady, Robert A.

Politics

Congressperson-

107th Congress

Pennsylvania

Abruzzo

Capuano, Michael

Politics

Congressperson-

108th Congress

D-Maine

Campania

(Avellino)

De Lauro, Rosa

Politics

Congressperson-

108th Congress

D-Connecticut

Campania

(Amalfi)

Lazio

(Gaeta)

Doyle, Michael

Politics

Congressperson-

108th Congress

D-Pennsylvania

Campania (Caserta)

Ferguson, Michael

Politics

Congressperson-

108th Congress

R-New Jersey

Campania (Salerno)

Fossella, Vito

Politics

Congressperson-

108th Congress

New York

Calabria

Grucci, Felix

Politics

Congressperson-

108th Congress

New York

Puglia

Hart, Melissa

Politics

Congressperson-

107th & 108th Congress

R-Pennsylvania

Abruzzo (Barisciano)

Lampson, Nick Valentino

Politics

Congressperson

108th Congress

D-Texas

Sicily

(Salemi)

LoBiondo, Frank A.

Politics

Congressperson

108th Congress

R-New Jersey

Sicily (Belmonte Mezzagno)

Mansullo, Donald

Politics

Congressperson

108th Congress

R-Illinois

Calabria,

Sicily

Mica, John

Politics

Congressperson

108th Congress

R-Florida

Campania

(Roscigno)

Oberstar, James

Politics

Congressperson

108th Congress

D-Minnesota

Calabria

Campania

(Naples)

Pallone, Frank E.

Politics

Congressperson

108th Congress

D-New Jersey

Calabria

Campania

(Naples)

Pascrell, Jr., William

Politics

Congressperson

108th Congress

D-New Jersey

Campania

(Caserta)

Angevin Dynasty of Naples

Name

Reign

Charles I of Anjou

1266-1285

Charles II “the Lame”

1285-1309

Robert “the Wise”

1309-1343

Joanna I

1343-1382

Charles III

1382-1386

King of Hungary

(as Charles II)

1385-1386

Ladislaus

1386-1414

Joanna II

1414-1435

After the death of Joanna II, the Angevin claim to the throne of Naples

passed to Rene I “the Good” of Anjou, Duke of Lorraine. His claim was disputed by

Alfonso VI of Aragon, who finally conquered the Regno, becoming Alfonso I, founder

of the new Aragonese dynasty.

Albanian-Arbëresh Communities in Southern Italy

ABRUZZO:

Pescara Province: Villa Badessa (Badhesa) (fraz. of Rosciano).

BASILICATA:

Potenza Province: Barile (Barilli/Barili); Ginestra (Xhinestra/Zhura); Maschito (Mashqiti/Mashkjiti);

Ripacandida; San Costantino Albanese (Shën Kostandini); San Paolo Albanese (Shën Pali).

CALABRIA:

Catanzaro Province: Amato; Andali (Andalli/Dandalli); Arietta; Caraffa di Catanzaro (Garafa/Garrafa);

Gizzeria; Marceduca (Marçidhuza); Vena di Maida (Vina)(fraz. of Maida); Zagarise; Zangarona (Xingarona)(fraz. of Lamezia Terme).

Cosenza Province: Acquaformosa (Firmoza); Cantinella (Kantinela); Cariati (Kariati); Castroregio (Kastërnexhi);

Cavalerizzo (Kajverici/Kejverici) (fraz. of Cerzeto); Cervicati (Çervikati); Cerzeto (Qana); Civita (Çifti); Eianina (Ejanina) (fraz. of Frascineto); Falconara Albanese (Fullkunara); Farneta (Farneta)(fraz. of Castroregio); Firmo (Ferma); Frascineto (Frasnita); Lungro (Ungra/Ungir); Macchia Albanese (Maqi) (fraz. of San Demetrio Corone); Marri (fraz. of Allimarri); Montegrassano (Mungrasana); Plataci (Pllatëni/Pllatani); Rota Greca; San Basile (Shën Vasili); San Benedetto Ullano (Shën Benedhiti); San Cosmo Albanese (Strigari); San Demetrio Corone (Shën Mitri); San Giacomo di Cerzeto (Sënd Japku/Shën Japku) (fraz. of Cerzeto); San Giorgio Albanese (Mbuzati); San Lorenzo del Vallo; San Marco Argentino; San Martino di Finita (Shën Mërtiri/Shën Murtiri); Santa Caterina Albanese (Picilia); Santa Sofia d’Epiro (Shën Sofia); Spezzano Albanese (Spixana); Vaccarizzo Albanese (Vakarici).

Crotone Province: Carfizzi (Karfici); Pallagorio (Puheriu/Puhëriu); San Nicola dell’Alto (Shën Kolli).

CAMPANIA:

Avellino Province: Greci (Katundi).

Benevento Province: Ginestra di Schiavoni.

MOLISE:

Campobasso Province: Campomarino (Këmarini/Kemarini); Montecilfone (Munxhufuni/Munçifuni); Portocannone (Porkanuni/Portkanùn); Ururi (Rùri).

PUGLIA:

Foggia Province: Casalvecchio di Puglia (Kazallveqi); Chieuti (Qefti/Kjéuti).

Taranto Province: San Marzano di San Giuseppe (San Marcani/Shen Marzani).

SICILY:

Agrigento Province: Sant’Angelo Muxaro.

Catania Province: Biancavilla; Bronte; San Michele di Ganzaria

Palermo Province: Contessa Entellina (Kundisa); Mezzojuso (Munxhifsi); Palazzo Adriano (Pallaci); Piana degli Albanesi (Hora e Arbëreshëvet/Hora Sheshi Oána); Santa Cristina Gela (Sëndastina/Shendestina).

Basic Information on the Diocese of Avezzano (2006)

(Source: Catholic-hierarchy.org)

Ecclesiastical Conference

Region

Abruzzo-Molise

Metropolitan

L’Aquila

Suffragans

Area

1,700 km² (656 mi²)

Total Population

115,137

Catholic Population

109,000

Total Priests

109

Diocesan Priests

80

Religious Priests

29

Permanent Deacons

5

Male Religious

30

Female Religious

130

Parishes

95

History: Founded as the diocese of Marsi in the 9th century, its name was changed on September 30, 1986.

United States (as Chargé d’Affairs)

Name

State of

Residency

Title

Appointment

Presentation

of Credentials

Termination of Mission

Note

John Nelson

Maryland

Chargé d’Affaires

Oct. 24, 1831

Jan. 25, 1832

Left post on or soon after Oct 15, 1832

Commissioned during a recess of the Senate; recommissioned after confirmation on Jan 3, 1832

Enos Thompson Throop

New York

Chargé d’Affaires

Feb. 6, 1838

Sept. 28, 1838

Presented recall, Dec 29, 1841

William Boulware

Virginia

Chargé d’Affaires

Sept. 13, 1841

Dec. 29, 1841

Presented recall, Jun 24, 1845

William Hawkins Polk

Tennessee

Chargé d’Affaires

Mar. 13, 1845

July 24, 1845

Left post about May 11, 1847

John Rowan

Kentucky

Chargé d’Affaires

Jan. 3, 1848

June 27, 1848

Left post about Nov 9, 1849

Thomas W. Chinn

Louisiana

Chargé d’Affaires

June 5, 1849

Did not proceed to post. Commissioned during a recess of the Senate.

James M. Power

Pennsylvania

Chargé d’Affaires

Nov 1, 1849

Did not proceed to post. Commissioned during a recess of the Senate.

Edward Joy Morris

Pennsylvania

Chargé d’Affaires

Jan. 10, 1850

Apr. 4, 1850

Transmitted recall by note, Aug 25, 1853

Robert Dale Owen

Indiana

Chargé d’Affaires

May 24, 1853

Oct. 22, 1853

Promoted to Minister Resident

Commissioned during a recess of the Senate; recommissioned after confirmation on Feb 8, 1854.

Robert Dale Owen

Indiana

Minister Resident

June 29, 1854

Sept 20, 1854

Presented recall Sep 20, 1858

Nominated Feb 25, 1856 to be Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary; nomination withdrawn before the Senate acted upon it.

Joseph Ripley Chandler

Pennsylvania

Minister Resident

June 15, 1858

Sept 20, 1858

Closed the Legation at Naples in anticipation of the entry of King Victor Emmanuel into city, Nov 2-6, 1860

Name

Category

Dates

Information

Ancestral

Connection

Landrieu, Mary

Politics

Senator- 108th Congress

D-Louisiana

Sicily

Bono, Sonny

Politics/

Entertainment

Congressperson-

R-California

Sicily (Montelepre [PA])

Brady, Robert A.

Politics

Congressperson-

107th Congress

Pennsylvania

Abruzzo

Capuano, Michael

Politics

Congressperson-

108th Congress

D-Maine

Campania

(Avellino)

De Lauro, Rosa

Politics

Congressperson-

108th Congress

D-Connecticut

Campania

(Amalfi)

Lazio

(Gaeta)

Doyle, Michael

Politics

Congressperson-

108th Congress

D-Pennsylvania

Campania (Caserta)

Ferguson, Michael

Politics

Congressperson-

108th Congress

R-New Jersey

Campania (Salerno)

Fossella, Vito

Politics

Congressperson-

108th Congress

New York

Calabria

Grucci, Felix

Politics

Congressperson-

108th Congress

New York

Puglia

Hart, Melissa

Politics

Congressperson-

107th & 108th Congress

R-Pennsylvania

Abruzzo (Barisciano)

Lampson, Nick Valentino

Politics

Congressperson

108th Congress

D-Texas

Sicily

(Salemi)

LoBiondo, Frank A.

Politics

Congressperson

108th Congress

R-New Jersey

Sicily (Belmonte Mezzagno)

Mansullo, Donald

Politics

Congressperson

108th Congress

R-Illinois

Calabria,

Sicily

Mica, John

Politics

Congressperson

108th Congress

R-Florida

Campania

(Roscigno)

Oberstar, James

Politics

Congressperson

108th Congress

D-Minnesota

Calabria

Campania

(Naples)

Pallone, Frank E.

Politics

Congressperson

108th Congress

D-New Jersey

Calabria

Campania

(Naples)

Pascrell, Jr., William

Politics

Congressperson

108th Congress

D-New Jersey

Campania

(Caserta)

Angevin Dynasty of Naples

Name

Reign

Charles I of Anjou

1266-1285

Charles II “the Lame”

1285-1309

Robert “the Wise”

1309-1343

Joanna I

1343-1382

Charles III

1382-1386

King of Hungary

(as Charles II)

1385-1386

Ladislaus

1386-1414

Joanna II

1414-1435

After the death of Joanna II, the Angevin claim to the throne of Naples

passed to Rene I “the Good” of Anjou, Duke of Lorraine. His claim was disputed by

Alfonso VI of Aragon, who finally conquered the Regno, becoming Alfonso I, founder

of the new Aragonese dynasty.

Albanian-Arbëresh Communities in Southern Italy

ABRUZZO:

Pescara Province: Villa Badessa (Badhesa) (fraz. of Rosciano).

BASILICATA:

Potenza Province: Barile (Barilli/Barili); Ginestra (Xhinestra/Zhura); Maschito (Mashqiti/Mashkjiti);

Ripacandida; San Costantino Albanese (Shën Kostandini); San Paolo Albanese (Shën Pali).

CALABRIA:

Catanzaro Province: Amato; Andali (Andalli/Dandalli); Arietta; Caraffa di Catanzaro (Garafa/Garrafa);

Gizzeria; Marceduca (Marçidhuza); Vena di Maida (Vina)(fraz. of Maida); Zagarise; Zangarona (Xingarona)(fraz. of Lamezia Terme).

Cosenza Province: Acquaformosa (Firmoza); Cantinella (Kantinela); Cariati (Kariati); Castroregio (Kastërnexhi);

Cavalerizzo (Kajverici/Kejverici) (fraz. of Cerzeto); Cervicati (Çervikati); Cerzeto (Qana); Civita (Çifti); Eianina (Ejanina) (fraz. of Frascineto); Falconara Albanese (Fullkunara); Farneta (Farneta)(fraz. of Castroregio); Firmo (Ferma); Frascineto (Frasnita); Lungro (Ungra/Ungir); Macchia Albanese (Maqi) (fraz. of San Demetrio Corone); Marri (fraz. of Allimarri); Montegrassano (Mungrasana); Plataci (Pllatëni/Pllatani); Rota Greca; San Basile (Shën Vasili); San Benedetto Ullano (Shën Benedhiti); San Cosmo Albanese (Strigari); San Demetrio Corone (Shën Mitri); San Giacomo di Cerzeto (Sënd Japku/Shën Japku) (fraz. of Cerzeto); San Giorgio Albanese (Mbuzati); San Lorenzo del Vallo; San Marco Argentino; San Martino di Finita (Shën Mërtiri/Shën Murtiri); Santa Caterina Albanese (Picilia); Santa Sofia d’Epiro (Shën Sofia); Spezzano Albanese (Spixana); Vaccarizzo Albanese (Vakarici).

Crotone Province: Carfizzi (Karfici); Pallagorio (Puheriu/Puhëriu); San Nicola dell’Alto (Shën Kolli).

CAMPANIA:

Avellino Province: Greci (Katundi).

Benevento Province: Ginestra di Schiavoni.

MOLISE:

Campobasso Province: Campomarino (Këmarini/Kemarini); Montecilfone (Munxhufuni/Munçifuni); Portocannone (Porkanuni/Portkanùn); Ururi (Rùri).

PUGLIA:

Foggia Province: Casalvecchio di Puglia (Kazallveqi); Chieuti (Qefti/Kjéuti).

Taranto Province: San Marzano di San Giuseppe (San Marcani/Shen Marzani).

SICILY:

Agrigento Province: Sant’Angelo Muxaro.

Catania Province: Biancavilla; Bronte; San Michele di Ganzaria

Palermo Province: Contessa Entellina (Kundisa); Mezzojuso (Munxhifsi); Palazzo Adriano (Pallaci); Piana degli Albanesi (Hora e Arbëreshëvet/Hora Sheshi Oána); Santa Cristina Gela (Sëndastina/Shendestina).

Basic Information on the Diocese of Avezzano (2006)

(Source: Catholic-hierarchy.org)

Ecclesiastical Conference

Region

Abruzzo-Molise

Metropolitan

L’Aquila

Suffragans

Area

1,700 km² (656 mi²)

Total Population

115,137

Catholic Population

109,000

Total Priests

109

Diocesan Priests

80

Religious Priests

29

Permanent Deacons

5

Male Religious

30

Female Religious

130

Parishes

95

History: Founded as the diocese of Marsi in the 9th century, its name was changed on September 30, 1986.